Changeset 48


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Mar 6, 2007 12:28:36 PM (15 years ago)
Author:
raasch
Message:

preliminary version, several changes to be explained later

Location:
palm/trunk
Files:
21 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_3.4.html

    r5 r48  
    11<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
    2 <html>
    3 <head>
     2<html><head>
    43
    54
     
    1312 
    1413  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type">
    15   <title>chapter_3.4</title>
    16 </head>
     14  <title>chapter_3.4</title></head>
    1715
    1816<body>
     
    43554353
    43564354
    4357     <tr>
    4358 
    4359 
    4360 
    4361 
    4362 
    4363       <td style="vertical-align: top; text-align: center;">
    4364      
    4365      
    4366      
    4367      
    4368      
    4369       <p align="center">50&nbsp; </p>
    4370 
    4371 
    4372 
    4373 
    4374 
    4375      
    4376      
    4377      
    4378      
    4379      
    4380       <p align="center">and/or&nbsp; <br>
    4381 
    4382 
    4383 
    4384 
    4385 
    4386 possibly&nbsp; </p>
    4387 
    4388 
    4389 
    4390 
    4391 
    4392      
    4393      
    4394      
    4395      
    4396      
    4397       <p align="center">50-59</p>
    4398 
    4399 
    4400 
    4401 
    4402 
    4403       </td>
    4404 
    4405 
    4406 
    4407 
    4408 
    4409       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    4410      
    4411      
    4412      
    4413      
    4414      
    4415       <p><a name="PLOTTS_DATA"></a>PLOTTS_DATA&nbsp; </p>
    4416 
    4417 
    4418 
    4419 
    4420 
    4421      
    4422      
    4423      
    4424      
    4425      
    4426       <p>and/or&nbsp; <br>
    4427 
    4428 
    4429 
    4430 
    4431 
    4432 possibly&nbsp; </p>
    4433 
    4434 
    4435 
    4436 
    4437 
    4438      
    4439      
    4440      
    4441      
    4442      
    4443       <p>PLOTTS_DATA_0&nbsp; <br>
    4444 
    4445 
    4446 
    4447 
    4448 
    4449 PLOTTS_DATA_1&nbsp; <br>
    4450 
    4451 
    4452 
    4453 
    4454 
    4455 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    4456 .&nbsp; <br>
    4457 
    4458 
    4459 
    4460 
    4461 
    4462 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    4463 .&nbsp; <br>
    4464 
    4465 
    4466 
    4467 
    4468 
    4469 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    4470 .&nbsp; <br>
    4471 
    4472 
    4473 
    4474 
    4475 
    4476 PLOTTS_DATA_9</p>
    4477 
    4478 
    4479 
    4480 
    4481 
    4482       </td>
    4483 
    4484 
    4485 
    4486 
    4487 
    4488       <td style="vertical-align: top;">O</td>
    4489 
    4490 
    4491 
    4492 
    4493 
    4494       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Ascii<br>
    4495 
    4496 
    4497 
    4498 
    4499 
    4500       </td>
    4501 
    4502 
    4503 
    4504 
    4505 
    4506       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    4507      
    4508      
    4509      
    4510      
    4511      
    4512       <p>This file contains the data of the time series written by the
    4513 model (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>)
    4514 in a format readable by <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html">profil</a>.
    4515 The data can only be visualized with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
    4516 using NAMELIST parameter sets, which are written by
    4517 the model to the local file <a href="#PLOTTS_PAR">PLOTTS_PAR</a>.&nbsp;
    4518       </p>
    4519 
    4520 
    4521 
    4522 
    4523 
    4524      
    4525      
    4526      
    4527      
    4528      
    4529       <p>Regardless of the (sub)set of time series specified by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>
    4530 for actual output, this file allways contains all possible time series.
    4531 They are arranged next to each other in 22 columns. The
    4532 first column contains the time in s. With initial runs the
    4533 variables in the individual columns are described in the comment lines
    4534 at the beginning of the file (see also <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>).
    4535 The text of these comment lines is used as a legend in the plot. The
    4536 first line of the file is a comment line in case of initial runs
    4537 and contains information about the used model version, the run
    4538 identifier (base file name + number of the respective restart run),
    4539 the name of the executing computer, as well as the date and time of the
    4540 beginning of the run. At the end of this comment line is the name of
    4541 the
    4542 subdomain, to which the time series belong (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
    4543 By default, it is the &ldquo;total domain&rdquo;, i.e. the time series
    4544 apply to the whole model domain. If the model has to produce profiles
    4545 for subdomains, up to 9 further files (units No. 51-59) are
    4546 produced. The file names include the number of the respective
    4547 subdomain (e.g. PLOTTS_DATA_1). In this case the name of the file with
    4548 the data of the total domain is PLOTTS_DATA_0.&nbsp; </p>
    4549 
    4550 
    4551 
    4552 
    4553 
    4554      
    4555      
    4556      
    4557      
    4558      
    4559       <p>Time series data of restart runs <b>must
    4560 always</b> be attached to existing data of preceding runs of a job
    4561 chain, because
    4562 they do not contain comment lines (see above) and otherwise are not
    4563 visualizable with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. Time
    4564 series plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
    4565 therefore always begin with t=0. An appending of the data to one file
    4566 is
    4567 obtained with the file attribute <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/mrun_beschreibung.html#tra">tra</a>
    4568 in the file connection statement. <br>
    4569 
    4570 
    4571 
    4572 
    4573 
    4574       </p>
    4575 
    4576 
    4577 
    4578 
    4579 
    4580       </td>
    4581 
    4582 
    4583 
    4584 
    4585 
    4586     </tr>
     4355   
    45874356
    45884357
     
    52765045
    52775046
    5278     <tr>
    5279 
    5280 
    5281 
    5282 
    5283 
    5284       <td style="vertical-align: top; text-align: center;">90<br>
    5285 
    5286 
    5287 
    5288 
    5289 
    5290       </td>
    5291 
    5292 
    5293 
    5294 
    5295 
    5296       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    5297      
    5298      
    5299      
    5300      
    5301      
    5302       <p><a name="PLOTTS_PAR"></a>PLOTTS_PAR&nbsp; </p>
    5303 
    5304 
    5305 
    5306 
    5307 
    5308      
    5309      
    5310      
    5311      
    5312      
    5313       <p>and/or&nbsp; <br>
    5314 
    5315 
    5316 
    5317 
    5318 
    5319 possibly&nbsp; </p>
    5320 
    5321 
    5322 
    5323 
    5324 
    5325      
    5326      
    5327      
    5328      
    5329      
    5330       <p>PLOTTS_PAR_0&nbsp; <br>
    5331 
    5332 
    5333 
    5334 
    5335 
    5336 PLOTTS_PAR_1&nbsp; <br>
    5337 
    5338 
    5339 
    5340 
    5341 
    5342 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    5343 .&nbsp; <br>
    5344 
    5345 
    5346 
    5347 
    5348 
    5349 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    5350 .&nbsp; <br>
    5351 
    5352 
    5353 
    5354 
    5355 
    5356 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    5357 .&nbsp; <br>
    5358 
    5359 
    5360 
    5361 
    5362 
    5363 PLOTTS_PAR_9</p>
    5364 
    5365 
    5366 
    5367 
    5368 
    5369       </td>
    5370 
    5371 
    5372 
    5373 
    5374 
    5375       <td style="vertical-align: top;">O<br>
    5376 
    5377 
    5378 
    5379 
    5380 
    5381       </td>
    5382 
    5383 
    5384 
    5385 
    5386 
    5387       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Ascii/&nbsp; <br>
    5388 
    5389 
    5390 
    5391 
    5392 
    5393 NAMELIST</td>
    5394 
    5395 
    5396 
    5397 
    5398 
    5399       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    5400      
    5401      
    5402      
    5403      
    5404      
    5405       <p>NAMELIST parameter set, with which the layout of a plot
    5406 of the time series data in the local file <a href="#PLOTTS_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a>
    5407 can be steered, if these data are visualized with the plot program <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html">profil</a>.&nbsp;
    5408       </p>
    5409 
    5410 
    5411 
    5412 
    5413 
    5414      
    5415      
    5416      
    5417      
    5418      
    5419       <p>This file contains the so-called RAHMEN (frame)- and
    5420 CROSS-parameter sets (NAMELIST- group names <span style="font-style: normal;">&amp;RAHMEN and/or &amp;CROSS</span>)
    5421 needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. These
    5422 parameter sets (and thus all details of the layout) can be edited after
    5423 the model run by the user. By
    5424 default, all time series are drawn in different panels on one page. The
    5425 grouping is model-internally fixed and can only be
    5426 changed manually later. Only those time series specified by the
    5427 parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>
    5428 are actually drawn.&nbsp; </p>
    5429 
    5430 
    5431 
    5432 
    5433 
    5434      
    5435      
    5436      
    5437      
    5438      
    5439       <p>The file PLOTTS_PAR is allways produced by the model at
    5440 the beginning and at the end of a run, whereby at the end of the run
    5441 the file produced at the beginning is overwritten. Any later file
    5442 differs from the initial file by the fact that it additionally contains
    5443 ranges of values for the axes of coordinates. If a model run crashes
    5444 uncontrolled (e.g. run time error or CPU - time exceeded) a
    5445 parameter file is still available and the (incomplete) time
    5446 series can - contrary to the vertical profiles - nevertheless be
    5447 plotted.&nbsp; </p>
    5448 
    5449 
    5450 
    5451 
    5452 
    5453      
    5454      
    5455      
    5456      
    5457      
    5458       <p>If the model is to produce time series for different
    5459 subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>),
    5460 further files are output , whereby the file name gets an additionally
    5461 underline and the number of the respective subdomain is appended (e.g.
    5462 PLOTTS_PAR_1). The name of the file with NAMELIST-parameters for the
    5463 total domain in this case&nbsp; reads PLOTTS_PAR_0.&nbsp;&nbsp; <br>
    5464 
    5465 
    5466 
    5467 
    5468 
    5469       </p>
    5470 
    5471 
    5472 
    5473 
    5474 
    5475       </td>
    5476 
    5477 
    5478 
    5479 
    5480 
    5481     </tr>
     5047   
    54825048
    54835049
     
    62135779format</font></font></td>
    62145780
    6215       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">This file contains data of the timeseries (see <a href="../app/chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>)
     5781      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">This file contains data of the timeseries (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dots">dt_dots</a>)
    62165782in NetCDF format. The data in this file can be visualized by any graphic software which provides a NetCDF interface (e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">NCL </span>or<span style="font-weight: bold;"> ferret</span>).<br>
    62175783
     
    64526018
    64536019
    6454 </body>
    6455 </html>
     6020</body></html>
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_3.5.1.html

    r46 r48  
    155155user-defined subdomains for statistic analysis and output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>
    156156and <a href="chapter_3.5.3.html">chapter
    157 3.5.3</a>).&nbsp; <br>
     1573.5.3</a>) and of additional time series quantities (see comment line example in the file).&nbsp; <br>
    158158
    159159CPU time for <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">user_init</font></tt>
     
    380380
    381381      <td width="117">
    382       <p><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><a name="user_statistics"></a>user_statistics</font></font></tt></p>
    383 
    384       </td>
    385 
    386       <td width="862">
    387       <p>Horizontal averages of vertical profiles of additional
    388 quantities (for example user variables) can be computed and written to
     382      <p><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><a name="user_statistics"></a>user_statistics<br>( sr )</font></font></tt></p>
     383
     384      </td>
     385
     386      <td width="862">
     387      <p>Horizontal
     388averages of vertical profiles of user-defined
     389quantities can be computed here. Also, additional time series
     390quantities can be calculated. They have to be defined before in routine
     391<a href="#user_init"><span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">user_init</span></a>. The routine is called once for each defined statistic region (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_region">statistic_region</a>).</p><p></p><p>The routine contains some simple examples (as comment lines) in order to demonstrate how to use it.</p><p><br>Profiles have to be written to
    389392the array <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">sums</font></tt>.
    390393Please use profile numbers starting from 70 upward (thus e.g. <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">sums (&hellip;,
    39139460) =</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">&hellip;)</font>. These additional
    392395profiles
    393 are temporally averaged in <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">flow_statistics</font></tt>.
    394 If these profiles should be displayed with the plot program <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html">profil</a>,
    395 further instructions in the user-defined software are necessary. For
    396 this, an understanding of the operating mode of the subroutine <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">plot_1d</font></tt>
    397 is required.</p>
     396are temporally averaged in <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">flow_statistics</font></tt>.</p>
    398397
    399398      </td>
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_3.5.3.html

    r5 r48  
    11<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
    2 <html>
    3 <head>
    4   <meta http-equiv="CONTENT-TYPE"
    5  content="text/html; charset=windows-1252">
    6   <title>PALM chapter 3.5.3</title>
    7   <meta name="GENERATOR" content="StarOffice 7  (Win32)">
     2<html><head>
     3  <meta http-equiv="CONTENT-TYPE" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252">
     4 
     5  <title>PALM chapter 3.5.3</title><meta name="GENERATOR" content="StarOffice 7  (Win32)">
    86  <meta name="AUTHOR" content="Siegfried Raasch">
    97  <meta name="CREATED" content="20040802;14001660">
     
    1412                @page { size: 21cm 29.7cm }
    1513        -->
    16         </style>
    17 </head>
     14        </style></head>
     15
    1816<body dir="ltr" lang="en-US">
    1917<h3 style="line-height: 100%;">3.5.3 Definition of user-defined
    2018subdomains</h3>
    21 <p style="line-height: 100%;">By default, the values of the time
    22 series (saved in local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOTTS_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a>)
    23 and the horizontally averaged vertical profiles (saved in local files
     19<p style="line-height: 100%;">By default, the values of the timeseries quantities and the horizontally averaged vertical profiles (saved in local files
    2420<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
    2521and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL">LIST_PROFIL</a>)
     
