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Timestamp:
Jun 24, 2009 2:12:22 PM (13 years ago)
Author:
maronga
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documentation update for the coupling

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  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_3.8.html

    r197 r344  
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    26 <h3 style="line-height: 100%;">3.8 Coupled model runs</h3>
    27 
    28 <p style="line-height: 100%;">Starting from version 3.4
    29 PALM allows coupled atmosphere-ocean model runs. By analogy with the
    30 modular structure of PALM, <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
    31 starts the coupled model as two concurrent executables, the atmosphere
    32 version and&nbsp;the ocean version of PALM.</p>
    33 
    34 <p style="line-height: 100%;">Currently, the coupler
    35 is at an experimental stage using a simple MPI2 intercommunicator that
    36 matches the atmosphere and ocean processors one-to-one. This approach
    37 has&nbsp;limited flexibility and performance, because it requires
    38 identical horizontal numerical grids and it uses the same number of
    39 atmosphere and ocean processors, which does not necessarily guarrantee
    40 a good load balancing.</p>
    41 
    42 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The coupler establishes a
    43 one-way interaction between the
    44 atmosphere and the ocean. The atmosphere sends its bottom surface
    45 fluxes
    46 (temperature, humidity, momentum) to the ocean. The ocean sends its top
    47 surface temperature to the atmosphere. The atmosphere assumes
    48 saturation of humidity and zero wind speed at its bottom surface. For
    49 calculations with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a>
    50 = .T. the atmospheric evaporation leads to a salinity flux in the ocean
    51 (see e.g. Steinhorn 1991, JPO 21, p. 1681).</p>
    52 
    53 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The full MPI-2
    54 standard must be available in order to use the coupling, and it must be
    55 activated by adding the preprocessor directive <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-D__mpi2</font></tt>
    56 to <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">cpp_options</font></tt>
    57 in the .mrun.config configuration file. (Note: MPI-2 is
    58 not available for the IBM-Regatta systems.) To start a
    59 coupled&nbsp;model run,
    60 this must be requested with the <b>mrun</b> option <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-Y</font>.</tt>
    61 This tells <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
    62 to start two PALM executables. Coupled runs are only possible in
    63 parallel mode, which means that the <b>mrun</b> option <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-K parallel</font></tt>
    64 must also be set.&nbsp;The <b>mrun</b> call
    65 for coupled runs has to include the following coupling-related options:
    66 </p>
    67 
    68 <ul>
    69 
    70   <p style="line-height: 100%;"><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">mrun </font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">...</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> -K parallel -r
    71 &ldquo;d3# d3o# </font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">...</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">&rdquo;</font></tt><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> </font></tt><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-X </font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">...</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> -Y</font></tt><tt>.</tt></p>
    72 
    73 </ul>
    74 
    75 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The <tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-X </font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">...</font><tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">&nbsp;</font></tt>option
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     21<H3 STYLE="line-height: 100%">3.8 Coupled model runs</H3>
     22<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">Starting from version 3.4 PALM allows
     23coupled atmosphere-ocean model runs. By analogy with the modular
     24structure of PALM, <B>mrun</B> starts the coupled model as two
     25concurrent executables, the atmosphere version and&nbsp;the ocean
     26version of PALM.</P>
     27<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">Currently, the coupler is at an
     28experimental stage using either a MPI2 (more flexible) or a MPI1
     29intercommunicator that matches the atmosphere and ocean processors
     30one-to-one. This approach has&nbsp;limited flexibility and
     31performance, because it requires identical horizontal numerical grids
     32and it uses the same number of atmosphere and ocean processors, which
     33does not necessarily guarrantee a good load balancing.</P>
     34<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">The coupler establishes a one-way
     35interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean. The atmosphere
     36sends its bottom surface fluxes (temperature, humidity, momentum) to
     37the ocean. The ocean sends its top surface temperature to the
     38atmosphere. The atmosphere assumes saturation of humidity and zero
     39wind speed at its bottom surface. For calculations with <A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</A>
     40= .T. the atmospheric evaporation leads to a salinity flux in the
     41ocean (see e.g. Steinhorn 1991, JPO 21, p. 1681).</P>
     42<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">If the full MPI-2 standard is available,
     43it can be activated by adding the preprocessor directive <TT><FONT SIZE=2>-D__mpi2</FONT></TT>
     44to <TT><FONT SIZE=2>cpp_options</FONT></TT> in the .mrun.config
     45configuration file. Otherwise, PALM will use a coupling via MPI1. To
     46start a coupled&nbsp;model run, this must be requested with the <B>mrun</B>
     47option <TT><FONT SIZE=2>-Y “#1 #2”</FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>,
     48where </FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Andale Mono"><FONT SIZE=2>#1</FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>
     49is the number of processors for the atmospheric and </FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Andale Mono"><FONT SIZE=2>#2</FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>
     50the number of processors for the oceanic version of PALM (Please note
     51that currently only one-to-one topologies are supported and </FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Andale Mono"><FONT SIZE=2>#1</FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>
     52must be equal to </FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Andale Mono"><FONT SIZE=2>#2</FONT></FONT></TT><TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>).
