Ignore:
Timestamp:
Aug 24, 2007 3:10:38 PM (15 years ago)
Author:
letzel
Message:
  • Improved coupler: evaporation - salinity-flux coupling for humidity = .T.,

avoid MPI hangs when coupled runs terminate, add DOC/app/chapter_3.8;

  • Optional calculation of km and kh from initial TKE e_init;
  • Default initialization of km,kh = 0.00001 for ocean = .T.;
  • Allow data_output_pr= q, wq, w"q", w*q* for humidity = .T.;
  • Bugfix: Rayleigh damping for ocean fixed.
File:
1 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.1.html

    r103 r108  
    11<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
    2 <html><head>
    3 <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>PALM chapter 4.1</title></head>
    4 <body><h3><a name="chapter4.1"></a>4.1
     2<html>
     3<head>
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8 
     9 
     10 
     11  <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
     12
     13
     14
     15 
     16 
     17 
     18  <title>PALM chapter 4.1</title>
     19</head>
     20
     21
     22<body>
     23
     24
     25
     26<h3><a name="chapter4.1"></a>4.1
    527Initialization parameters</h3>
    6 <br><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody>
    7 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
    8 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
    9 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br> <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p> </td>
    10 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
    11 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    12 <p><a name="adjust_mixing_length"></a><b>adjust_mixing_length</b></p>
    13 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    14 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Near-surface adjustment of the
    15 mixing length to the Prandtl-layer law.&nbsp; </p> <p>Usually
     28
     29
     30
     31
     32<br>
     33
     34
     35
     36<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
     37
     38
     39
     40 <tbody>
     41
     42
     43
     44
     45    <tr>
     46
     47
     48
     49 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
     50
     51
     52
     53
     54      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
     55
     56
     57
     58
     59      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     60     
     61     
     62     
     63      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
     64
     65
     66
     67 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
     68
     69
     70
     71 </td>
     72
     73
     74
     75
     76      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
     77
     78
     79
     80
     81    </tr>
     82
     83
     84
     85 <tr>
     86
     87
     88
     89 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     90     
     91     
     92     
     93      <p><a name="adjust_mixing_length"></a><b>adjust_mixing_length</b></p>
     94
     95
     96
     97
     98      </td>
     99
     100
     101
     102 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     103
     104
     105
     106
     107      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
     108
     109
     110
     111 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     112     
     113     
     114     
     115      <p style="font-style: normal;">Near-surface adjustment of the
     116mixing length to the Prandtl-layer law.&nbsp; </p>
     117
     118
     119
     120 
     121     
     122     
     123     
     124      <p>Usually
    16125the mixing length in LES models l<sub>LES</sub>
    17126depends (as in PALM) on the grid size and is possibly restricted
     
    25134mixing length at
    26135the bottom boundary and considers the fact that eddy sizes
    27 decrease in the vicinity of the wall.&nbsp; </p> <p style="font-style: normal;"><b>Warning:</b> So
     136decrease in the vicinity of the wall.&nbsp; </p>
     137
     138
     139
     140 
     141     
     142     
     143     
     144      <p style="font-style: normal;"><b>Warning:</b> So
    28145far, there is
    29146no good experience with <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> !&nbsp; </p>
    30 <p>With <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> and the
     147
     148
     149
     150
     151     
     152     
     153     
     154      <p>With <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> and the
    31155Prandtl-layer being
    32156switched on (see <a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
    33 <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*)** 2+neumann'</span>
     157      <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*)** 2+neumann'</span>
    34158should always be set as the lower boundary condition for the TKE (see <a href="#bc_e_b">bc_e_b</a>),
    35159otherwise the near-surface value of the TKE is not in agreement with
     
