Ignore:
Timestamp:
Jun 21, 2007 8:23:15 AM (15 years ago)
Author:
raasch
Message:

New:
---
ocean version including prognostic equation for salinity and equation of state for seawater. Routine buoyancy can be used with both temperature and density.
+ inipar-parameters bc_sa_t, bottom_salinityflux, ocean, sa_surface, sa_vertical_gradient, sa_vertical_gradient_level, top_salinityflux

advec_s_bc, average_3d_data, boundary_conds, buoyancy, check_parameters, data_output_2d, data_output_3d, diffusion_e, flow_statistics, header, init_grid, init_3d_model, modules, netcdf, parin, production_e, prognostic_equations, read_var_list, sum_up_3d_data, swap_timelevel, time_integration, user_interface, write_var_list, write_3d_binary

New:
eqn_state_seawater, init_ocean

Changed:


inipar-parameter use_pt_reference renamed use_reference

hydro_press renamed hyp, routine calc_mean_pt_profile renamed calc_mean_profile

format adjustments for the ocean version (run_control)

advec_particles, buoyancy, calc_liquid_water_content, check_parameters, diffusion_e, diffusivities, header, init_cloud_physics, modules, production_e, prognostic_equations, run_control

Errors:


Bugfix: height above topography instead of height above level k=0 is used for calculating the mixing length (diffusion_e and diffusivities).

Bugfix: error in boundary condition for TKE removed (advec_s_bc)

advec_s_bc, diffusion_e, prognostic_equations

File:
1 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.1.html

    r83 r97  
    208208</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pc_pt_t"></a><b>bc_pt_t</b></p>
    209209</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    210 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'initial gradient'</span></td>
     210<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'initial_ gradient'</span></td>
    211211<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    212212potential temperature.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed are the
     
    299299bc_s_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
    300300equation for the scalar concentration is
    301 solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_uv_b"></a><b>bc_uv_b</b></p>
     301solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bc_sa_t"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_sa_t</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the salinity.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>).</p><p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed are the
     302values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>(sa(k=nz+1)
     303does not change during the run) and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     304(sa(k=nz+1)=sa(k=nz))<span style="font-style: italic;"></span>.&nbsp;<br><br>
     305When a constant salinity flux is used at the top boundary (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>),
     306<b>bc_sa_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     307must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
     308the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p></td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_uv_b"></a><b>bc_uv_b</b></p>
    302309</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    303310<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     
    331338Neumann condition yields the free-slip condition with u(k=nz+1) =
    332339u(k=nz) and v(k=nz+1) = v(k=nz) (up to k=nz the prognostic equations
    333 for the velocities are solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
     340for the velocities are solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bottom_salinityflux"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bottom_salinityflux</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Kinematic salinity flux near the surface (in psu m/s).&nbsp;</p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).<p>The
     341respective salinity flux value is used
     342as bottom (horizontally homogeneous) boundary condition for the salinity equation. This additionally requires that a Neumann
     343condition must be used for the salinity, which is currently the only available condition.<br> </p> </td></tr><tr>
    334344<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_height"></a>building_height</span></td>
    335345<td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td> <td>Height
     
    11111121be an integral multiple of
    11121122the number of processors in x-direction (due to data transposition
    1113 restrictions).</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="omega"></a><b>omega</b></p>
     1123restrictions).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="ocean"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on&nbsp;ocean runs.<br><br>By default PALM is configured to simulate&nbsp;atmospheric flows. However, starting from version 3.3, <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> allows&nbsp;simulation of ocean turbulent flows. Setting this switch has several effects:<br><br><ul><li>An additional prognostic equation for salinity is solved.</li><li>Potential temperature in buoyancy and stability-related terms is replaced by potential density.</li><li>Potential
     1124density is calculated from the equation of state for seawater after
     1125each timestep, using the algorithm proposed by Jackett et al. (2006, J.
     1126Atmos. Oceanic Technol., <span style="font-weight: bold;">23</span>, 1709-1728).<br>So far, only the initial hydrostatic pressure is entered into this equation.</li><li>z=0 (sea surface) is assumed at the model top (vertical grid index <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">k=nzt</span> on the w-grid), with negative values of z indicating the depth.</li><li>Initial profiles are constructed (e.g. from <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a> / <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>) starting from the sea surface, using surface values&nbsp;given by <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>, and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.</li><li>Zero salinity flux is used as default boundary condition at the bottom of the sea.</li><li>If switched on, random perturbations are by default imposed to the upper model domain from zu(nzt*2/3) to zu(nzt-3).</li></ul><br>Relevant parameters to be exclusively used for steering ocean runs are <a href="#bc_sa_t">bc_sa_t</a>, <a href="#bottom_salinityflux">bottom_salinityflux</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>, and <a href="#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>.<br><br>Section <a href="chapter_4.2.2.html">4.4.2</a> gives an example for appropriate settings of these and other parameters neccessary for ocean runs.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> does not allow settings of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span> as well as <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Current limitations:</span><br>Using
     1127a vertical grid stretching is not recommended since it would still
     1128stretch the grid towards the top boundary of the model (sea surface)
     1129instead of the bottom boundary.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="omega"></a><b>omega</b></p>
    11141130</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    11151131<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>7.29212E-5</i></td>
     