    2723series or profiles for different user-defined subdomains can be
    2824computed and plotted additionally. Steering in principle is done
    29 via the initialization parameter <a
    30  href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>.
     25via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>.
    3126</p>
    3227<p style="line-height: 100%;">The exact definition of these subdomains
    3328has to be made by the user within the user-defined subroutine
    3429<tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">init_user</font></tt>. The
    35 subdomains are defined with a mask array named <tt><font
    36  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">rmask</font></tt>,
     30subdomains are defined with a mask array named <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">rmask</font></tt>,
    3731which has to be given the value 1.0 for all horizontal grid points
    3832belonging to
     
    4337declared as: </p>
    4438<ul>
    45   <p style="line-height: 100%;"><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    46  size="2">REAL :: rmask (nys-1:nyn+1,nxl-1,nxr+1,0:9) .</font></tt></p>
     39  <p style="line-height: 100%;"><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">REAL :: rmask (nys-1:nyn+1,nxl-1,nxr+1,0:9) .</font></tt></p>
    4740</ul>
    4841<p style="line-height: 100%;">The first two indices are the grid point
    49 indices in y and x-direction. With parallel model runs <tt><font
    50  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxl</font></tt><font
    51  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">,
    52 </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxr</font></tt><font
    53  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">,
    54 </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nys</font></tt><font
    55  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
    56 <font size="3">and</font> </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    57  size="2">nyn</font></tt>
     42indices in y and x-direction. With parallel model runs <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxl</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">,
     43</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxr</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">,
     44</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nys</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
     45<font size="3">and</font> </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nyn</font></tt>
    5846are the array bounds of the respective subdomain (don't confuse this
    5947with the user-defined subdomain!) on the
    60 respective processor. With runs on one processor <tt><font
    61  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nys</font></tt><font
    62  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
    63 = </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxl</font></tt><font
    64  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
    65 = 0</font> and <font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    66  face="Cumberland, monospace">nxr
     48respective processor. With runs on one processor <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nys</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
     49= </font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">nxl</font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">
     50= 0</font> and <font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">nxr
    6751=</font> </font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nx">nx</a>
    68 and <font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    69  face="Cumberland, monospace">nyn
     52and <font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">nyn
    7053=</font></font> <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ny">ny</a>.
    7154The third index determines the user-defined subdomain. The total model
     
    8164assumed).
    8265The second subdomain should be defined by all points outside of this
    83 domain. This may be obtained by the following lines of code in <tt><font
    84  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">user_init</font></tt>:
     66domain. This may be obtained by the following lines of code in <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">user_init</font></tt>:
    8567</p>
    8668<ul>
    87   <p style="line-height: 100%;"><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    88  size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">USE
    89 grid_variables</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    90  face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    91   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    92  face="Cumberland, monospace">USE indices</font></font></tt><font
    93  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    94   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    95  face="Cumberland, monospace">USE statistics</font></font></tt><font
    96  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    97   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    98  face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font
    99  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    100   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    101  face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font
    102  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    103   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    104  face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font
    105  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    106   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    107  face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_center_x = dx * (nx + 1)/2</font></font></tt><font
    108  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    109   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    110  face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_center_y = dy * (ny + 1)/2</font></font></tt><font
    111  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    112   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    113  face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_radius = 0.5 * disc_center_x</font></font></tt><font
    114  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    115   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    116  face="Cumberland, monospace">DO&nbsp; i = nxl-1, nxr+1</font></font></tt><font
    117  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    118   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    119  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; x = i * dx</font></font></tt><br>
    120   <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    121  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; DO&nbsp; j = nys-1, nyn+1</font></font></tt><font
    122  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    123   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    124  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; y = j * dy</font></font></tt><font
    125  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    126   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    127  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    128 radial_distance = SQRT( ( x - disc_center_x )**2 + &amp;</font></font></tt><font
    129  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    130   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    131  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    132 ( y - disc_center_y )**2 )</font></font></tt><font
    133  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    134   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    135  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; IF ( radial_distance
    136 &gt; disc_radius )&nbsp; THEN</font></font></tt><font
    137  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    138   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    139  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    140 rmask(j,i,1) = 0.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    141  size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    142   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    143  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    144 rmask(j,i,2) = 1.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    145  size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    146   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    147  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ELSE</font></font></tt><font
    148  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    149   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    150  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    151 rmask(j,i,1) = 1.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    152  size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    153   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    154  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    155 rmask(j,i,2) = 0.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    156  size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    157   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    158  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDIF</font></font></tt><font
    159  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
    160   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    161  face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDDO</font></font></tt><font
    162  style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
    163   </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font
    164  face="Cumberland, monospace">ENDDO</font></font></tt></p>
     69  <p style="line-height: 100%;"><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">USE
     70grid_variables</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     71  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">USE indices</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     72  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">USE statistics</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     73  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     74  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     75  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">.</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     76  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_center_x = dx * (nx + 1)/2</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     77  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_center_y = dy * (ny + 1)/2</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     78  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">disc_radius = 0.5 * disc_center_x</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     79  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">DO&nbsp; i = nxl-1, nxr+1</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     80  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; x = i * dx</font></font></tt><br>
     81  <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; DO&nbsp; j = nys-1, nyn+1</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     82  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; y = j * dy</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     83  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     84radial_distance = SQRT( ( x - disc_center_x )**2 + &amp;</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     85  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     86( y - disc_center_y )**2 )</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     87  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; IF ( radial_distance
     88&gt; disc_radius )&nbsp; THEN</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     89  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     90rmask(j,i,1) = 0.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     91  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     92rmask(j,i,2) = 1.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     93  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ELSE</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     94  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     95rmask(j,i,1) = 1.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     96  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     97rmask(j,i,2) = 0.0</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     98  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDIF</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"> <br>
     99  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDDO</font></font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace"><br>
     100  </font></font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><font face="Cumberland, monospace">ENDDO</font></font></tt></p>
    165101</ul>
    166 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The module <span
    167  style="font-family: monospace;">statistics</span> must be used,
     102<p style="line-height: 100%;">The module <span style="font-family: monospace;">statistics</span> must be used,
    168103because it contains <span style="font-family: monospace;">rmask</span>
    169104and the modules <span style="font-family: monospace;">grid_variables</span>
     
    177112if
    178113the user sets <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>
    179 &#8805; <i>1</i>. Beyond that, names for the user-defined subdomains can be
     114&ge; <i>1</i>. Beyond that, names for the user-defined subdomains can be
    180115assigned
    181116via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#region">region</a>.
     
    183118the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>
    184119and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
    185 within the user-defined subroutine <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;"
    186  size="2">user_header</font></tt>.
     120within the user-defined subroutine <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">user_header</font></tt>.
    187121<br>
    188122&nbsp; </p>
    189123<hr>
    190124<p style="line-height: 100%;"><br>
    191 <font color="#000080"><font color="#000080"><a href="chapter_3.5.2.html"><font
    192  color="#000080"><img src="left.gif" name="Grafik1" align="bottom"
    193  border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a><a href="index.html"><font
    194  color="#000080"><img src="up.gif" name="Grafik2" align="bottom"
    195  border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a><a
    196  href="chapter_3.5.4.html"><font color="#000080"><img src="right.gif"
    197  name="Grafik3" align="bottom" border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a></font></font></p>
    198 <p style="line-height: 100%;"><i>Last change:&nbsp;</i> 15/04/05 (SR)</p>
    199 </body>
    200 </html>
     125<font color="#000080"><font color="#000080"><a href="chapter_3.5.2.html"><font color="#000080"><img src="left.gif" name="Grafik1" align="bottom" border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a><a href="index.html"><font color="#000080"><img src="up.gif" name="Grafik2" align="bottom" border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a><a href="chapter_3.5.4.html"><font color="#000080"><img src="right.gif" name="Grafik3" align="bottom" border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a></font></font></p>
     126<p style="line-height: 100%;"><i>Last change:&nbsp;</i> 07/03/07 (SR)</p>
     127</body></html>
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.1.html

    r46 r48  
    1438014380data on the file for the different domains can be distinguished by a
    1438114381suffix which is appended to the quantity names. Suffix 0 means data for
    14382 the total domain, suffix 1 means data for subdomain 1, etc.</p><p>In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>, individual local files for profiles (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
    14383 and time series (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOTTS_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a>)
    14384 are created for each subdomain. The individual subdomain files differ by their name (the
     14382the total domain, suffix 1 means data for subdomain 1, etc.</p><p>In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>, individual local files for profiles (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)&nbsp;are created for each subdomain. The individual subdomain files differ by their name (the
    1438514383number of the respective subdomain is attached, e.g.
    14386 PLOT1D_DATA_1). In this case the names of the files with the data of
    14387 the total domain are PLOT1D_DATA_0 and PLOTTS_DATA_0. If no subdomains
    14388 are declared (<b>statistic_regions</b> = <i>0</i>), the names
    14389 PLOT1D_DATA and PLOTTS_DATA are used (this must be considered in the
     14384PLOT1D_DATA_1). In this case the name of the file with the data of
     14385the total domain is PLOT1D_DATA_0. If no subdomains
     14386are declared (<b>statistic_regions</b> = <i>0</i>), the name
     14387PLOT1D_DATA is used (this must be considered in the
    1439014388respective file connection statements of the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span> configuration file).</p>
    1439114389
     
    1752317521scheme is actually used, can be output as a time series with respect to
    1752417522the
    17525 three directions in space with run parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>
    17526 = <i>'splptx'</i>, <i>'splpty'</i>, <i>'splptz'</i>. The percentage
     17523three directions in space with run parameter (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dots">dt_dots</a>, the timeseries names in the NetCDF file are <i>'splptx'</i>, <i>'splpty'</i>, <i>'splptz'</i>). The percentage
    1752717524of gridpoints&nbsp; should stay below a certain limit, however, it is
    1752817525not possible to give
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.2.html

    r46 r48  
    11<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
    22<html><head>
    3   <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
    4 <body>
    5 <h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
     3<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
     4<body><h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
    65parameters</a> and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
    76parameters</a></h3>
    8 <h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>
    9 Runtime parameters:</h3>
    10 <br>
    11 <br>
    12 <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    13   <tbody>
    14     <tr>
    15       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
    16       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
    17       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    18       <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
    19       <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
    20       </td>
    21       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
    22     </tr>
    23     <tr>
    24       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
    25       </td>
    26       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    27       </td>
    28       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
    29       </td>
    30       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br><br>This
     7<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
     8<br><br>
     9<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr>
     10<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
     11name</b></font></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
     12<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br> <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p> </td>
     13<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
     14</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
     15</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     16<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
     17<td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
     18all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br><br>This
    3119parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
    3220(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
    33 default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval
    34 length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>. In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> &lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span> must hold.<br><br>If
     21default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
     22interval
     23length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
     24In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
     25&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
     26must hold.<br><br>If
    3527an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
    3628the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
    3729of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
    38 parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br><br>If an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
     30parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br><br>If
     31an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
    3932will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
    4033restart runs, averaging intervals do not
    41 necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br><br>Parameters <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a> and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a> can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
    42       </td>
    43     </tr>
    44 <tr>
    45       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    46       <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
    47       </td>
    48       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    49       </td>
    50       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
     34necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br><br>Parameters
     35<a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
     36and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
     37can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
     38profile data and spectra, respectively.<br> </td> </tr>
     39<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
     40</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     41<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
    5142interval</a><br>
    52 </span>
    53       </td>
    54       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    55       <p>Averaging interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to local
    56 file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a> </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
    57 (in s).&nbsp; </p>
    58       <p>If
     43</span> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     44<p>Averaging interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
     45local
     46file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
     47</font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
     48(in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>If
    5949this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
    6050averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
    6151data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
    62 limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>. In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr </b>must
    63 hold.</p>If an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated
     52limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
     53In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
     54</b>must
     55hold.</p>If an interval is defined, then by default the average
     56is calculated
    6457from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
    6558number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
    6659parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
    67       <p>If
     60<p>If
    6861an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
    6962be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
    7063runs, averaging intervals do not
    71 necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
    72       </td>
    73     </tr>
    74    
    75     <tr>
    76       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
    77 substeps</span></td>
    78       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    79       </td>
    80       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
    81       </td>
    82       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
    83 to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
    84       <br>
     64necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p> </td> </tr>
     65<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
     66substeps</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
     67</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
     68<td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
     69to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br> <br>
    8570In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
    86 pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
    87 timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>) by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
     71pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
     72be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
     73timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
     74by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
     75= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
    8876In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
    8977field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
    9078case and in case
    91 of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
    92     </tr>
    93     <tr>
    94       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    95       <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
    96       </td>
    97       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    98       </td>
    99       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    100       <p><i>0.1, 0.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
    101       <i>(see right)</i></p>
    102       </td>
    103       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    104       <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
    105 
    106      
    107       <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
    108 allowed </span>time step according to CFL and diffusion-criterion
    109 dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">= dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
     79of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
     80= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
     81should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
     82</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     83<p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
     84</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     85<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>0.1,
     860.8 or 0.9</i> <br> <i>(see right)</i></p>
     87</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
     88<p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
     89allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
     90diffusion-criterion
     91dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
     92dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
    11093in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
    111 the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i> &lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
    112 &lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
    113       </span></p>
    114 
    115      
    116       <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of cfl_factor depends on
    117 the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
    118       </span></p>
    119 
    120      
    121       <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
    122 is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
    123       </span></p>
    124 
    125      
    126       <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
     94the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
     95&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
     96&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br> </span></p>
     97<p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
     98cfl_factor depends on
     99the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br> </span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
     100is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br> </span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
    127101restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
    128 = <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity divergence
     102= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
     103divergence
    129104significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
    130105be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
    131106appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
    132       </span></span></p>
    133 
    134       <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
    135     </tr>
    136 <tr>
    137       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    138       <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
    139       </td>
    140       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    141       </td>
    142       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
    143       </td>
    144       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    145       <p>Switch to impose random perturbations to the horizontal
    146 velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
    147       <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b> = <i>.T.,</i> random
     107</span></span></p> <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
     108scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
     109= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
     110</tr>
     111<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
     112</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
     113<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
     114<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Switch to
     115impose random perturbations to the horizontal
     116velocity field.&nbsp; </p> <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
     117= <i>.T.,</i> random
    148118perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
    149119certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
    150 etc..<br>
    151       </p>
    152       <p>The temporal interval between these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
     120etc..<br> </p> <p>The temporal interval between
     121these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
    153122the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
    154123and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
     