    37161should provide the same value for K<sub>m</sub>). A warning
    38162is given,
    39 if this is not the case.</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
    40 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="alpha_surface"></a><b>alpha_surface</b></p>
    41 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
    42 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
    43 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Inclination of the model domain
    44 with respect to the horizontal (in degrees).&nbsp; </p> <p style="font-style: normal;">By means of <b>alpha_surface</b>
     163if this is not the case.</p>
     164
     165
     166
     167 </td>
     168
     169
     170
     171 </tr>
     172
     173
     174
     175 <tr>
     176
     177
     178
     179
     180      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     181     
     182     
     183     
     184      <p><a name="alpha_surface"></a><b>alpha_surface</b></p>
     185
     186
     187
     188
     189      </td>
     190
     191
     192
     193 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
     194
     195
     196
     197 </td>
     198
     199
     200
     201
     202      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
     203
     204
     205
     206 </td>
     207
     208
     209
     210
     211      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     212     
     213     
     214     
     215      <p style="font-style: normal;">Inclination of the model domain
     216with respect to the horizontal (in degrees).&nbsp; </p>
     217
     218
     219
     220 
     221     
     222     
     223     
     224      <p style="font-style: normal;">By means of <b>alpha_surface</b>
    45225the model domain can be inclined in x-direction with respect to the
    46226horizontal. In this way flows over inclined surfaces (e.g. drainage
    47227flows, gravity flows) can be simulated. In case of <b>alpha_surface
    48 </b>/= <span style="font-style: italic;">0</span>
     228      </b>/= <span style="font-style: italic;">0</span>
    49229the buoyancy term
    50230appears both in
    51231the equation of motion of the u-component and of the w-component.<br>
    52 </p> <p style="font-style: normal;">An inclination
     232
     233
     234
     235
     236      </p>
     237
     238
     239
     240 
     241     
     242     
     243     
     244      <p style="font-style: normal;">An inclination
    53245is only possible in
    54246case of cyclic horizontal boundary conditions along x AND y (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    55247and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) and <a href="#topography">topography</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'flat'</span>. </p>
    56 <p>Runs with inclined surface still require additional
     248
     249
     250
     251
     252     
     253     
     254     
     255      <p>Runs with inclined surface still require additional
    57256user-defined code as well as modifications to the default code. Please
    58257ask the <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PALM_group.html#0">PALM
    59 developer&nbsp; group</a>.</p> </td> </tr>
    60 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_e_b"></a><b>bc_e_b</b></p> </td>
    61 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
    62 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    63 TKE.&nbsp; </p> <p><b>bc_e_b</b> may be
     258developer&nbsp; group</a>.</p>
     259
     260
     261
     262 </td>
     263
     264
     265
     266 </tr>
     267
     268
     269
     270
     271    <tr>
     272
     273
     274
     275 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     276     
     277     
     278     
     279      <p><a name="bc_e_b"></a><b>bc_e_b</b></p>
     280
     281
     282
     283 </td>
     284
     285
     286
     287
     288      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     289
     290
     291
     292 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
     293
     294
     295
     296
     297      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     298     
     299     
     300     
     301      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     302TKE.&nbsp; </p>
     303
     304
     305
     306 
     307     
     308     
     309     
     310      <p><b>bc_e_b</b> may be
    64311set to&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    65312or <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*) ** 2+neumann'</span>.
    66 <b>bc_e_b</b>
     313      <b>bc_e_b</b>
    67314= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    68315yields to
     
    76323is reset
    77324to <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.&nbsp;
    78 </p> <p style="font-style: normal;">At the top
     325      </p>
     326
     327
     328
     329 
     330     
     331     
     332     
     333      <p style="font-style: normal;">At the top
    79334boundary a Neumann
    80 boundary condition is generally used: (e(nz+1) = e(nz)).</p> </td>
    81 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    82 <p><a name="bc_lr"></a><b>bc_lr</b></p>
    83 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    84 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
    85 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
    86 condition along x (for all quantities).<br> <br>
    87 By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along x.<br> <br>
    88 <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_lr</span> may
     335boundary condition is generally used: (e(nz+1) = e(nz)).</p>
     336
     337
     338
     339 </td>
     340
     341
     342
     343
     344    </tr>
     345
     346
     347
     348 <tr>
     349
     350
     351
     352 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     353     
     354     
     355     
     356      <p><a name="bc_lr"></a><b>bc_lr</b></p>
     357
     358
     359
     360
     361      </td>
     362
     363
     364
     365 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     366
     367
     368
     369
     370      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
     371
     372
     373
     374
     375      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
     376condition along x (for all quantities).<br>
     377
     378
     379
     380 <br>
     381
     382
     383
     384
     385By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along x.<br>
     386
     387
     388
     389 <br>
     390
     391
     392
     393
     394      <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_lr</span> may
    89395also be
    90396assigned the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet/radiation'</span>
     