    12411257temperature to be used in all buoyancy terms (in K).<br><br>By
    12421258default, the instantaneous horizontal average over the total model
    1243 domain is used.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_surface"></a><b>pt_surface</b></p>
     1259domain is used.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), always a reference temperature is used in the buoyancy terms with a default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span> = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_surface"></a><b>pt_surface</b></p>
    12441260</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    12451261<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>300.0</i></td>
     
    12471263potential temperature (in K).&nbsp; </p> <p>This
    12481264parameter assigns the value of the potential temperature
    1249 pt at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
     1265<span style="font-weight: bold;">pt</span> at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
    12501266the
    12511267initial vertical temperature profile is constructed with <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    12521268and <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level
    12531269</a>.
    1254 This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p>
     1270This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p><p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>),
     1271this parameter gives the temperature value at the sea surface, which is
     1272at k=nzt. The profile is then constructed from the surface down to the
     1273bottom of the model.</p>
    12551274</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_surface_initial_change"></a><b>pt_surface_initial</b>
    12561275<br> <b>_change</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
     
    12911310100 m and for z &gt; 1000.0 m up to the top boundary it is
    129213110.5 K / 100 m (it is assumed that the assigned height levels correspond
    1293 with uv levels). </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
     1312with uv levels).</p><p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     1313the profile is constructed like described above, but starting from the
     1314sea surface (k=nzt) down to the bottom boundary of the model. Height
     1315levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
    12941316<br> <b>_level</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp;
    12951317<span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
     
    12971319<p>Height level from which on the temperature gradient defined by
    12981320<a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    1299 is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>The height levels
    1300 are to be assigned in ascending order. The
     1321is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. The
    13011322default values result in a neutral stratification regardless of the
    13021323values of <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    13031324(unless the top boundary of the model is higher than 100000.0 m).
    1304 For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>.</p>
     1325For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>.</p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.
    13051326</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="q_surface"></a><b>q_surface</b></p>
    13061327</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     
    14531474is switched
    14541475on (see <a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>).</p>
    1455 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="scalar_advec"></a><b>scalar_advec</b></p>
     1476</td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="sa_surface"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">sa_surface</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Surface salinity (in psu).&nbsp;</p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).<p>This
     1477parameter assigns the value of the salinity <span style="font-weight: bold;">sa</span> at the sea surface (k=nzt)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
     1478the
     1479initial vertical salinity profile is constructed from the surface down to the bottom of the model (k=0) by using&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>
     1480and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level
     1481</a>.</p></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="sa_vertical_gradient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">sa_vertical_gradient</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">10 * 0.0</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Salinity gradient(s) of the initial salinity profile (in psu
     1482/ 100 m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).</p><p>This salinity gradient
     1483holds starting from the height&nbsp;
     1484level defined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>
     1485(precisely: for all uv levels k where zu(k) &lt;
     1486sa_vertical_gradient_level, sa_init(k) is set: sa_init(k) =
     1487sa_init(k+1) - dzu(k+1) * <b>sa_vertical_gradient</b>) down to the bottom boundary or down to the next height level defined
     1488by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
     1489A total of 10 different gradients for 11 height intervals (10 intervals
     1490if <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>(1)
     1491= <i>0.0</i>) can be assigned. The surface salinity at k=nzt is
     1492assigned via <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>.&nbsp;
     1493</p> <p>Example:&nbsp; </p> <ul><p><b>sa_vertical_gradient</b>
     1494= <i>1.0</i>, <i>0.5</i>,&nbsp; <br>
     1495<b>sa_vertical_gradient_level</b> = <i>-500.0</i>,
     1496-<i>1000.0</i>,</p></ul> <p>That
     1497defines the salinity to be constant down to z = -500.0 m with a salinity given by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>.
     1498For -500.0 m &lt; z &lt;= -1000.0 m the salinity gradient is
     14991.0 psu /
     1500100 m and for z &lt; -1000.0 m down to the bottom boundary it is
     15010.5 psu / 100 m (it is assumed that the assigned height levels correspond
     1502with uv levels).</p></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="sa_vertical_gradient_level"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">sa_vertical_gradient_level</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">10 * 0.0</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Height level from which on the salinity gradient defined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>
     1503is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).</p><p>The height levels have to be assigned in descending order. The
     1504default values result in a constant salinity profile regardless of the
     1505values of <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>
     1506(unless the bottom boundary of the model is lower than -100000.0 m).
     1507For the piecewise construction of salinity profiles see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>.</p></td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="scalar_advec"></a><b>scalar_advec</b></p>
    14561508</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
    14571509<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'pw-scheme'</i></td>
     