     53</FONT></FONT></TT><FONT FACE="Times New Roman, serif"><FONT SIZE=3>Thi</FONT></FONT>s
     54tells <B>mrun</B> to start two PALM executables. Coupled runs are
     55only possible in parallel mode, which means that the <B>mrun</B>
     56option <TT><FONT SIZE=2>-K parallel</FONT></TT> must also be set.&nbsp;The
     57<B>mrun</B> call for coupled runs has to include the following
     58coupling-related options:
     59</P>
     60<UL>
     61        <P STYLE="line-height: 100%"><TT><FONT SIZE=2>mrun </FONT></TT><FONT SIZE=2>...</FONT><TT>
     62        </TT><TT><FONT SIZE=2>-K parallel -r “d3# d3o# </FONT></TT><FONT SIZE=2>...</FONT><TT>”
     63        </TT><TT><FONT SIZE=2>-X </FONT></TT><FONT SIZE=2>...</FONT><TT> </TT><TT><FONT SIZE=2>-Y
     64        “#1 #2”</FONT></TT><TT>.</TT></P>
     65</UL>
     66<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">The <TT><FONT SIZE=2>-X </FONT></TT><FONT SIZE=2>...</FONT><TT>&nbsp;</TT>option
    7667here specifies the total number of processors assigned to the coupled
    77 model. Currently, half of them are assigned to each of the two coupled
    78 executables. Therefore it is advisable to specify an even number
    79 with&nbsp;<tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">-X </font></tt><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">...</font><tt>
    80 </tt>. Otherwise, in case of an odd total number of processors,
    81 one processor remains idle.</p>
    82 
    83 <p style="line-height: 100%;">Each coupled executable has
    84 its own, unique set of I/O filenames; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#coupled">chapter 3.4</a> gives
    85 information on file name conventions of coupled runs. The configuration
    86 file .mrun.config has to be extended for coupled runs. It is
    87 recommended to duplicate existing file connection identifiers such as
    88 "d3#", "pr#" etc. using the coupled ocean filenames accordingly. For
    89 example,&nbsp;the example of the previous chapters could be
    90 duplicated as follows:</p>
    91 
    92 <pre style="line-height: 100%;"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> in:job:npe d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT _p3d</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN in:job:npe d3f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT _p3df</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">BININ</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> in:loc d3f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _d3d</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">#</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">BINOUT</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc restart ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _d3d<br>#</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">RUN_CONTROL</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING _rc</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">HEADER</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING _header</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PLOT1D_PAR</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr pr# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _pr_par</font><br><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PLOT1D_DATA</font></a><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr pr# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _pr_in<br>#<br></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> in:job:npe d3<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">p3d</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN<span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> in:job:npe d3<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">p3df</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">BININ</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> in:loc d3<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">d3d</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">#</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">BINOUT</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> out:loc restart ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">d3d</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">#</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">RUN_CONTROL<span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr d3<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">rc</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">HEADER</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> out:loc:tr d3<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">header</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PLOT1D_PAR<span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"> out:loc:tr pr<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">pr_par</font><br><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PLOT1D_DATA</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">_O</span> out:loc:tr pr<span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT <span style="font-weight: bold;">_</span></font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;">o</span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">pr_in</font><br></pre>
    93 
    94 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The coupled ocean model
    95 filenames in the first column (e.g.<font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"> </span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN">PARIN_O</a></font>)&nbsp;must
    96 be specified as given in <a href="chapter_3.4.html#coupled">chapter
    97 3.4</a>; the file connection identifiers (e.g.&nbsp; <font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">d3o#</font>)
    98 and the file name extension (e.g. &nbsp;<font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span></span>_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">o_</font><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">p3d</font>)
    99 may be changed at the user's discretion.</p>
    100 
    101 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The coupler requires the
    102 following parameters to be equal in both <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
    103 and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>:
    104 <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx">dx</a>, <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy">dy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nx">nx</a>, <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ny">ny</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#end_time">end_time</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#restart_time">restart_time</a>,
    105 <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>.