    93399right, outflow to the left). This requires the multi-grid method to be
    94400used for solving the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
    95 and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along y (see&nbsp;<a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).<br> <br>
     401and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along y (see&nbsp;<a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).<br>
     402
     403
     404
     405 <br>
     406
     407
     408
     409
    96410In case of these non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a Dirichlet condition
    97411is used at the inflow for all quantities (initial vertical profiles -
     
    101415gradient) condition is used for the scalars. For perturbation
    102416pressure Neumann (zero gradient) conditions are assumed both at the
    103 inflow and at the outflow.<br> <br>
     417inflow and at the outflow.<br>
     418
     419
     420
     421 <br>
     422
     423
     424
     425
    104426When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a filter is applied to the
    105427velocity field in the vicinity of the outflow in order to suppress any
    106428reflections of outgoing disturbances (see <a href="#km_damp_max">km_damp_max</a>
    107429and <a href="#outflow_damping_width">outflow_damping_width</a>).<br>
    108 <br>
     430
     431
     432
     433
     434      <br>
     435
     436
     437
     438
    109439In order to maintain a turbulent state of the flow, it may be
    110440neccessary to continuously impose perturbations on the horizontal
     
    115445and <a href="#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
    116446The vertical range and the perturbation amplitude are given by <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_level_b</a>,
    117 <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_level_t</a>,
     447      <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_level_t</a>,
    118448and <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
    119449The time interval at which perturbations are to be imposed is set by <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>.<br>
    120 <br>
     450
     451
     452
     453
     454      <br>
     455
     456
     457
     458
    121459In case of non-cyclic horizontal boundaries <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
    122 at_all_substeps</a> = .T. should be used.<br> <br> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
     460at_all_substeps</a> = .T. should be used.<br>
     461
     462
     463
     464 <br>
     465
     466
     467
     468 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
     469
     470
     471
     472
    123473Using non-cyclic lateral boundaries requires very sensitive adjustments
    124474of the inflow (vertical profiles) and the bottom boundary conditions,
    125475e.g. a surface heating should not be applied near the inflow boundary
    126476because this may significantly disturb the inflow. Please check the
    127 model results very carefully.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_ns"></a><b>bc_ns</b></p>
    128 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    129 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
    130 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
    131 condition along y (for all quantities).<br> <br>
    132 By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along y.<br> <br>
    133 <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_ns</span> may
     477model results very carefully.</td>
     478
     479
     480
     481 </tr>
     482
     483
     484
     485 <tr>
     486
     487
     488
     489 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     490     
     491     
     492     
     493      <p><a name="bc_ns"></a><b>bc_ns</b></p>
     494
     495
     496
     497
     498      </td>
     499
     500
     501
     502 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     503
     504
     505
     506
     507      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
     508
     509
     510
     511
     512      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
     513condition along y (for all quantities).<br>
     514
     515
     516
     517 <br>
     518
     519
     520
     521
     522By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along y.<br>
     523
     524
     525
     526 <br>
     527
     528
     529
     530
     531      <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_ns</span> may
    134532also be
    135533assigned the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet/radiation'</span>
     
    139537method to be used for solving the Poisson equation for perturbation
    140538pressure (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
    141 and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along x (see<br> <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).<br> <br>
     539and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along x (see<br>
     540
     541
     542
     543 <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).<br>
     544
     545
     546
     547 <br>
     548
     549
     550
     551
    142552In case of these non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a Dirichlet condition
    143553is used at the inflow for all quantities (initial vertical profiles -
     