    163132After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
    164133Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
    165 solver.<br>
    166       </p>
    167       <p>The random number generator to be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
    168       </p>
    169       <p>As soon as the desired flow features have developed
    170 (e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of perturbations
     134solver.<br> </p> <p>The random number generator to
     135be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
     136</p> <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
     137developed
     138(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
     139perturbations
    171140is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
    172141lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
     
    180149the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
    181150by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
    182 velocities. </p>
    183       </td>
    184     </tr>
    185     <tr>
    186       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    187       <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
    188       </td>
    189       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp; <br>
    190 &nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
    191       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
    192       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    193       <p>Type of normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
     151velocities. </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
     152</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
     153<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
     154<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of
     155normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
    194156profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
    195       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
     157<p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     158= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If
     159vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
     160local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
    196161parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
    197162the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
     
    204169accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
    205170then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
    206 is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
    207       </p>
    208       <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
     171is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br> </p>
     172<p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
    209173horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
    210174used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
     
    212176subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
    213177(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
    214 domain).&nbsp; </p>
    215       <p>The user can choose between the following normalization
    216 quantities: <br>
    217       </p>
    218       <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    219         <tbody>
    220           <tr>
    221             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
    222             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     178domain).&nbsp; </p> <p>The user can choose between
     179the following normalization
     180quantities: <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
     181<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     182respect
    223183to the total surface sensible heat
    224 flux (k=0 ).</td>
    225           </tr>
    226           <tr>
    227             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
    228             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     184flux (k=0 ).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
     185<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     186respect
    229187to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
    230188(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
    231           </tr>
    232           <tr>
    233             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
    234             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     189</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
     190<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     191respect
    235192to the square of the characteristic
    236 temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined as ratio of
    237 the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
    238           </tr>
    239           <tr>
    240             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
    241             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
    242 to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
    243           </tr>
    244           <tr>
    245             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
    246             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     193temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
     194as ratio of
     195the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td> </tr>
     196<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
     197<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     198respect
     199to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td> </tr>
     200<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
     201<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     202respect
    247203to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
    248204(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
    249           </tr>
    250           <tr>
    251             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
    252             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     205</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
     206<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     207respect
    253208to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
    254209(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
    255           </tr>
    256         </tbody>
    257       </table>
    258       <p>For each coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
    259 an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>, then the
     210</tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For each
     211coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
     212an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
     213<span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
     214then the
    260215x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
    261 and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>. Data
     216and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
     217Data
    262218of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
    263 normalized.&nbsp; </p>
    264       <p>Using a normalization leaves all vertical profile data on
     219normalized.&nbsp; </p> <p>Using a normalization
     220leaves all vertical profile data on
    265221local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
    266 unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the normalization is steered
     222unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
     223normalization is steered
    267224by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
    268225which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
     
    271228The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
    272229respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
    273       </td>
    274     </tr>
    275     <tr>
    276       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    277       <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
    278       </td>
    279       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp; <br>
    280 &nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
    281       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
    282       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    283       <p>Type of normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
     230</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
     231</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
     232<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
     233<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of
     234normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
    284235profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
    285       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
     236<p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     237= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If
     238vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
     239local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
    286240parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
    287241the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
    288242certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
    289243the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
    290 comparability. </p>
    291       <p>The user can choose between the following normalization
    292 quantities: <br>
    293       </p>
    294       <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    295         <tbody>
    296           <tr>
    297             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
    298             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
     244comparability. </p> <p>The user can choose between the
     245following normalization
     246quantities: <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
     247<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
     248respect
    299249to the boundary layer height
    300250(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
    301 value).</td>
    302           </tr>
    303         </tbody>
    304       </table>
    305       <p>For further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
    306       </td>
    307     </tr>
    308     <tr>
    309       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    310       <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
    311       </td>
    312       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp; <br>
    313 &nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
    314       <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
    315       </td>
    316       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    317       <p>Determines which vertical profiles are to be presented in
    318 which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used. &nbsp; </p>
    319       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
    320       <p><b>cross_profiles</b> =&nbsp; </p>
    321       <ul>
    322         <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
    323 u v ',</span><br>
    324         <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
    325 ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
    326         <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
    327 w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
    328         <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
    329 w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
    330         <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
    331 kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
    332         <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
     251value).</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For
     252further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
     253</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
     254</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
     255<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br> </td>
     256<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Determines
     257which vertical profiles are to be presented in
     258which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
     259&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
     260&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     261= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The
     262default assignment is:&nbsp; </p> <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
     263=&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
     264u v ',</span><br> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
     265',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
     266w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
     267w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
     268kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
    333269,</span><br>
    334 14 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
    335       </ul>
    336       <p>If plot output of vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
     27014 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
     271'</span></p> </ul> <p>If plot output of
     272vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
    337273the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
    338274Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
    339275which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
    340 program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
     276program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
     277The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
    341278determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
    342279which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
     
    346283names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
    347284The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
    348 must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the string.&nbsp;
    349       </p>
    350       <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
    351       <ul>
    352         <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ', ' pt '</span></p>
    353       </ul>
    354       <p>In this case the plot consists of two coordinate systems
     285must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
     286string.&nbsp; </p> <p>Example:&nbsp; </p> <ul>
     287<p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
     288' pt '</span></p> </ul> <p>In this case the
     289plot consists of two coordinate systems
    355290(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
    356 velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span> and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>) of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
     291velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
     292and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
     293of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
    357294and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
    358295(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
    359       </p>
    360       <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn, depends on
     296</p> <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
     297depends on
    361298whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
    362299(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
    363 For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>,
    364       <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned, then
     300For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
     301then
    365302the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
    366303temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
    367304to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
    368305then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
    369 but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
    370       </p>
     306but they are not drawn in the plot. <br> </p>
    371307The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
    372308with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
    373309and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
    374310Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
    375 distributed on several pages).</td>
    376     </tr>
    377     <tr>
    378       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    379       <p><a name="cross_ts_uymax"></a><b>cross_ts_uymax</b></p>
    380       </td>
    381       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)</td>
    382       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">10 *&nbsp; </span><br>
    383 &nbsp; 999.999</td>
    384       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    385       <p>Maximum of the range of y-axis values for coordinate systems
    386 of time series plots.&nbsp; </p>
    387       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If time series are output and plotted (see <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>),
    388 their range of values (which are to be presented at the y axis) is
    389 determined by the absolute maximum or minimum values these variables
    390 take within the time series. Singular extreme events can make the
    391 timeseries difficult to interpret. In order to solve for this problem,
    392 the range of values of the y-axis can be assigned manually with the
    393 parameters <b>cross_ts_uymax</b> and <a href="#cross_ts_uymin">cross_ts_uymin</a>.
    394 This can be done separately for each of the time series coordinate
    395 systems (panels). These panels are listed in the description of
    396 parameter <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>.
    397 If, for example, the user wants to limit the range of values of theta<sub>*</sub>,
    398 this may bbe done by <b>cross_ts_uymax</b>(4) = <i>5.0 </i>and <b>cross_ts_uymin</b>(4)
    399 = <i>- 5.0 </i>(theta* is by default presented in the 4th panel (see <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>).
    400 A one-sided limitation of the range of values may also be assigned.</p>
    401       </td>
    402     </tr>
    403     <tr>
    404       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    405       <p><a name="cross_ts_uymin"></a><b>cross_ts_uymin</b></p>
    406       </td>
    407       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
    408       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    409       <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp; <br>
    410 &nbsp; <i>999.999</i></p>
    411       </td>
    412       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    413       <p>Minimum of the range of y-axis values for coordinate systems
    414 of time series plot.&nbsp; </p>
    415       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>For details see <a href="#cross_ts_uymax">cross_ts_uymax</a>.</p>
    416       </td>
    417     </tr>
    418     <tr>
    419       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    420       <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
    421       </td>
    422       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp; <br>
    423 &nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
    424       <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
    425       </td>
    426       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    427       <p>x-axis labels of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
    428 plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
    429       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
    430       <p><b>cross_xtext</b> =&nbsp; </p>
    431       <ul>
    432         <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
    433 ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
    434         <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
     311distributed on several pages).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
     312</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
     313<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br> </td>
     314<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>x-axis labels
     315of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
     316plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
     317</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     318= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The
     319default assignment is:&nbsp; </p> <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
     320=&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
     321ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
    435322K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
    436         <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
    437 ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
    438         <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
    439 m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
    440         <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
    441 m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
    442         <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
    443         <br>
    444 14 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
    445       </ul>
    446       <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis labels to vertical
    447 profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output of vertical
     323<span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
     324ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
     325m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
     326m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
     327<br>14 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
     328</ul> <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
     329labels to vertical
     330profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
     331of vertical
    448332profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
    449333The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
    450       <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
     334<a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
    451335according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
    452 and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
    453       <p>Umlauts are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
    454 well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of each
     336and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p> <p>Umlauts
     337are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
     338well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
     339each
    455340character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
    456341plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
    457       </td>
    458     </tr>
    459     <tr>
    460       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    461       <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
    462       </td>
    463       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
    464       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
    465       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    466       <p>Type of cycle to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
    467       <p>This parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
     342</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
     343</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
     344<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
     345<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of cycle
     346to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     347parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
    468348the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
    469349perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
    470350It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
    471351grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
    472 may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>). The
     352may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
     353The
    473354computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
    474 however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
    475       </td>
    476     </tr>
    477     <tr>
    478       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    479       <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
    480       </td>
    481       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
    482       </td>
    483       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
    484       </td>
    485       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br><br>PALM
     355however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p> </td>
     356</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     357<p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
     358</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
     359</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
     360</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
     361for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br><br>PALM
    486362allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
    487363averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
    488 parameter (see below).<br><br>By default, cross section data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a> and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>. Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>. If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data, these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>, respectively.<br><br>The
     364parameter (see below).<br><br>By default, cross section
     365data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
     366below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
     367<a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
     368and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
     369Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
     370If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
     371these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
     372<a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
     373<a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
     374and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
     375respectively.<br><br>The
    489376filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
    490377Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
    491378dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
    492379format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
    493 "ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing the PALM NetCDF data.<br><br>The following quantities are available for output by default:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity name</span></td><td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td><td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td><td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td><td></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation pressure</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>, Pa</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet concentration</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option "-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean particle/droplet radius </td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option "-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential temperature<br></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity (or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water content</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span> or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid water</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor content (specific humidity)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of the scalar</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface) characteristic temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface) friction velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br><br>By
     380"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
     381the PALM NetCDF data.<br><br>The following quantities are
     382available for output by default:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
     383name</span></td><td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td><td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td><td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td><td></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
     384is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
     385= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
     386pressure</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
     387Pa</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
     388concentration</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
     389advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
     390"-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
     391particle/droplet radius </td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
     392advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
     393"-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
     394temperature<br></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
     395(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
     396content</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
     397= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
     398or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
     399= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
     400water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
     401= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
     402water</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
     403= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
     404= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
     405content (specific humidity)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
     406= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
     407the scalar</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
     408= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
     409characteristic temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
     410is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
     411the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
     412friction velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
     413is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
     414the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
     415temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
     416the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple
     417quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
     418= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br><br>By
    494419assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
    495 output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av' </span>(for
     420output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
     421respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
     422appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
     423</span>(for
    496424cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
    497425section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
     
    505433w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
    506434temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
    507 temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br><br>The user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br><br>The time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
     435temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br><br>The
     436user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
     437own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br><br>The
     438time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
    508439This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
    509 time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can be
    510 declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br><br>Also, an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>. This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br><br>The parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a> can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval. Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><p>With the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
     440time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
     441be
     442declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br><br>Also,
     443an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
     444be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
     445This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
     446the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br><br>The
     447parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
     448can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
     449Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
     450<a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><p>With
     451the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
    511452the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
    512 grid point.<br>
    513       </p>
    514      
    515 Cross sections extend through the total model
    516 domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0 &lt;= i
     453grid point.<br> </p> Cross sections extend through the
     454total model
     455domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
     456&lt;= i
    517457&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
    518 &lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions the
    519 complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>, <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span> causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction normal to the respective section.<br><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br><br>Beside
     458&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
     459the
     460complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
     461sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
     462<a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
     463causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
     464normal to the respective section.<br><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br><br>Beside
    520465the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
    521466other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
    522 user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>). They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a> for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
     467user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
     468They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
     469for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
    523470Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
    524471selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
    525472listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
    526 quantities.<br><br><p style="font-weight: bold;">Output on parallel machines:</p><p>
     473quantities.<br><br><p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
     474on parallel machines:</p><p>
    527475By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
    528476of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
    529477are
    530478constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
    531 &lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.). After PALM has
     479&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
     480After PALM has
    532481finished, the contents of these individual
    533 files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
     482files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
     483using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
    534484(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
    535 configuration file).</p>
    536       <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to collect all grid points of a
    537 cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only one&nbsp;
     485configuration file).</p> <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
     486collect all grid points of a
     487cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
     488one&nbsp;
    538489output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
    539 does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal gridpoints, sufficient
    540 memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
    541 = <i>.F.</i>.</p><p>3d volume data output is always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span> has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p><p><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
    542       <p>Beside
    543 the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data can
     490does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
     491gridpoints, sufficient
     492memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
     493assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
     494= <i>.F.</i>.</p><p>3d volume data output is
     495always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
     496has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p><p><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
     497<p>Beside
     498the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
     499can
    544500also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
    545 using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p><p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>, the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
     501using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p><p>By
     502assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
     503</span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
     504the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
    546505Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
    547506the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
    548507The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
    549 for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>,
    550       <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
     508for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
     509= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
    551510means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
    552511v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
     
    564523PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
    565524configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
    566 PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;) after PALM has
    567 finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file can be done
     525PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;)
     526after PALM has
     527finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
     528can be done
    568529in
    569 compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>). Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
    570 4.5.5</a>.</p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
     530compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
     531Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
     532<a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
     5334.5.5</a>.</p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
     534<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
     535the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
    571536Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
    572537the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
    573538The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
    574 for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>,
    575       <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
     539for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
     540= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
    576541means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
    577542with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
     
    581546creates NAMELIST parameter files
    582547(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
    583       <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
     548<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
     549<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
     550<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
     551<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
     552<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
    584553which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
    585554That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
     
    587556suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
    588557configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
    589 PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;) after PALM has
    590 finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the respective data and
     558PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;)
     559after PALM has
     560finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
     561respective data and
    591562parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
    592563file.
     