    106 In the coupled atmosphere executable,&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_pt_b">bc_pt_b</a> is
    107 internally set and does not need to be prescribed; in the coupled ocean
    108 executable, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_uv_t">bc_uv_t</a>&nbsp;is
     68model. Currently, half of them are assigned to each of the two
     69coupled executables. Therefore it is advisable to specify an even
     70number with&nbsp;<TT><FONT SIZE=2>-X </FONT></TT><FONT SIZE=2>...</FONT><TT>
     71</TT>. Otherwise, in case of an odd total number of processors, one
     72processor remains idle.</P>
     73<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">Each coupled executable has its own,
     74unique set of I/O filenames; <A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#coupled">chapter
     753.4</A> gives information on file name conventions of coupled runs.
     76The configuration file .mrun.config has to be extended for coupled
     77runs. It is recommended to duplicate existing file connection
     78identifiers such as &quot;d3#&quot;, &quot;pr#&quot; etc. using the
     79coupled ocean filenames accordingly. For example,&nbsp;the example of
     80the previous chapters could be duplicated as follows:</P>
     81<PRE STYLE="line-height: 100%"><A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><FONT SIZE=2>PARIN</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>in:job:npe d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT _p3d</FONT>
     82<FONT SIZE=2>PARIN in:job:npe d3f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT _p3df</FONT>
     83<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#BININ"><FONT SIZE=2>BININ</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>in:loc d3f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _d3d</FONT>
     84<FONT SIZE=2>#</FONT>
     85<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT"><FONT SIZE=2>BINOUT</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc restart ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _d3d</FONT>
     86<FONT SIZE=2>#</FONT>
     87<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><FONT SIZE=2>RUN_CONTROL</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING _rc</FONT>
     88<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER"><FONT SIZE=2>HEADER</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr d3# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING _header</FONT>
     89<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR"><FONT SIZE=2>PLOT1D_PAR</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr pr# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _pr_par</FONT>
     90<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><FONT SIZE=2>PLOT1D_DATA</FONT></A> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr pr# ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT _pr_in</FONT>
     91<FONT SIZE=2>#</FONT>
     92<FONT SIZE=2>PARIN</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> in:job:npe d3</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_p3d</FONT>
     93<FONT SIZE=2>PARIN</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> in:job:npe d3</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/INPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_p3df</FONT>
     94<FONT SIZE=2>BININ</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> in:loc d3</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>f ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_d3d</FONT>
     95<FONT SIZE=2>#</FONT>
     96<FONT SIZE=2>BINOUT</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> out:loc restart ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_d3d</FONT>
     97<FONT SIZE=2>#</FONT>
     98<FONT SIZE=2>RUN_CONTROL</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr d3</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_rc</FONT>
     99<FONT SIZE=2>HEADER</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> out:loc:tr d3</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/MONITORING </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_header</FONT>
     100<FONT SIZE=2>PLOT1D_PAR</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT> <FONT SIZE=2>out:loc:tr pr</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_pr_par</FONT>
     101<FONT SIZE=2>PLOT1D_DATA</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_O</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2> out:loc:tr pr</FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2># ~/palm/current_version/JOBS/$fname/OUTPUT </FONT><FONT SIZE=2><B>_o</B></FONT><FONT SIZE=2>_pr_in</FONT></PRE><P STYLE="line-height: 100%">
     102The coupled ocean model filenames in the first column (e.g.