    147557gradient) condition is used for the scalars. For perturbation
    148558pressure Neumann (zero gradient) conditions are assumed both at the
    149 inflow and at the outflow.<br> <br>
     559inflow and at the outflow.<br>
     560
     561
     562
     563 <br>
     564
     565
     566
     567
    150568For further details regarding non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions
    151 see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>.</td> </tr>
    152 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_p_b"></a><b>bc_p_b</b></p> </td>
    153 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
    154 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    155 perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed values
     569see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>.</td>
     570
     571
     572
     573 </tr>
     574
     575
     576
     577
     578    <tr>
     579
     580
     581
     582 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     583     
     584     
     585     
     586      <p><a name="bc_p_b"></a><b>bc_p_b</b></p>
     587
     588
     589
     590 </td>
     591
     592
     593
     594
     595      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     596
     597
     598
     599 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
     600
     601
     602
     603
     604      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     605     
     606     
     607     
     608      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     609perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
     610
     611
     612
     613 
     614     
     615     
     616     
     617      <p>Allowed values
    156618are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>,
    157 <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     619      <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    158620and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann+inhomo'</span>.&nbsp;
    159 <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
     621      <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    160622sets
    161623p(k=0)=0.0,&nbsp; <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     
    1686301209)). This condition is only permitted with the Prandtl-layer
    169631switched on (<a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>),
    170 otherwise the run is terminated.&nbsp; </p> <p>Since
     632otherwise the run is terminated.&nbsp; </p>
     633
     634
     635
     636 
     637     
     638     
     639     
     640      <p>Since
    171641at the bottom boundary of the model the vertical
    172642velocity
     
    177647conditions both at the bottom and at the top boundary (<a href="#bc_p_t">bc_p_t</a>)
    178648usually yields no consistent solution for the perturbation pressure and
    179 should be avoided.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_p_t"></a><b>bc_p_t</b></p>
    180 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    181 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    182 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    183 perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p> <p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
     649should be avoided.</p>
     650
     651
     652
     653 </td>
     654
     655
     656
     657 </tr>
     658
     659
     660
     661 <tr>
     662
     663
     664
     665 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     666     
     667     
     668     
     669      <p><a name="bc_p_t"></a><b>bc_p_t</b></p>
     670
     671
     672
     673
     674      </td>
     675
     676
     677
     678 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     679
     680
     681
     682
     683      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     684
     685
     686
     687
     688      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     689     
     690     
     691     
     692      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
     693perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
     694
     695
     696
     697 
     698     
     699     
     700     
     701      <p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    184702(p(k=nz+1)= 0.0) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    185 (p(k=nz+1)=p(k=nz)).&nbsp; </p> <p>Simultaneous use
     703(p(k=nz+1)=p(k=nz)).&nbsp; </p>
     704
     705
     706
     707 
     708     
     709     
     710     
     711      <p>Simultaneous use
    186712of Neumann boundary conditions both at the
    187713top and bottom boundary (<a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>)
     
    189715should be avoided. Since at the bottom boundary the Neumann
    190716condition&nbsp; is a good choice (see <a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>),
    191 a Dirichlet condition should be set at the top boundary.</p> </td>
    192 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    193 <p><a name="bc_pt_b"></a><b>bc_pt_b</b></p>
    194 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20</td>
    195 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    196 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    197 potential temperature.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed values
     717a Dirichlet condition should be set at the top boundary.</p>
     718
     719
     720
     721 </td>
     722
     723
     724
     725
     726    </tr>
     727
     728
     729
     730 <tr>
     731
     732
     733
     734 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     735     
     736     
     737     
     738      <p><a name="bc_pt_b"></a><b>bc_pt_b</b></p>
     739
     740
     741
     742
     743      </td>
     744
     745
     746
     747 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20</td>
     748
     749
     750
     751
     752      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     753
     754
     755
     756
     757      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     758     
     759     
     760     
     761      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     762potential temperature.&nbsp; </p>
     763
     764
     765
     766 
     767     
     768     
     769     
     770      <p>Allowed values
    198771are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    199772(pt(k=0) = const. = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>
     