    595566(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
    596567All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
    597 file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
    598 4.5.4</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>There is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future PALM versions (later than 3.0).
    599      
    600       </td>
    601     </tr>
    602     <tr>
    603       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
    604       </td>
    605       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10)
    606       </td>
    607       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span>
    608       </td>
    609       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br><br>By default, all data (profiles, time
     568file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
     569in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
     5704.5.4</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>There
     571is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
     572PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
     573</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
     574<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
     575<td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br><br>By
     576default, all data (profiles, time
    610577series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
    611 in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>). Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
    612 are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br><br>The numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br><br>The maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a> if larger files have to be created.<br><br>For historical reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> may be assigned the following values:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td><td>output of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>, <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td><td>output of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td><td>output of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span> (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>, i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be assigned.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span> There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
    613       </td>
    614     </tr>
    615     <tr>
    616       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    617       <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
    618       </td>
    619       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10&nbsp; <br>
    620 
    621 (100)</td>
    622       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
    623       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    624       <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
    625 are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
    626 
    627      
    628       <p>By default vertical profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>. The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a> which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
    629       </p>
    630 
    631      
    632       <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
    633 profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> vertical
     578in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
     579Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
     580<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
     581are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br><br>The
     582numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br><br>The
     583maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the
     584parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
     585if larger files have to be created.<br><br>For historical
     586reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
     587may be assigned the following values:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td><td>output
     588of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
     589read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
     590</span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
     591<a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td><td>output
     592of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
     593software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
     594(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td><td>output
     595of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
     596software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
     597(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple
     598values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
     599i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
     600cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
     601<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
     602assigned.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
     603There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
     604future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br> </td> </tr> <tr>
     605<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
     606</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
     60710&nbsp; <br>
     608(100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
     609* ' '</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     610<p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
     611are to be output.&nbsp; </p> <p>By default vertical
     612profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
     613The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
     614NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For
     615historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
     616file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
     617which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
     618parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     619for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br> </p>
     620<p>For horizontally averaged vertical
     621profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
     622vertical
    634623grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
    635624profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
    636625also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
    637       </p>
    638 
    639      
    640       <p>The temporal interval of the output times of profiles is
     626</p> <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
     627profiles is
    641628assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
    642 Within the file  <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>, the profiles are ordered with respect to their
    643 output times.</p><p>Profiles can also be temporally averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).&nbsp;<br>
    644       </p>
    645 
    646      
    647      
    648 
    649      
    650       <p>The following list shows the values which can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
     629Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
     630the profiles are ordered with respect to their
     631output times.</p><p>Profiles can also be temporally
     632averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).&nbsp;<br>
     633</p> <p>The following list shows the values which can be
     634assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
    651635The profile data is either defined on
    652 u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>) or
    653 on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>). According to this,
     636u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
     637or
     638on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
     639According to this,
    654640the
    655641z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
    656642Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
    657643the lowest output
    658 level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w'' u'',w''v"</i>,
    659       <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i> .&nbsp; <br>
    660       </p>
    661 
    662      
    663       <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    664 
    665         <tbody>
    666           <tr>
    667             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
    668             <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
    669 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    670           </tr>
    671           <tr>
    672             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
    673             <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
    674 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    675           </tr>
    676           <tr>
    677             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
    678             <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
    679 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    680           </tr>
    681           <tr>
    682             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
    683             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
    684 K).</td>
    685           </tr>
    686           <tr>
    687             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
    688             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
    689 temperature (in K).</td>
    690           </tr>
    691           <tr>
    692             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
    693             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
    694 temperature (in K).</td>
    695           </tr>
    696           <tr>
    697             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
    698             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
    699 (in kg/kg).</td>
    700           </tr>
    701           <tr>
    702             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
    703             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
    704 kg/kg).</td>
    705           </tr>
    706           <tr>
    707             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
    708             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
    709 (in kg/kg).</td>
    710           </tr>
    711           <tr>
    712             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
    713             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
    714 kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
    715           </tr>
    716           <tr>
    717             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
    718             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
     644level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
     645u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
     646.&nbsp; <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
     647<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
     648velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
     649<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
     650velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
     651<td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
     652velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
     653<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
     654K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
     655<td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
     656temperature (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
     657<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
     658temperature (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
     659<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
     660(in kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
     661<td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
     662kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
     663<td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
     664(in kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
     665<td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
     666kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
     667<td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
    719668(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    720           </tr>
    721           <tr>
    722             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
    723             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
     669</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
     670<td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
    724671(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    725           </tr>
    726           <tr>
    727             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
    728             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
    729 momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
    730           </tr>
    731           <tr>
    732             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
    733             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
    734 (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
    735           </tr>
    736           <tr>
    737             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
    738             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
    739           </tr>
    740           <tr>
    741             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
    742             <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
     672</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
     673<td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
     674momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
     675<td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
     676<td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
     677(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
     678<td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
     679</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
     680<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
    743681subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    744           </tr>
    745           <tr>
    746             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
    747             <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
     682</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
     683<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
    748684resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    749           </tr>
    750           <tr>
    751             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
    752             <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
    753 vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    754           </tr>
    755           <tr>
    756             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
    757             <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
     685</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
     686<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
     687vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
     688(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td> </tr>
     689<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
     690<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
    758691subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    759           </tr>
    760           <tr>
    761             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
    762             <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
     692</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
     693<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
    763694resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    764           </tr>
    765           <tr>
    766             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
    767             <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
    768 vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
    769           </tr>
    770           <tr>
    771             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
    772             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    773 sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
    774           </tr>
    775           <tr>
    776             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
    777             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical sensible
    778 heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
    779           </tr>
    780           <tr>
    781             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
    782             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
     695</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
     696<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
     697vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
     698(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td> </tr>
     699<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
     700<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     701sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
     702<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
     703sensible
     704heat flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
     705<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
    783706heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
    784707(in K
    785 m/s).</td>
    786           </tr>
    787           <tr>
    788             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
    789             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     708m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
     709<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    790710sensible heat flux using the
    791 Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
    792           </tr>
    793           <tr>
    794             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
    795             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
     711Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
     712<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
    796713heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
    797714(<i>w"pt"</i>
    798 + <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
    799           </tr>
    800           <tr>
    801             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
    802             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    803 buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
    804           </tr>
    805           <tr>
    806             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
    807             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical buoyancy
    808 flux (in K m/s).</td>
    809           </tr>
    810           <tr>
    811             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
    812             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
    813 flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
    814           </tr>
    815           <tr>
    816             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
    817             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    818 water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    819           </tr>
    820           <tr>
    821             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
    822             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
    823 flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    824           </tr>
    825           <tr>
    826             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
    827             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
    828 (w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    829           </tr>
    830           <tr>
    831             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
    832             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    833 latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    834           </tr>
    835           <tr>
    836             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
    837             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
    838 heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    839           </tr>
    840           <tr>
    841             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
    842             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent heat
    843 flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
    844           </tr>
    845           <tr>
    846             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
    847             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     715+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
     716<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
     717<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     718buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
     719<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
     720buoyancy
     721flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
     722<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
     723flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
     724<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     725water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
     726<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
     727flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
     728<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
     729(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
     730<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
     731latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
     732<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
     733heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
     734<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
     735heat
     736flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
     737<td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
     738<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
    848739scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
    849           </tr>
    850           <tr>
    851             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
    852             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
    853 concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>)</td>
    854           </tr>
    855           <tr>
    856             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
    857             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
     740</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
     741<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
     742concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>)</td> </tr>
     743<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
     744<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
    858745concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
    859           </tr>
    860           <tr>
    861             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
    862             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
    863 perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
    864           </tr>
    865           <tr>
    866             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
    867             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the u-velocity
    868 component (resolved)</td>
    869           </tr>
    870           <tr>
    871             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
    872             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the v-velocity
    873 component (resolved)</td>
    874           </tr>
    875           <tr>
    876             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
    877             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
    878 temperature (resolved)</td>
    879           </tr>
    880           <tr>
    881             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
    882             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
    883 temperature (resolved)</td>
    884           </tr>
    885           <tr>
    886             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
    887             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
    888 w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
    889           </tr>
    890           <tr>
    891             <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
    892             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the w-velocity
     746</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
     747<td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
     748perturbation energy (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
     749<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
     750u-velocity
     751component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
     752<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
     753v-velocity
     754component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
     755<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
     756temperature (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
     757<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
     758temperature (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
     759<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
     760w-velocity component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
     761<td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
     762w-velocity
    893763component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
    894764= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
    895           </tr>
    896           <tr>
    897             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
    898             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
    899           </tr>
    900           <tr>
    901             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
    902             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
    903           </tr>
    904           <tr>
    905             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
    906             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by shear
    907 (resolved)</td>
    908           </tr>
    909           <tr>
    910             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
    911             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
     765</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
     766<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
     767</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
     768<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
     769</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
     770<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
     771shear
     772(resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
     773<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
    912774turbulent transport of pressure
    913 fluctuations (resolved)</td>
    914           </tr>
    915           <tr>
    916             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
    917             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
    918 transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
    919           </tr>
    920         </tbody>
    921      
    922       </table>
    923 
    924       <br>
    925 
     775fluctuations (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
     776<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
     777transport of resolved-scale TKE</td> </tr> </tbody>
     778</table> <br>
    926779Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some variables can be also be
    927780output (this output is only done once
     
    929782later
    930783times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
    931 above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
    932 
    933      
    934       <ul>
    935 <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>, <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>,
    936         <i>#l</i></p>
    937       </ul>
    938 
    939      
    940       <p>These initial profiles have been either set by the user or
    941 have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.<br>
    942       </p>In case of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
     784above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br> <ul>
     785<p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
     786<i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l</i></p>
     787</ul> <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
     788the user or
     789have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.<br> </p>In case
     790of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
    943791PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
    944792which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
     