    18351887Prandtl-layer is available at the top boundary so far.</p><p>See
    18361888also <a href="#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>.</p>
    1837 </td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1889</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="top_salinityflux"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">top_salinityflux</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no prescribed<br>
     1890salinityflux</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Kinematic
     1891salinity flux at the top boundary, i.e. the sea surface (in psu m/s).&nbsp; </p>
     1892<p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).</p><p>If a value is assigned to this parameter, the internal
     1893two-dimensional surface heat flux field <span style="font-family: monospace;">saswst</span> is
     1894initialized with the value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">top_salinityflux</span>&nbsp;as
     1895top (horizontally homogeneous) boundary condition for the salinity equation. This additionally requires that a Neumann
     1896condition must be used for the salinity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_sa_t">bc_sa_t</a>),
     1897because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
     1898the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.<span style="font-style: italic;"></span>&nbsp;</p>
     1899<p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>The
     1900application of a salinity flux at the model top additionally requires the setting of
     1901initial parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#use_top_fluxes">use_top_fluxes</a>
     1902= .T..<span style="font-style: italic;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> </p><p>See
     1903also <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bottom_salinityflux">bottom_salinityflux</a>.</p></td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    18381904<p><a name="ug_surface"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ug_surface</span></p>
    18391905</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     
    18571923value, it is recommended to use a Galilei-transformation of the
    18581924coordinate system, if possible (see <a href="#galilei_transformation">galilei_transformation</a>),
    1859 in order to obtain larger time steps.<br> </td> </tr>
     1925in order to obtain larger time steps.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     1926this parameter gives the velocity value at the sea surface, which is
     1927at k=nzt. The profile is then constructed from the surface down to the
     1928bottom of the model.<br> </td> </tr>
    18601929<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ug_vertical_gradient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ug_vertical_gradient</span></p>
    18611930</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)<br>
     
    18721941total of 10 different gradients for 11 height intervals (10
    18731942intervals&nbsp; if <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient_level">ug_vertical_gradient_level</a>(1)
    1874 = 0.0) can be assigned. The surface geostrophic wind is assigned by <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>. <br> </td>
     1943= 0.0) can be assigned. The surface geostrophic wind is assigned by <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     1944the profile is constructed like described above, but starting from the
     1945sea surface (k=nzt) down to the bottom boundary of the model. Height
     1946levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">ug_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.<br> </td>
    18751947</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    18761948<p><a name="ug_vertical_gradient_level"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ug_vertical_gradient_level</span></p>
     
    18801952gradient defined by <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>
    18811953is effective (in m).<br> <br>
    1882 The height levels are to be assigned in ascending order. For the
     1954The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. For the
    18831955piecewise construction of a profile of the u-component of the
    1884 geostrophic wind component (ug) see <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>.<br>
    1885 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ups_limit_e"></a><b>ups_limit_e</b></p>
     1956geostrophic wind component (ug) see <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ups_limit_e"></a><b>ups_limit_e</b></p>
    18861957</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    18871958<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     
    20632134if possible (see <a href="#galilei_transformation">galilei_transformation</a>),
    20642135in order to obtain larger
    2065 time steps.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="vg_vertical_gradient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">vg_vertical_gradient</span></p>
     2136time steps.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     2137this parameter gives the velocity value at the sea surface, which is
     2138at k=nzt. The profile is then constructed from the surface down to the
     2139bottom of the model.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="vg_vertical_gradient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">vg_vertical_gradient</span></p>
    20662140</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)<br>
    20672141</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">10
     
    20812155=
    208221560.0) can be assigned. The surface
    2083 geostrophic wind is assigned by <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.</td>
     2157geostrophic wind is assigned by <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     2158the profile is constructed like described above, but starting from the
     2159sea surface (k=nzt) down to the bottom boundary of the model. Height
     2160levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">vg_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.</td>
    20842161</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    20852162<p><a name="vg_vertical_gradient_level"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">vg_vertical_gradient_level</span></p>
     
    20892166gradient defined by <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient">vg_vertical_gradient</a>
    20902167is effective (in m).<br> <br>
    2091 The height levels are to be assigned in ascending order. For the
     2168The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. For the
    20922169piecewise construction of a profile of the v-component of the
    2093 geostrophic wind component (vg) see <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient">vg_vertical_gradient</a>.</td>
     2170geostrophic wind component (vg) see <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient">vg_vertical_gradient</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.</td>
    20942171</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    20952172<p><a name="wall_adjustment"></a><b>wall_adjustment</b></p>
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