    202775and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    203776(pt(k=0)=pt(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
     777
     778
     779
     780
    204781When a constant surface sensible heat flux is used (<a href="#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>), <b>bc_pt_b</b>
    205782= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    206783must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
    207784the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
    208 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pc_pt_t"></a><b>bc_pt_t</b></p>
    209 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    210 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'initial_ gradient'</span></td>
    211 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    212 potential temperature.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed are the
     785
     786
     787
     788     
     789     
     790     
     791      <p>In the <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled</a> atmosphere executable,&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_pt_b">bc_pt_b</a> is internally set and does not need to be prescribed.</p>
     792
     793
     794
     795
     796      </td>
     797
     798
     799
     800 </tr>
     801
     802
     803
     804 <tr>
     805
     806
     807
     808 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     809     
     810     
     811     
     812      <p><a name="pc_pt_t"></a><b>bc_pt_t</b></p>
     813
     814
     815
     816
     817      </td>
     818
     819
     820
     821 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     822
     823
     824
     825
     826      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'initial_ gradient'</span></td>
     827
     828
     829
     830
     831      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     832     
     833     
     834     
     835      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
     836potential temperature.&nbsp; </p>
     837
     838
     839
     840 
     841     
     842     
     843     
     844      <p>Allowed are the
    213845values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>(pt(k=nz+1)
    214846does not change during the run), <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     
    218850calculated from the initial
    219851temperature profile (see <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>,
    220 <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>)
     852      <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>)
    221853by bc_pt_t_val = (pt_init(k=nz+1) -
    222854pt_init(k=nz)) / dzu(nz+1).<br>
     855
     856
     857
     858
    223859Using this value (assumed constant during the
    224860run) the temperature boundary values are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
    225 <ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">pt(k=nz+1) =
     861
     862
     863
     864
     865     
     866     
     867     
     868      <ul>
     869
     870
     871
     872 
     873       
     874       
     875       
     876        <p style="font-style: normal;">pt(k=nz+1) =
    226877pt(k=nz) +
    227 bc_pt_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
     878bc_pt_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
     879
     880
     881
     882 
     883     
     884     
     885     
     886      </ul>
     887
     888
     889
     890 
     891     
     892     
     893     
     894      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
    228895equation for the temperature is solved).<br>
     896
     897
     898
     899
    229900When a constant sensible heat flux is used at the top boundary (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_heatflux">top_heatflux</a>),
    230 <b>bc_pt_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     901      <b>bc_pt_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    231902must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
    232 the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p> </td>
    233 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    234 <p><a name="bc_q_b"></a><b>bc_q_b</b></p>
    235 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    236 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    237 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    238 specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed
     903the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
     904
     905
     906
     907 </td>
     908
     909
     910
     911
     912    </tr>
     913
     914
     915
     916 <tr>
     917
     918
     919
     920 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     921     
     922     
     923     
     924      <p><a name="bc_q_b"></a><b>bc_q_b</b></p>
     925
     926
     927
     928
     929      </td>
     930
     931
     932
     933 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     934
     935
     936
     937
     938      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     939
     940
     941
     942
     943      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     944     
     945     
     946     
     947      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     948specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p>
     949
     950
     951
     952 
     953     
     954     
     955     
     956      <p>Allowed
    239957values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    240958(q(k=0) = const. = <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>
     