    946794using these two files. The
    947795plot layout is
    948 steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters are determined by
     796steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
     797are determined by
    949798a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
    950       <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
    951       <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
     799<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
     800<a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
     801<a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
    952802etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
    953803input
    954 file. <br><br>Further details about plotting vertical profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
    955 4.5.2</a></td>
    956     </tr>
    957     <tr>
    958       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    959       <p><a name="data_output_ts"></a><b>data_output_ts</b></p>
    960       </td>
    961       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
    962       </td>
    963       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
    964       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities for which time series
    965 are to be output (plot).&nbsp; <br><p>By default time series data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>. The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a> which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
    966       </p>
    967 
    968      
    969      
    970 
    971 Time series of different quantities can be output by assigning <b>data_output_ts</b>
    972 one or more of the following strings:<br>&nbsp;<br>
    973 
    974      
    975       <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    976 
    977         <tbody>
    978           <tr>
    979             <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
    980             </td>
    981             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total kinetic energy of
    982 the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
    983 (normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
    984           </tr>
    985           <tr>
    986             <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
    987             </td>
    988             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation kinetic
    989 energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup> </sup>(normalized
    990 with respect to the total number of grid
    991 points)</td>
    992           </tr>
    993           <tr>
    994             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
    995             </td>
    996             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step size (in s).</td>
    997           </tr>
    998           <tr>
    999             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
    1000             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in m/s)
    1001 (horizontal average).</td>
    1002           </tr>
    1003           <tr>
    1004             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
    1005             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale of
    1006 the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
    1007           </tr>
    1008           <tr>
    1009             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
    1010             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
    1011 scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
    1012 /&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i> (horizontal
    1013 average) (in K).</td>
    1014           </tr>
    1015           <tr>
    1016             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
    1017             </td>
    1018             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum u-component of the
    1019 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    1020           </tr>
    1021           <tr>
    1022             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
    1023             </td>
    1024             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum v-component of the
    1025 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    1026           </tr>
    1027           <tr>
    1028             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
    1029             </td>
    1030             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum w-component of the
    1031 velocity (in m/s).</td>
    1032           </tr>
    1033           <tr>
    1034             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
    1035             </td>
    1036             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the velocity
    1037 field before the pressure
    1038 solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
    1039 grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
    1040           </tr>
    1041           <tr>
    1042             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
    1043             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the velocity
    1044 field after the pressure
    1045 solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
    1046 grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
    1047           </tr>
    1048           <tr>
    1049             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
    1050             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
    1051 boundary layer (horizontal average)
    1052 determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
    1053           </tr>
    1054           <tr>
    1055             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
    1056             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
    1057 boundary layer (horizontal average)
    1058 determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td>
    1059           </tr>
    1060           <tr>
    1061             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
    1062             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
    1063 heat flux near the surface (horizontal
    1064 average)
    1065 between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it corresponds to
    1066 the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td>
    1067           </tr>
    1068           <tr>
    1069             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
    1070             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
    1071 (horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
    1072 m/s).</td>
    1073           </tr>
    1074           <tr>
    1075             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
    1076             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
    1077 (horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
    1078           </tr>
    1079           <tr>
    1080             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
    1081             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
    1082 the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
    1083           </tr>
    1084           <tr>
    1085             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
    1086             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
    1087 z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
    1088           </tr>
    1089           <tr>
    1090             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
    1091             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
    1092 using upstream scheme along x with
    1093 upstream-spline advection switched on.</td>
    1094           </tr>
    1095           <tr>
    1096             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
    1097             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
    1098 using upstream scheme along y with
    1099 upstream-spline
    1100 advection switched on.</td>
    1101           </tr>
    1102           <tr>
    1103             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
    1104             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
    1105 using upstream scheme along z with
    1106 upstream-spline
    1107 advection switched on.<br>
    1108             </td>
    1109           </tr>
    1110           <tr>
    1111             <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
    1112             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
    1113           </tr>
    1114         </tbody>
    1115      
    1116       </table>
    1117 
    1118       <br>
    1119 Always <b>all</b> time series available are output to the file,
    1120 regardless of the value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_ts</span>.
    1121 Time series data refers to the total
    1122 domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
    1123 However, the following time series always present the values of the
    1124 total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>, <i>vmax</i>,
    1125       <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>, <i>div_new</i>.<br><br>The temporal interval of the data points of the time series is assigned via the parameter <a href="#dt_dots">dt_dots</a>.<br>
    1126 
    1127      
    1128       <p>In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>, the data of the individual time series are output in columns
    1129 to file  <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a>
    1130 starting from the second column (the simulated time is output as the
    1131 first column).&nbsp;Their sequence (with respect to the columns)
    1132 corresponds to the list given above. Additional to the file
    1133 PLOTTS_DATA, which contains the data,
    1134 PALM creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOTTS_PAR">PLOTTS_PAR</a>)
    1135 which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
    1136 Time series can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> using these two files. The
    1137 plot layout is
    1138 steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters are determined by
    1139 a set of PALM-internal parameters. All
    1140 parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input file.<b> </b>In this case (<span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>)<b> data_output_ts</b>
    1141 determines which time series are actually to be plotted. They are
    1142 plotted
    1143 into individual coordinate systems (panels). Typically several time
    1144 series are plotted
    1145 together into one panel. The grouping is fixed PALM-internally (it can
    1146 be changed by editing the parameter input file). The time series are
    1147 assigned to the panels
    1148 as: <br>
    1149       </p>
    1150 
    1151      
    1152       <ul>
    1153 <p>panel 1:&nbsp; <i>E E *</i>&nbsp; <br>
    1154 panel 2:&nbsp; <i>dt</i> <br>
    1155 panel 3:&nbsp; <i>u* w*</i>&nbsp; <br>
    1156 panel 4:&nbsp; <i>th*</i>&nbsp; <br>
    1157 panel 5:&nbsp; <i>umax vmax wmax</i> <br>
    1158 panel 6:&nbsp; <i>div_old div_new</i> <br>
    1159 panel 7:&nbsp; <i>z_i_wpt z_i_pt</i> <br>
    1160 panel 8:&nbsp; <i>w"pt"0 w"pt"wpt</i> <br>
    1161 panel 9:&nbsp; <i>pt(0) pt(zp)</i> <br>
    1162 panel 10: <i>splptx splpty splptz</i><br>
    1163 panel 11: <i>L</i></p>
    1164       </ul>
    1165 
    1166      
    1167       <p>The range of values (y-axes) which are to be plotted can be
    1168 assigned to each panel with the parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_ts_uymin">cross_ts_uymin</a>
    1169 and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_ts_uymax">cross_ts_uymax</a>.
    1170 If not a single time series of a panel is assigned by <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_ts</span>,
    1171 then this panel is completely omitted in the plot.<br>
    1172       </p>
    1173 
    1174      
    1175       <p>Further details about plotting time series with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.3.html">chapter
    1176 4.5.3</a>.</p>
    1177       </td>
    1178     </tr>
    1179     <tr>
    1180       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1181       <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b> <br>
    1182       <b>_each_pe</b></p>
    1183       </td>
    1184       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    1185       </td>
    1186       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
    1187       </td>
    1188       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section data by one or
    1189 all processors.&nbsp;
    1190      
    1191       <p>In runs with several processors, by default, each processor
    1192 outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual file. After PALM
    1193 has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
     804file. <br><br>Further details about plotting vertical
     805profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
     806be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
     8074.5.2</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
     808<br> <b>_each_pe</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
     809<td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
     810data by one or
     811all processors.&nbsp; <p>In runs with several processors, by
     812default, each processor
     813outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
     814file. After PALM
     815has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
     816file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
    1194817the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
    1195 
    1196      
    1197       <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b> = <i>.F.,</i>
     818<p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
     819= <i>.F.,</i>
    1198820the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
    1199 into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not have to be
    1200 called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal gridpoints, sufficient
    1201 memory is required on PE0. </p>
    1202       </td>
    1203     </tr>
    1204 <tr>
    1205       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1206       <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
    1207 _amplitude</b></p>
    1208       </td>
    1209       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1210       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
    1211       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1212       <p>Maximum perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
     821into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
     822have to be
     823called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
     824gridpoints, sufficient
     825memory is required on PE0. </p> </td> </tr>
     826<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
     827_amplitude</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
     828<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Maximum
     829perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
    1213830imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
    1214       <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
     831<p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
    1215832describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
    1216833field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
    1217 the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is only an
    1218 approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
    1219       </td>
    1220     </tr>
    1221     <tr>
    1222       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1223       <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
    1224       <br>
    1225       <b>_limit</b></p>
    1226       </td>
    1227       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1228       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
    1229       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1230       <p lang="en-GB">Upper limit value of the perturbation energy of
     834the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
     835only an
     836approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p> </td>
     837</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     838<p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
     839<br> <b>_limit</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
     840<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Upper
     841limit value of the perturbation energy of
    1231842the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
    1232 perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp; </p>
    1233       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
    1234       </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
     843perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
     844</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
     845describes how to impose
    1235846random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
    1236847energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
     
    1240851velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
    1241852must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
    1242 number of grid points).</span> </font> </p>
    1243       </td>
    1244     </tr>
    1245     <tr>
    1246       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1247       <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
    1248       </td>
    1249       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1250       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3)</i></td>
    1251       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1252       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
     853number of grid points).</span> </font> </p> </td>
     854</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     855<p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
     856</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     857<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3)</i></td>
     858<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
    1253859limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
    1254 imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
    1255       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
     860imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
     861</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
    1256862parameter must hold the condition zu<i>(3)</i> &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
    1257 &lt;= <i>zu(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
    1258 &lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must also hold. <br>
    1259       </font></span></p>
    1260       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
    1261       </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
    1262 random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
    1263       </td>
    1264     </tr>
    1265     <tr>
    1266       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1267       <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
    1268       </td>
    1269       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1270       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3)</i></td>
    1271       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1272       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
     863&lt;= <i>zu(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
     864Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
     865&lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a>
     866<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must
     867also hold. <br> </font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
     868parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
     869describes how to impose
     870random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
     871</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
     872</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     873<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3)</i></td>
     874<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
    1273875limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
    1274 imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
    1275       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
    1276 parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b> &lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;= <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
    1277 must also hold.<br>
    1278       </font></span></p>
    1279       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
    1280       </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
    1281 random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
    1282       </td>
    1283     </tr>
    1284     <tr>
    1285       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1286       <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
    1287       </td>
    1288       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    1289       </td>
    1290       <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
    1291       </td>
    1292       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1293       <p>Output of 2d cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
    1294 
    1295      
    1296       <p>The temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
    1297 are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>,
    1298       <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
     876imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
     877</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
     878parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
     879&lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
     880Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a>
     881<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;=
     882<b>disturbance_level_t</b>
     883must also hold.<br> </font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
     884parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
     885describes how to impose
     886random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
     887</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
     888</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
     889<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
     890<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Output of 2d
     891cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p> <p>The
     892temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
     893are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
    1299894and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
    1300 By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i> an additional output
     895By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
     896an additional output
    1301897will be made at the
    1302898beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
    1303 starting times of restart runs).</p>
    1304       </td>
    1305     </tr>
    1306     <tr>
    1307       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1308       <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
    1309       </td>
    1310       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    1311       </td>
    1312       <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
    1313       </td>
    1314       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data at the beginning
    1315 of a run.<br><br>The temporal intervals of output times of 3d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
     899starting times of restart runs).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
     900<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
     901</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
     902<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
     903<td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
     904at the beginning
     905of a run.<br><br>The temporal intervals of output times of
     9063d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
    1316907is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
    1317 By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i> an additional output
     908By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
     909an additional output
    1318910will be made at the
    1319911beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
    1320 starting times of restart runs).</td>
    1321     </tr>
    1322     <tr>
    1323       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1324       <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
    1325       </td>
    1326       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    1327       </td>
    1328       <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
    1329       </td>
    1330       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1331       <p>Output of data for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
    1332 
    1333      
    1334       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>Output of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
     912starting times of restart runs).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
     913</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
     914<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
     915<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Output of data
     916for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     917parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     918= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>Output
     919of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
    1335920(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
    1336921reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
    1337922form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
    1338 = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is assigned. This
     923= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
     924assigned. This
    1339925yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
    1340926parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_precision">do3d_precision</a>
    1341927can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
    1342 each quantity.<br>
    1343       </p>
    1344 
    1345      
    1346       <p>So far compressed data output is only possible for Cray-T3E
     928each quantity.<br> </p> <p>So far compressed data
     929output is only possible for Cray-T3E
    1347930machines. Additional information for
    1348931handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
    1349 4.5.6</a>.</p>
    1350       </td>
    1351     </tr>
    1352     <tr>
    1353       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1354       <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
    1355       </td>
    1356       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 7&nbsp; <br>
    1357 
    1358 &nbsp; (100)</td>
    1359       <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
    1360       </td>
    1361       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1362       <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data output.&nbsp; </p>
    1363 
    1364      
    1365       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>In case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
     9324.5.6</a>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
     933</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
     9347&nbsp; <br>
     935&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see
     936right<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     937<p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
     938output.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
     939&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     940= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>In
     941case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
    1366942(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
    1367943this parameter determines the number of significant digits
    1368 which are to be output.<br>
    1369       </p>
    1370 
    1371      
    1372       <p>Fewer digits clearly reduce the amount
     944which are to be output.<br> </p> <p>Fewer digits
     945clearly reduce the amount
    1373946of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
    1374 quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity name&gt;&lt;number of
     947quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
     948name&gt;&lt;number of
    1375949significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
    1376950Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
    1377951are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
    1378952are not very reasonable
    1379 because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
    1380       </p>
    1381 
    1382      
    1383       <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
    1384 = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
    1385       </td>
    1386     </tr>
    1387 <tr>
    1388       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1389       <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
    1390       </td>
    1391       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1392       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
    1393       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1394       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
    1395 step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
    1396       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
    1397       <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is described in
    1398 detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">). Additionally, it may be
     953because they do not effect a significant compression).<br> </p>
     954<p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
     955= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p> </td>
     956</tr>
     957<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
     958</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     959<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
     960<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
     961step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
     962</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
     963<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is
     964described in
     965detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">).
     966Additionally, it may be
    1399967used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
    1400968is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
    1401 time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span> </font>
    1402       </p>
    1403       </td>
    1404     </tr>
    1405     <tr>
    1406       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
    1407       </td>
    1408       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    1409       </td>
    1410       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
    1411       </td>
    1412       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br><br>By default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a> are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> &gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
     969time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span>
     970</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
     971</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     972<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
     973<td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
     974of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br><br>By
     975default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
     976are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
     977&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
    1413978the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
    1414979reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
    1415 average's statistics.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>), the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
    1416 averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> / MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp;
    1417       <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>With an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
     980average's statistics.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
     981variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
     982the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
     983averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
     984is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
     985MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
     986<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
     987gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
     988this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp;
     989<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>With
     990an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
     991<span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
    1418992the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
    1419993s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
    1420994larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
    1421 (maximum) 10 time levels.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It is allowed
    1422 to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If the last averaging
     995(maximum) 10 time levels.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
     996is allowed
     997to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
     998the last averaging
    1423999interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
    14241000has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
    14251001spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
    1426 averaging interval.<br><br></span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
    1427       </td>
    1428     </tr>
    1429 <tr>
    1430       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1431       <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
    1432       </td>
    1433       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1434       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>averaging_<br>input</a></span></td>
    1435       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1436       <p lang="en-GB">Temporal interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
    1437       <p>By default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span> &gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
     1002averaging interval.<br><br></span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
     1003be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
     1004vertical profile data and spectra.<br> </td> </tr>
     1005<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
     1006</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1007<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>averaging_<br>input</a></span></td>
     1008<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
     1009interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
     1010profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
     1011</font></font> </p> <p>By default, data from
     1012each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
     1013used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
     1014&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
    14381015the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
    14391016reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
    1440 average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
    1441       </p><p>For more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p></td>
    1442     </tr>
    1443     <tr>
    1444       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
    1445       </td>
    1446       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    1447       </td>
    1448       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
    1449       </td>
    1450       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
    1451 at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time averaged),
     1017average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br> </p><p>For
     1018more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p></td>
     1019</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
     1020</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1021<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
     1022</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
     1023at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
     1024averaged),
    14521025cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
    14531026spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
    1454       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
     1027<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
     1028data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
     1029parameter can be used to
    14551030assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
    1456 output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
    1457 takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output + dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> + 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> + 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
     1031output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
     1032simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
     1033which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1034time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
     1035takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
     1036dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
     1037+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
     1038+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
    14581039etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
    1459 the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly deviate
    1460 from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br>Individual temporal intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>, and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
    1461       </td>
    1462     </tr>
    1463     <tr>
    1464       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
    1465       </td>
    1466       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    1467       </td>
    1468       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i>
    1469       </td>
    1470       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
     1040the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
     1041deviate
     1042from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br>Individual temporal
     1043intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
     1044parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
     1045and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
     1046</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
     1047</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1048<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1049&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i>
     1050</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
    14711051at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
    1472 shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
     1052shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
     1053output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
     1054parameter can be used to
    14731055assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
    1474 output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
    1475 takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av + dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> + 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> + 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
     1056output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
     1057simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
     1058which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1059time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
     1060takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
     1061dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
     1062+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
     1063+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
    14761064etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
    1477 the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly deviate from
    1478 these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br></font></span>The length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
    1479     </tr>
    1480 <tr>
    1481       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1482       <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
    1483       </td>
    1484       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1485       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
    1486       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1487       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which random
     1065the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
     1066deviate from
     1067these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br></font></span>The
     1068length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
     1069</tr>
     1070<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
     1071</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1072<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
     1073<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1074interval</font> at which random
    14881075perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
    1489 (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
    1490       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
    1491       </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
    1492 random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
    1493       </td>
    1494     </tr>
    1495     <tr>
    1496       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1497       <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
    1498       </td>
    1499       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1500       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
    1501       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1502       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal interval at
     1076(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
     1077</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
     1078describes how to impose
     1079random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
     1080</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
     1081</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1082<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1083&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
     1084<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
     1085interval at
    15031086which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
    1504 file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a> or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
    1505 
    1506      
    1507       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    1508 horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this parameter can be used to
    1509 assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning
     1087file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
     1088or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
     1089<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
     1090</font></span> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1091horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
     1092parameter can be used to
     1093assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
     1094be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
     1095zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1096time is the beginning
    15101097of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
    1511 takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
     1098takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
     1099<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
     1100+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
    15121101etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
    15131102profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
     