     103<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><FONT SIZE=2>PARIN_O</FONT></A>)&nbsp;must
     104be specified as given in <A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#coupled">chapter
     1053.4</A>; the file connection identifiers (e.g.&nbsp; <FONT SIZE=2>d3o#</FONT>)
     106and the file name extension (e.g. &nbsp;<FONT SIZE=2>_o_p3d</FONT>)
     107may be changed at the user's discretion.</P>
     108<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">The coupler requires the following
     109parameters to be equal in both <A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><FONT SIZE=2>PARIN</FONT></A>
     110and&nbsp;<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><FONT SIZE=2>PARIN_O</FONT></A>:
     111<A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#dx">dx</A>, <A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#dy">dy</A>,
     112<A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#nx">nx</A>, <A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#ny">ny</A>,
     113<A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</A>, <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#end_time">end_time</A>,
     114<A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#restart_time">restart_time</A>, <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#dt_restart">dt_restart</A>.
     115In the coupled atmosphere executable,&nbsp;<A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#bc_pt_b">bc_pt_b</A>
     116is internally set and does not need to be prescribed; in the coupled
     117ocean executable, <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#bc_uv_t">bc_uv_t</A>&nbsp;is
    109118internally set ('neumann') and does not need to be prescribed. The
    110 coupled ocean parameter file&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>
    111 should include dummy REAL value assignments to both <a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_momentumflux_u">top_momentumflux_u</a>
    112 and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_momentumflux_v">top_momentumflux_v</a>
     119coupled ocean parameter file&nbsp;<A HREF="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><FONT SIZE=2>PARIN_O</FONT></A>
     120should include dummy REAL value assignments to both
     121<A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#top_momentumflux_u">top_momentumflux_u</A>
     122and&nbsp;<A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#top_momentumflux_v">top_momentumflux_v</A>
    113123(e.g.&nbsp;top_momentumflux_u = 0.0, top_momentumflux_v = 0.0) to
    114 enable the momentum flux coupling.</p>
    115 
    116 <p style="line-height: 100%;">The coupling interval <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</a>
     124enable the momentum flux coupling.</P>
     125<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">The coupling interval <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</A>
    117126must be explicity set. In order to ensure synchronous coupling
    118 throughout the simulation, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</a>
    119 should be chosen larger than
    120 <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</p>
    121 
    122 <hr>
    123 <p style="line-height: 100%;"><br>
    124 
    125 <font color="#000080"><font color="#000080"><a href="chapter_3.7.html"><font color="#000080"><img style="border: 2px solid ; width: 32px; height: 32px;" alt="" src="left.gif" name="Grafik1"></font></a><a href="index.html"><font color="#000080"><img src="up.gif" name="Grafik2" align="bottom" border="2" height="32" width="32"></font></a><a href="chapter_3.9.html"><font color="#000080"><img style="border: 2px solid ; width: 32px; height: 32px;" alt="" src="right.gif" name="Grafik3"></font></a></font></font></p>
    126 
    127 <p style="line-height: 100%;"><i>Last
    128 change:&nbsp;</i> $Id$</p>
    129 
    130 </body></html>
     127throughout the simulation, <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#dt_coupling">dt_coupling</A>
     128should be chosen larger than <A HREF="chapter_4.2.html#dt_max">dt_max</A>.</P>
     129<P STYLE="line-height: 100%">It's also possible to perform precursor
     130runs (one atmospheric and one oceanic) followed by a coupled restart
     131run. In order to achieve this, the parameter <A HREF="chapter_4.1.html#coupling_start_time">coupling_time_start</A>
     132must be set according to the <A HREF="../misc/precursor_run_control.pdf">documentation.</A></P>
     133<HR>
     134<P STYLE="line-height: 100%"><BR><FONT COLOR="#000080"><A HREF="chapter_3.7.html"><FONT COLOR="#000000"><IMG SRC="left.gif" NAME="Grafik1" ALIGN=BOTTOM WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=32 BORDER=1></FONT></A><A HREF="index.html"><FONT COLOR="#000080"><IMG SRC="up.gif" NAME="Grafik2" ALIGN=BOTTOM WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=32 BORDER=1></FONT></A><A HREF="chapter_3.9.html"><FONT COLOR="#000000"><IMG SRC="right.gif" NAME="Grafik3" ALIGN=BOTTOM WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=32 BORDER=1></FONT></A></FONT></P>
     135<P STYLE="line-height: 100%"><I>Last change:&nbsp;</I> $Id:
     136chapter_3.8.html 197 2008-09-16 15:29:03Z raasch $</P>
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