    15151104If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
    15161105example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
    1517 the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the model uses a variable time step, these
     1106the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
     1107model uses a variable time step, these
    15181108deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
    1519 different for each output time.<br>
    1520       </font></span></p>
    1521 
    1522      
    1523       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In order to
    1524 guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
     1109different for each output time.<br> </font></span></p>
     1110<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
     1111order to
     1112guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
     1113<span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
    15251114should be equal or a little bit
    15261115larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
    1527 = <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>and 3600.0
     1116= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
     1117</span>and 3600.0
    15281118seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
    1529 &gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
    1530 
    1531      
    1532       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
    1533 profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span> </p>
    1534       </td>
    1535     </tr>
    1536     <tr>
    1537       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
    1538       </td>
    1539       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    1540       </td>
    1541       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
    1542       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1543       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
    1544 interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of vertical
    1545 profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span> </p>
    1546 
    1547      
    1548       <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
     1119&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
     1120</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
     1121profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
     1122</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
     1123</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1124<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
     1125<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1126interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
     1127vertical
     1128profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
     1129<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
     1130</p> <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
    15491131parameter can be used to
    1550 assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference time is the beginning
    1551 of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b> = 1800.0,
     1132assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
     1133time is the beginning
     1134of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
     1135= 1800.0,
    15521136then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
    15531137profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
     
    15551139If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
    15561140example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
    1557 the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a>
    1558       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers are related to
     1141the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
     1142are related to
    15591143the
    15601144example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
    15611145deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
    1562 different for each output time.<br>
    1563       </font></span></p>
    1564 
    1565      
    1566       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In order to
    1567 guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
     1146different for each output time.<br> </font></span></p>
     1147<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
     1148order to
     1149guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
     1150<span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
    15681151should be a little bit
    15691152larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
    1570 = <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>and 3600.0
     1153= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
     1154</span>and 3600.0
    15711155seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
    1572 &gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If variable time steps are used
     1156&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
     1157variable time steps are used
    15731158(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
    15741159should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
    1575 
    1576      
    1577       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data and output
    1578 format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is internally fixed. In this file
     1160<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
     1161and output
     1162format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
     1163<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
     1164internally fixed. In this file
    15791165the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
    1580 adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
    1581       </td>
    1582     </tr>
    1583 <tr>
    1584       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1585       <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
    1586       </td>
    1587       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1588       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
    1589       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1590       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
    1591       </font> </p>
    1592       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of time
    1593 series is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output_ts"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_ts</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this parameter can be used to
    1594 assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
     1166adjacent columns.</font></span> </p> </td> </tr>
     1167<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
     1168</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1169<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
     1170<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1171interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
     1172output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
     1173</p> <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
     1174is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
     1175calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p><p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1176IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
     1177== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1178<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
     1179MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1180ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1181<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
     1182MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
     1183)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1184ENDIF</p><p>This parameter can be used to
     1185assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1186time is the beginning of
    15951187&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
    1596 2*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The actual output times can
    1597 deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp; Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data of the time series are
     11882*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
     1189actual output times can
     1190deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
     1191Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
     1192of the time series are
    15981193written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
    1599 = <i>0</i>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a> == 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> = MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> = MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDIF<br><br>(which minimizes the number of calls of routine flow_statistics).</td>
    1600     </tr>
    1601    
    1602     <tr>
    1603       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1604       <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
    1605       </td>
    1606       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1607       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
    1608       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1609       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
    1610       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1194= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
     1195value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
     1196is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1197IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
     1198== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1199<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
     1200MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1201ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1202<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
     1203MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
     1204<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
     1205)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1206ENDIF<br><br>(which minimizes the number of calls of
     1207routine flow_statistics).<br><p>By default time series data
     1208is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
     1209Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
     1210it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
     1211format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
     1212data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>The
     1213file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
     1214gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
     1215</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
     1216kinetic energy of
     1217the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
     1218(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
     1219</tr> <tr> <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
     1220</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
     1221kinetic
     1222energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
     1223</sup>(normalized
     1224with respect to the total number of grid
     1225points)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
     1226</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
     1227size (in s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
     1228<td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
     1229m/s)
     1230(horizontal average).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
     1231<td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
     1232of
     1233the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td> </tr> <tr>
     1234<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
     1235<td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
     1236scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
     1237/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
     1238(horizontal
     1239average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
     1240</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
     1241u-component of the
     1242velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
     1243</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
     1244v-component of the
     1245velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
     1246</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
     1247w-component of the
     1248velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
     1249</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
     1250of the velocity
     1251field before the pressure
     1252solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
     1253grid points) (in 1/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
     1254<td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
     1255velocity
     1256field after the pressure
     1257solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
     1258grid points) (in 1/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
     1259<td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
     1260boundary layer (horizontal average)
     1261determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
     1262</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
     1263<td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
     1264boundary layer (horizontal average)
     1265determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td> </tr> <tr>
     1266<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
     1267<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
     1268heat flux near the surface (horizontal
     1269average)
     1270between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it
     1271corresponds to
     1272the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
     1273<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
     1274(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
     1275m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
     1276<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
     1277(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
     1278<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
     1279<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
     1280the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr>
     1281<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
     1282<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
     1283z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr>
     1284<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
     1285<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
     1286using upstream scheme along x with
     1287upstream-spline advection switched on.</td> </tr> <tr>
     1288<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
     1289<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
     1290using upstream scheme along y with
     1291upstream-spline
     1292advection switched on.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
     1293<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
     1294using upstream scheme along z with
     1295upstream-spline
     1296advection switched on.<br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
     1297<td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
     1298</tr> </tbody> </table><br>Additionally, the
     1299user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
     1300user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
     1301These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
     1302this.<br><br>Time series data refers to the total
     1303domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
     1304However, the following time series always present the values of the
     1305total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
     1306<i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
     1307<i>div_new</i>.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
     1308</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1309<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1310&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
     1311<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1312interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
     1313shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
     1314</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    16111315horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
    1612       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
     1316<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
     1317</font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
     1318parameter can be used to
    16131319assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
    1614 output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
    1615 takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> + 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
     1320output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
     1321simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
     1322which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1323time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
     1324takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
     1325<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
     1326+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
     1327+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
    16161328etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
    16171329(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
    1618       </font></span></p>
    1619       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
    1620 has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
     1330</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
     1331has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
     1332the time t = 0 or at the
    16211333respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
    1622       </td>
    1623     </tr>
    1624     <tr>
    1625       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1626       <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
    1627       </td>
    1628       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1629       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
    1630       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1631       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data (xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
    1632       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1334</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
     1335</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1336<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1337&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
     1338<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1339interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
     1340(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
     1341</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    16331342horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
    1634       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
     1343<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
     1344</font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
    16351345this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
    1636 cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
    1637 the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz + dt_do2d_xz</b>,
    1638 <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> + 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
     1346cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
     1347be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
     1348has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
     1349the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
     1350+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
     1351<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
     1352+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
     1353+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
    16391354can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
    1640       </font></span></p>
    1641       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
    1642 has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
     1355</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
     1356has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
     1357the time t = 0 or at the
    16431358respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
    1644       </td>
    1645     </tr>
    1646     <tr>
    1647       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1648       <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
    1649       </td>
    1650       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1651       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
    1652       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1653       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data (yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp; </font> </p>
    1654       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1359</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
     1360</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1361<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1362&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
     1363<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1364interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
     1365(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
     1366</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    16551367horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
    1656       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
     1368<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
     1369</font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
    16571370this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
    1658 cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
    1659 the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz + dt_do2d_yz</b>,
    1660 <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output times
     1371cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
     1372be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
     1373has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1374time is the beginning of
     1375the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
     1376+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
     1377<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
     1378+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
     1379</span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
     1380times
    16611381can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
    1662       </font></span></p>
    1663       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
    1664 has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
     1382</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
     1383has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
     1384the time t = 0 or at the
    16651385respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
    1666       </td>
    1667     </tr>
    1668     <tr>
    1669       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1670       <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
    1671       </td>
    1672       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1673       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
    1674       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1675       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
    1676       </p>
    1677       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    1678 3d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used to assign
     1386</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
     1387</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1388<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
     1389&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
     1390<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1391interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
     1392<font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
     1393<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
     1394output of
     13953d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
     1396to assign
    16791397th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
    1680 interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the
    1681 beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d + dt_do3d</b>,
    1682 <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> + 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> + 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
     1398interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
     1399be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
     1400zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
     1401time is the
     1402beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
     1403+ dt_do3d</b>,
     1404<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
     1405+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
     1406+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
    16831407deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
    1684       </font></span></p>
    1685       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
    1686 has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
     1408</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
     1409has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
     1410the time t = 0 or at the
    16871411respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
    1688       </td>
    1689     </tr>
    1690    
    1691     <tr>
    1692       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1693       <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
    1694       </td>
    1695       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1696       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
    1697       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1698       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which a new
    1699 restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).
    1700       </font> </p>
    1701       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a description
     1412</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
     1413</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1414<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
     1415<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1416interval</font> at which a new
     1417restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
     1418description
    17021419how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
    17031420does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
    1704 has not been set.</font></span> </p>
    1705       </td>
    1706     </tr>
    1707     <tr>
    1708       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1709       <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
    1710       </td>
    1711       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1712       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
    1713       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1714       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which run control
    1715 output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
    1716       </p>
    1717       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
    1718 information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each output time, one line
     1421has not been set.</font></span> </p> </td> </tr>
     1422<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
     1423</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1424<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
     1425<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
     1426interval</font> at which run control
     1427output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
     1428</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
     1429information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
     1430output time, one line
    17191431with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
    17201432kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
    17211433beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
    1722 2*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>, etc., and always at
     14342*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
     1435etc., and always at
    17231436the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
    17241437respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
    17251438deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
    1726       </font></span></p>
    1727       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
     1439</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
    17281440information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
    1729 = <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
    1730       </td>
    1731     </tr>
    1732    
    1733    
    1734    
    1735     <tr>
    1736       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1737       <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
    1738       </td>
    1739       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1740       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1741       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1742       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
    1743 model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
    1744       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
     1441= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p> </td>
     1442</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1443<p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
     1444</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1445<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     1446<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
     1447model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
     1448</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
    17451449is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
    17461450starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span>
    1747       </p>
    1748       </td>
    1749     </tr>
    1750    
    1751     <tr>
    1752       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1753       <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
    1754       </td>
    1755       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    1756       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
    1757       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1758       <p>Steering of header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp; </p>
    1759       <p>By default, informations about the model parameters in use are
     1451</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
     1452</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     1453<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
     1454<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Steering of
     1455header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
     1456</p> <p>By default, informations about the model
     1457parameters in use are
    17601458output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
    17611459(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
    17621460file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
    1763 With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>, these informations are
     1461With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
     1462these informations are
    17641463also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
    1765 at restart runs.</p>
    1766       </td>
    1767     </tr>
    1768     <tr>
    1769       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1770       <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
    1771       </td>
    1772       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1773       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
    1774       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1775       <p>Number of cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
    1776       <br>
     1464at restart runs.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
     1465</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1466<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
     1467<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
     1468cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br> <br>
    17771469This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
    17781470multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
    17791471perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
    17801472The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
    1781       </p>
    1782       <br>
    1783 By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>- 1</i>), the number of cycles
     1473</p> <br>
     1474By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>- 1</i>), the
     1475number of cycles
    17841476depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
    17851477and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
    17861478for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
    1787 the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
    1788       <br>
    1789 By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of cycles can be
    1790 fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
    1791       <br>
    1792       <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user must
     1479the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br> <br>
     1480By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
     1481cycles can be
     1482fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br> <br>
     1483<b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
     1484must
    17931485examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
    17941486regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
     
    17961488least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
    17971489both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    1798 and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a good choice, for
     1490and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
     1491good choice, for
    17991492non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
    1800 = <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be sufficient.</td>
    1801     </tr>
    1802     <tr>
    1803       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
    1804 level</b></td>
    1805       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1806       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
    1807       </td>
    1808       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
    1809 level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
    1810       <br>
     1493= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
     1494sufficient.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
     1495level</b></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1496<td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
     1497level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br> <br>
    18111498In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
    18121499the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
     
    18171504It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
    18181505determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
    1819 this level.</td>
    1820     </tr>
    1821     <tr>
    1822       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
    1823       </td>
    1824       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
    1825       </td>
    1826       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
    1827       </td>
    1828       <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files will have 64 bit offset format.<br><br>By
     1506this level.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
     1507</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
     1508<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br> </td>
     1509<td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files will have 64
     1510bit offset format.<br><br>By
    18291511default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
    18301512GByte. Using netcdf_64bit = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
    1831 GByte.<br><br>The 64 bit offset format can be separately switched off for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume date (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>, <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>) using <a href="#netcdf_64bit_3d">netcdf_64bit_3d</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>Some (PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
    1832       </td>
    1833     </tr>
    1834 <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit_3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">.T.</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files containing 3d volume data will have 64 bit offset format.<br><br>This switch&nbsp;only comes into effect if <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a> = .TRUE.. It allows to switch off separately the 64 bit offset format for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume data (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>, <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>).</td></tr><tr>
    1835       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1836       <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
    1837       </td>
    1838       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1839       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
    1840       <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
    1841 level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
    1842       <br>
     1513GByte.<br><br>The 64 bit offset format can be separately
     1514switched off for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume date (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
     1515<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>)
     1516using <a href="#netcdf_64bit_3d">netcdf_64bit_3d</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>Some
     1517(PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
     1518</td> </tr>
     1519<tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit_3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">.T.</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files containing 3d
     1520volume data will have 64 bit offset format.<br><br>This
     1521switch&nbsp;only comes into effect if <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
     1522= .TRUE.. It allows to switch off separately the 64 bit offset format
     1523for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume data (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
     1524<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>).</td></tr><tr>
     1525<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p> </td>
     1526<td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
     1527<td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
     1528level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br> <br>
    18431529In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
    18441530the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
     
    18491535It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
    18501536determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
    1851 this level.</td>
    1852     </tr>
    1853     <tr>
    1854       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1855       <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
    1856       </td>
    1857       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1858       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
    1859       </td>
    1860       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1861       <p>Determines the subdomain from which the normalization
    1862 quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
    1863       <p>If output data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
     1537this level.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
     1538</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1539<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br> </td>
     1540<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Determines the
     1541subdomain from which the normalization
     1542quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p> <p>If output
     1543data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
    18641544(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
    18651545is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
    1866       <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
     1546<a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
    18671547the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
    18681548the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
    1869 = <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total domain. Instead
     1549= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
     1550domain. Instead
    18701551of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
    1871 subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>, where <i>1</i>
    1872 &lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must hold. These
     1552subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
     1553where <i>1</i>
     1554&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
     1555hold. These
    18731556quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
    1874 of the total domain).</p>
    1875       </td>
    1876     </tr>
    1877     <tr>
    1878       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1879       <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
    1880       </td>
    1881       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1882       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
    1883       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1884       <p>Number of iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
    1885       <p>This parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
     1557of the total domain).</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
     1558</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1559<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
     1560<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
     1561iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     1562parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
    18861563as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
    1887 = <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>). The number of
     1564= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
     1565The number of
    18881566iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
    18891567on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
     
    18911569point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
    18921570SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
    1893       </td>
    1894     </tr>
    1895     <tr>
    1896       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1897       <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
    1898       </td>
    1899       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1900       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
    1901       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1902      
    1903      
    1904       Limits the output of 3d volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br><br>By default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
     1571</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
     1572</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1573<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
     1574<td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
     1575volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br><br>By
     1576default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
    19051577can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
    19061578(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
    1907 output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software, see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
    1908     </tr>
    1909     <tr>
    1910       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1911       <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
    1912       </td>
    1913       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1914       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
    1915       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1916       <p>Convergence factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
    1917       <p>If the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
    1918 = <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>), this parameter
    1919 determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i> &lt;=
    1920       <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>. The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
     1579output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
     1580for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
     1581see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
     1582</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1583<p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
     1584</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1585<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
     1586<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Convergence
     1587factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p> <p>If
     1588the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
     1589= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
     1590this parameter
     1591determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
     1592&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
     1593The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
    19211594depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
    19221595space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
    1923 appropriate test runs.</p>
    1924       </td>
    1925     </tr>
    1926    
    1927    
    1928    
    1929    
    1930    
    1931    
    1932    
    1933    
    1934     <tr>
    1935       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1936       <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
    1937       </td>
    1938       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1939       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
    1940       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1941       <p>Ratio of the eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
    1942       </p>
    1943       <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
     1596appropriate test runs.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
     1597</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1598<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
     1599<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Ratio of the
     1600eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
     1601</p> <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
    19441602this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
    1945 / K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
    1946       </td>
    1947     </tr>
    1948     <tr>
    1949       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1950       <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
    1951       </td>
    1952       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1953       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
    1954       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1955       <p>Number of coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
    1956       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It determines the layout of plots of
     1603/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
     1604<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
     1605</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1606<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
     1607<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
     1608coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
     1609in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
     1610</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     1611= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
     1612determines the layout of plots of
    19571613horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
    19581614when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
    19591615Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
    19601616plotted on one page are
    1961 determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>. <b>profile_columns</b>
     1617determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
     1618<b>profile_columns</b>
    19621619determines how many panels are to be
    19631620arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
     
    19651622According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
    19661623the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
    1967 then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz &gt;
    1968       <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>, the remaining
     1624then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
     1625&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
     1626the remaining
    19691627panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
    1970 then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set. If
     1628then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
     1629If
    19711630row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
    1972 is reduced automatically.</p>
    1973       </td>
    1974     </tr>
    1975     <tr>
    1976       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1977       <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
    1978       </td>
    1979       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1980       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
    1981       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1982       <p>Number of rows of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
    1983 by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
    1984       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
     1631is reduced automatically.</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
     1632<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
     1633</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     1634<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
     1635<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of rows
     1636of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
     1637by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
     1638</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     1639= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
     1640determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
    19851641profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
    1986       </td>
    1987     </tr>
    1988     <tr>
    1989       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1990       <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
    1991       </td>
    1992       <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
    1993       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
    1994       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1995       <p>Scheme to be used to solve the Poisson equation for the
    1996 perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
    1997       <br>
    1998 The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
    1999       <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    2000         <tbody>
    2001           <tr>
    2002             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
    2003             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
     1642</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
     1643</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
     1644<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
     1645<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Scheme to be
     1646used to solve the Poisson equation for the
     1647perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p> <br>
     1648The user can choose between the following schemes:<br> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
     1649<td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
    20041650along x and y, solution of a
    20051651tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
     
    20081654This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
    20091655Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
    2010           </tr>
    2011           <tr>
    2012             <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2013             <p><i>poisfft_</i> <br>
    2014             <i>hybrid</i></p>
    2015             </td>
    2016             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
     1656</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1657<p><i>poisfft_</i> <br> <i>hybrid</i></p>
     1658</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
     1659method using FFT
    20171660along x and y, solution of a
    20181661tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
     
    20211664This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
    20221665Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
    2023           </tr>
    2024           <tr>
    2025             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
    2026             <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2027             <p>Multi-grid scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
     1666</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
     1667<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Multi-grid
     1668scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
    20281669and
    20291670w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
     
    20331674and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
    20341675to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
    2035 can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>. <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
     1676can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
     1677<span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
    20361678The
    20371679smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
    20381680case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
    2039             <br>
     1681<br>
    20401682If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
    20411683is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
    2042 multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as the number of
     1684multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
     1685the number of
    20431686grid points in the three directions
    20441687of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
    2045 where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n, </i>the
     1688where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
     1689</i>the
    20461690multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
    20471691its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
     
    20501694for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
    20511695because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
    2052 parameter.
    2053             <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid points of
     1696parameter. <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
     1697points of
    20541698the
    20551699subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
     
    20591703for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
    20601704be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
    2061             <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
     1705<p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
    20621706identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
    2063             </td>
    2064           </tr>
    2065           <tr>
    2066             <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
    2067             <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over relaxation
     1707</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
     1708<td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
     1709relaxation
    20681710method (SOR). The convergence of
    20691711this
    20701712iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
    2071             <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
    2072 and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp; <br>
    2073 Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this scheme
     1713<a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
     1714and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
     1715<br>Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
     1716scheme
    20741717needs substantially
    20751718more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
    2076 errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
    2077           </tr>
    2078         </tbody>
    2079       </table>
    2080       <br>
     1719errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td> </tr>
     1720</tbody> </table> <br>
    20811721In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation is by default
    20821722only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
    20831723at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
    2084       </td>
    2085     </tr>
    2086     <tr>
    2087       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2088       <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b> <br>
    2089       <b>_factor</b></p>
    2090       </td>
    2091       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2092       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
    2093       <i>0.01</i></td>
    2094       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2095       <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
    2096       <p>A so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
     1724</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
     1725<br> <b>_factor</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
     1726<i>0.01</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1727<p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p> <p>A
     1728so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
    20971729variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
    20981730If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
     
    21011733is assigned to.
    21021734The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
    2103 and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its maximum value
     1735and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
     1736maximum value
    21041737at
    2105 the top boundary. </p>
    2106       <p>This method
     1738the top boundary. </p> <p>This method
    21071739effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
    21081740which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
     
    21121744or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
    21131745Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
    2114 = <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched off.&nbsp; </p>
    2115       <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
     1746= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
     1747off.&nbsp; </p> <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
     1748hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
    21161749&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
    21171750&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
    2118 numerical instabilities.</p>
    2119       </td>
    2120     </tr>
    2121     <tr>
    2122       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2123       <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b> <br>
    2124       <b>_height</b></p>
    2125       </td>
    2126       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2127       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2128       <p><i>2/3 *</i> <br><span style="font-style: italic;">
     1751numerical instabilities.</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
     1752<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
     1753<br> <b>_height</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>2/3 *</i>
     1754<br><span style="font-style: italic;">
    21291755zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
    2130       </td>
    2131       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2132       <p>Height where the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p>
    2133       <p>With Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
     1756</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height
     1757where the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>With
     1758Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
    21341759this parameter determines the range where damping is applied. By
    21351760default, Rayleigh damping will be applied in the upper third of the
    21361761model
    2137 domain.</p>
    2138       </td>
    2139     </tr>
    2140     <tr>
    2141       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2142       <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
    2143       </td>
    2144       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2145       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
    2146       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2147       <p>Largest residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
    2148       </p>
    2149       <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the multi-grid
     1762domain.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
     1763</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1764<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
     1765<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Largest
     1766residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
     1767</p> <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the
     1768multi-grid
    21501769scheme (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
    21511770The assigned cycle (v- or w-cycle, see <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
    2152 is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If this
     1771is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If
     1772this
    21531773is not the case after 1000 cycles, the PALM aborts with a corresponding
    2154 error message.</p>
    2155       <p>The reciprocal value of this parameter can be interpreted as
     1774error message.</p> <p>The reciprocal value of this
     1775parameter can be interpreted as
    21561776a factor by the divergence of the provisional
    21571777velocity field is approximately reduced after the multi-grid scheme has
    21581778been applied (thus the default value causes a reduction of the
    2159 divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p>
    2160       </td>
    2161     </tr>
    2162     <tr>
    2163       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2164       <p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
    2165       </td>
    2166       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2167       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
    2168       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2169       <p>Simulated time after which a restart run is to be carried out
    2170 (in s). </p>
    2171       <p>The simulated time refers to the beginning of the
     1779divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p> </td>
     1780</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1781<p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
     1782</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1783<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
     1784<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Simulated time
     1785after which a restart run is to be carried out
     1786(in s). </p> <p>The simulated time refers to the
     1787beginning of the
    21721788initial run (t = 0), not to the beginning of the respective
    21731789restart run. Restart runs can additionally be forced to be carried out
    2174 in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>.
    2175       </p>
    2176       <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
     1790in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>. </p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
    21771791A successful operation of this parameter requires additional
    21781792modifications in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-call
    21791793for the respective run (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
    2180 3.3</a>).<br>
    2181       </p>
    2182       <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b> or <b>dt_restart</b> does
     17943.3</a>).<br> </p> <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b>
     1795or <b>dt_restart</b> does
    21831796not override the automatic start of restart runs in case that the job
    2184 runs out of CPU time. <br>
    2185       </p>
    2186       </td>
    2187     </tr>
    2188     <tr>
    2189       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2190       <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
    2191       </td>
    2192       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
    2193       </td>
    2194       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
    2195       </td>
    2196       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2197       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font>
    2198       </p>
    2199 
    2200      
    2201      
    2202 
    2203      
    2204       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    2205 horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
     1797runs out of CPU time. <br> </p> </td> </tr>
     1798<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
     1799</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
     1800</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
     1801</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position
     1802of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross
     1803sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output
     1804of
     1805horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
     1806parameter can be used to
    22061807define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
    22071808cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xy</b>
     
    22141815in the NetCDF output file (if the default NetCDF output is switched on;
    22151816see <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
    2216 creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In the
    2217 NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
     1817creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In
     1818the
     1819NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
     1820z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
    22181821does not effect the output of horizontal cross sections of variable u<sub>*</sub>
    2219 and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For these quantities always only one cross
    2220 section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
    2221 = <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>), then the respective data are
     1822and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For
     1823these quantities always only one cross
     1824section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
     1825<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
     1826if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
     1827= <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>),
     1828then the respective data are
    22221829successively written to file. The output order follows the order given
    22231830by <b>section_xy</b>.&nbsp;</font></span></td>
    2224     </tr>
    2225     <tr>
    2226       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2227       <p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
    2228       </td>
    2229       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
    2230       </td>
    2231       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
    2232       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2233       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point index j).&nbsp; </font>
    2234       </p>
    2235 
    2236       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    2237 vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
     1831</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1832<p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
     1833</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
     1834</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
     1835<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
     1836for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point
     1837index j).&nbsp; </font> </p> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1838vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
     1839parameter can be used to
    22381840define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
    2239 cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b> the
     1841cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b>
     1842the
    22401843corresponding horizontal grid point index/indices j of the requested
    22411844cross section(s). The exact position (in y-direction) of the cross
    2242 section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>) no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all positions.<br><br>Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
     1845section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
     1846on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in
     1847the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
     1848default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
     1849no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all
     1850positions.<br><br>Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
    22431851creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along y. In the
    22441852NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
    2245 y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
    2246 selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>, <i>27</i>),
     1853y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
     1854<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
     1855</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
     1856selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>,
     1857<i>27</i>),
    22471858then the respective data are successively written to file. The output
    22481859order follows the order given by <b>section_xz</b>.</font></span></td>
    2249     </tr>
    2250     <tr>
    2251       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2252       <p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
    2253       </td>
    2254       <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
    2255       </td>
    2256       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
    2257       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2258       <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point index i).&nbsp; </font>
    2259       </p>
    2260 
    2261       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
     1860</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1861<p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
     1862</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
     1863</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
     1864<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
     1865for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point
     1866index i).&nbsp; </font> </p> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
    22621867vertical yz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
    22631868this parameter can be used to define the position(s) of the cross
    22641869section(s). Up to 100 positions of cross sections can be selected by
    2265 assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal grid point
     1870assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal
     1871grid point
    22661872index/indices i of the requested cross section(s). The exact position
    2267 (in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a>
    2268       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>) no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all positions.<br><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
     1873(in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
     1874on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in
     1875the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
     1876default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
     1877no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all
     1878positions.<br><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
    22691879creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along x. In the
    2270 NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
    2271 selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>,
    2272       <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
     1880NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
     1881x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
     1882<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
     1883</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
     1884selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
    22731885respective data are successively written to file. The output order
    22741886follows the order given by <b>section_yz</b>.</font></span></td>
    2275     </tr>
    2276     <tr>
    2277       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
    2278       </td>
    2279       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2280       </td>
    2281       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
    2282       </td>
    2283       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2284 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2285 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By default, this
     1887</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
     1888</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1889<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
     1890<td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before
     1891this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1892parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1893this interval
     1894(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By
     1895default, this
    22861896applies for output of instantaneous 3d volume data, cross section data,
    22871897spectra and vertical profile data as well as for temporally averaged 2d
    2288 and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br>
    2289       </td>
    2290     </tr>
    2291     <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2292 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2293 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td></tr><tr>
    2294       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
    2295       </td>
    2296       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2297       </td>
    2298       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
    2299       </td>
    2300       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2301 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2302 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
    2303       </td>
    2304     </tr>
    2305    
    2306     <tr>
    2307       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
    2308       </td>
    2309       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2310       </td>
    2311       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
    2312       </td>
    2313       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2314 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2315 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
    2316       </td>
    2317     </tr>
    2318     <tr>
    2319       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
    2320       </td>
    2321       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2322       </td>
    2323       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
    2324       </td>
    2325       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2326 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2327 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
    2328       </td>
    2329     </tr>
    2330     <tr>
    2331       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
    2332       </td>
    2333       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2334       </td>
    2335       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
    2336       </td>
    2337       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2338 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2339 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
    2340       </td>
    2341     </tr>
    2342     <tr>
    2343       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
    2344       </td>
    2345       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2346       </td>
    2347       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
    2348       </td>
    2349       <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
    2350 parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
    2351 (counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
    2352       </td>
    2353     </tr>
    2354 <tr>
    2355       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2356       <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b> <br>
    2357       <b>_needed</b></p>
    2358       </td>
    2359       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2360       </td>
    2361       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br>
    2362       </td>
    2363       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2364       <p>CPU time needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
    2365 batch mode (in s).<br>
    2366       </p>
    2367       <p>If the environment variable <b>write_binary </b>is
     1898and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1899the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>
     1900= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
     1901and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
     1902= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
     1903then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br> </td>
     1904</tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally
     1905averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1906parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1907this interval
     1908(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1909the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>
     1910= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
     1911and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
     1912= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
     1913then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td></tr><tr>
     1914<td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
     1915</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1916<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
     1917</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
     1918vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1919parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1920this interval
     1921(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1922the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
     1923first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr> <tr>
     1924<td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
     1925</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1926<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
     1927</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
     1928instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has
     1929passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1930parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1931this interval
     1932(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1933the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>
     1934= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
     1935and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
     1936= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
     1937then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
     1938<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
     1939</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1940<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
     1941</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
     1942instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has
     1943passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1944parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1945this interval
     1946(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1947the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
     1948= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
     1949and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
     1950= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
     1951then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
     1952<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
     1953</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1954<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
     1955</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
     1956instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has
     1957passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1958parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1959this interval
     1960(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1961the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>
     1962= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
     1963and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
     1964= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
     1965then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
     1966<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
     1967</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     1968<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
     1969</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
     1970instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
     1971parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
     1972this interval
     1973(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
     1974the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
     1975first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
     1976<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b>
     1977<br> <b>_needed</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br> </td>
     1978<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>CPU time
     1979needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
     1980batch mode (in s).<br> </p> <p>If the environment
     1981variable <b>write_binary </b>is
    23681982set <i>true</i> (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
    2369 3.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after each
     19833.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after
     1984each
    23701985timestep. Time integration must not consume the CPU time completely,
    23711986since several actions still have to be carried out after time
     
    23741989permanent destinations, etc.) which also takes some time. The maximum
    23751990possible time needed for these activities plus a reserve is to be given
    2376 with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among other things,
     1991with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among
     1992other things,
    23771993it depends on
    23781994the number of grid points used. If its value is selected too small,
     
    23801996respective job will be prematurely aborted by the queuing system, which
    23811997may result in a data loss and will possibly interrupt the job chain.<br>
    2382       </p>
    2383       <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span> is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span> and if moreover the job has
    2384 been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b> option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>.
    2385       <i><br>
    2386       </i> </p>
    2387       <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
    2388 On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of PALM
     1998</p> <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment
     1999variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span>
     2000is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span>
     2001and if moreover the job has
     2002been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b>
     2003option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>. <i><br>
     2004</i> </p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
     2005On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of
     2006PALM
    23892007have also to be accounted for (e.g. for
    2390 compilation and copying of input files).</p>
    2391       </td>
    2392     </tr>
    2393     <tr>
    2394       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2395       <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
    2396       <br>
    2397       <b>_parameters</b></p>
    2398       </td>
    2399       <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    2400       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
    2401       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2402       <p>Additional plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> from preceding runs of the
    2403 job chain.&nbsp; </p>
    2404       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>By default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
     2008compilation and copying of input files).</p> </td> </tr>
     2009<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
     2010<br> <b>_parameters</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
     2011<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Additional
     2012plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
     2013from preceding runs of the
     2014job chain.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies
     2015for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     2016= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>By
     2017default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
    24052018(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
    24062019only contain profiles of data produced by the model
    24072020run. If profiles of prior times (i.e. data of preceding jobs of a
    24082021job chain) shall be plotted additionally (e.g. for comparison
    2409 purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>. must be
    2410 set.<br>
    2411       </p>
    2412       <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
    2413 4.5.2</a>.</p>
    2414       </td>
    2415     </tr>
    2416    
    2417     <tr>
    2418       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2419       <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
    2420       </td>
    2421       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2422       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model top)</i></td>
    2423       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2424       <p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
     2022purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>.
     2023must be
     2024set.<br> </p> <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
     20254.5.2</a>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
     2026</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2027<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model
     2028top)</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2029<p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
    24252030be
    2426 plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (in
    2427 m).&nbsp; </p>
    2428       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
     2031plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
     2032(in
     2033m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
     2034&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     2035= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
     2036affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
    24292037(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
    24302038when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
    24312039By default, profiles are plotted up to the top boundary. The height
    2432 level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller value.
    2433 Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> vertical
     2040level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller
     2041value.
     2042Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
     2043vertical
    24342044grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are still output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.</p>
    2435       <p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
     2045<p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
    24362046has no effect. Instead, <a href="#z_max_do1d_normalized">z_max_do1d_normalized</a>
    2437 must be used.</p>
    2438       </td>
    2439     </tr>
    2440     <tr>
    2441       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2442       <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b> <br>
    2443       <b>_normalized</b></p>
    2444       </td>
    2445       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2446       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i> <br>
    2447       <i>data</i> <br>
    2448       </td>
    2449       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2450       <p>Normalized height level up to which horizontally averaged
     2047must be used.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b>
     2048<br> <b>_normalized</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i>
     2049<br> <i>data</i> <br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Normalized height
     2050level up to which horizontally averaged
    24512051profiles are to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
    2452       </p>
    2453       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
     2052</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     2053= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
     2054affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
    24542055(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
    24552056when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>,
     
    24572058(see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>).
    24582059If e.g. the boundary layer height is used for normalization, then <b>z_max_do1d_normalized</b>
    2459 = <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height level of z =
    2460 1.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p>
    2461       </td>
    2462     </tr>
    2463     <tr>
    2464       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2465       <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
    2466       </td>
    2467       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
    2468       </td>
    2469       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br>
    2470       </td>
    2471       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2472       <p>Height level up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
     2060= <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height
     2061level of z =
     20621.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p> </td> </tr>
     2063<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
     2064</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
     2065<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br> </td>
     2066<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height level
     2067up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
    24732068with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
    2474 (in m).&nbsp; </p>
    2475       <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
     2069(in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
     2070&nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
     2071= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p><p>It
     2072affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
    24762073sections (<a href="#data_output">data_output</a>)
    2477 when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>. By
    2478 default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d </b>the
     2074when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.
     2075By
     2076default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d
     2077</b>the
    24792078visualization within
    2480 the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z &lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
    2481 Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> grid points
     2079the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z
     2080&lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
     2081Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
     2082grid points
    24822083of the complete cross section are still output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>
    24832084or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
     
    24882089(the respective <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>-parameter
    24892090is <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html#YRIGHT">yright</a>).</p>
    2490       </td>
    2491     </tr>
    2492   </tbody>
    2493 </table>
    2494 <br>
    2495 <br>
    2496 <h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Paketparameter"></a>Package
     2091</td> </tr> </tbody>
     2092</table><br>
     2093<br><h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Paketparameter"></a>Package
    24972094parameters: </h3>
    2498 Package (<span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span> option -p): <span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="particles_package"></a>particles</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     2095Package (<span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
     2096option -p): <span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="particles_package"></a>particles</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    24992097NAMELIST group name: <span style="font-weight: bold;">particles_par<br>
    2500 </span>
    2501 <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
    2502   <tbody>
    2503     <tr>
    2504       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
    2505       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
    2506       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2507       <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
    2508       <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
    2509       </td>
    2510       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2511       <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
    2512       </td>
    2513     </tr>
    2514     <tr>
    2515       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2516       <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
    2517       </td>
    2518       <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    2519       <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
    2520       <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    2521       <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
     2098</span><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody>
     2099<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
     2100<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
     2101<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br> <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p> </td>
     2102<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
     2103</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
     2104</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2105<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
     2106<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
    25222107interval at
    2523 which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from a particle
    2524 source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp; </font> </p>
    2525       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
     2108which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from
     2109a particle
     2110source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp;
     2111</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
    25262112particles are released only at the beginning of a simulation
    25272113(t_init=0). The time of the first release (t_init) can be changed with
    25282114package parameter </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><font><a href="#particle_advection_start"><font face="Thorndale, serif">particle_advection_start</font></a>.
    2529       </font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>. If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span> has been set, additional
     2115</font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be
     2116set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>.
     2117If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>
     2118has been set, additional
    25302119releases will be at t = t_init+<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
    2531 t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>, t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>, etc.. Actual release times
    2532 may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
    2533       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
    2534 of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source
    2535       </font></span>as well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
    2536 within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
    2537       <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By default, one particle is released at all points defined by these parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a> can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
    2538 </font></span></p>
    2539       <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
    2540 different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">) where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
    2541 to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
     2120t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
     2121t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
     2122etc.. Actual release times
     2123may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see
     2124e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
     2125<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
     2126of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source </font></span>as
     2127well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
     2128within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package
     2129parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
     2130<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
     2131</font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By
     2132default, one particle is released at all points defined by these
     2133parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a>
     2134can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
     2135</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
     2136different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)
     2137where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
     2138to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other
     2139particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
    25422140identical for all groups of particles.</font></span></p>Subgrid
    25432141scale velocities can (optionally) be included for calculating the
    25442142particle advection, using the method of Weil et al. (2004, JAS, 61,