    243961and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    244962(q(k=0)=q(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
     963
     964
     965
     966
    245967When a constant surface latent heat flux is used (<a href="#surface_waterflux">surface_waterflux</a>), <b>bc_q_b</b>
    246968= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    247969must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
    248970the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
    249 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_q_t"></a><b>bc_q_t</b></p>
    250 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">C
    251 * 20</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
    252 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    253 specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed
     971
     972
     973
     974
     975      </td>
     976
     977
     978
     979 </tr>
     980
     981
     982
     983 <tr>
     984
     985
     986
     987 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     988     
     989     
     990     
     991      <p><a name="bc_q_t"></a><b>bc_q_t</b></p>
     992
     993
     994
     995
     996      </td>
     997
     998
     999
     1000 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">C
     1001* 20</span></td>
     1002
     1003
     1004
     1005 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
     1006
     1007
     1008
     1009
     1010      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1011     
     1012     
     1013     
     1014      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
     1015specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p>
     1016
     1017
     1018
     1019 
     1020     
     1021     
     1022     
     1023      <p>Allowed
    2541024are the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    2551025(q(k=nz) and q(k=nz+1) do
     
    2591029from the
    2601030initial humidity profile (see <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>,
    261 <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>)
     1031      <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>)
    2621032by: bc_q_t_val = ( q_init(k=nz) - q_init(k=nz-1)) / dzu(nz).<br>
     1033
     1034
     1035
     1036
    2631037Using this value (assumed constant during the run) the humidity
    2641038boundary values
    265 are calculated as&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">q(k=nz+1) =q(k=nz) +
    266 bc_q_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">(up tp k=nz the prognostic
    267 equation for q is solved). </p> </td> </tr> <tr>
    268 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_s_b"></a><b>bc_s_b</b></p> </td>
    269 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    270 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    271 scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed values
     1039are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
     1040
     1041
     1042
     1043 
     1044     
     1045     
     1046     
     1047      <ul>
     1048
     1049
     1050
     1051 
     1052       
     1053       
     1054       
     1055        <p style="font-style: normal;">q(k=nz+1) =q(k=nz) +
     1056bc_q_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
     1057
     1058
     1059
     1060 
     1061     
     1062     
     1063     
     1064      </ul>
     1065
     1066
     1067
     1068 
     1069     
     1070     
     1071     
     1072      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up tp k=nz the prognostic
     1073equation for q is solved). </p>
     1074
     1075
     1076
     1077 </td>
     1078
     1079
     1080
     1081 </tr>
     1082
     1083
     1084
     1085 <tr>
     1086
     1087
     1088
     1089
     1090      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1091     
     1092     
     1093     
     1094      <p><a name="bc_s_b"></a><b>bc_s_b</b></p>
     1095
     1096
     1097
     1098 </td>
     1099
     1100
     1101
     1102
     1103      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     1104
     1105
     1106
     1107 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     1108
     1109
     1110
     1111
     1112      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1113     
     1114     
     1115     
     1116      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     1117scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p>
     1118
     1119
     1120
     1121 
     1122     
     1123     
     1124     
     1125      <p>Allowed values
    2721126are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    2731127(s(k=0) = const. = <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>
     
    2771131(s(k=0) =
    2781132s(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
     1133
     1134
     1135
     1136
    2791137When a constant surface concentration flux is used (<a href="#surface_scalarflux">surface_scalarflux</a>), <b>bc_s_b</b>
    2801138= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    2811139must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
    2821140the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
    283 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_s_t"></a><b>bc_s_t</b></p>
    284 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    285 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
    286 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    287 scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed are the
     1141
     1142
     1143
     1144
     1145      </td>
     1146
     1147
     1148
     1149 </tr>
     1150
     1151
     1152
     1153 <tr>
     1154
     1155
     1156
     1157 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1158     
     1159     
     1160     
     1161      <p><a name="bc_s_t"></a><b>bc_s_t</b></p>
     1162
     1163
     1164
     1165
     1166      </td>
     1167
     1168
     1169
     1170 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     1171
     1172
     1173
     1174
     1175      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
     1176
     1177
     1178
     1179
     1180      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1181     
     1182     
     1183     
     1184      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
     1185scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p>
     1186
     1187
     1188
     1189 
     1190     
     1191     
     1192     
     1193      <p>Allowed are the
    2881194values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    2891195(s(k=nz) and s(k=nz+1) do
     
    2941200from the initial scalar concentration profile (see <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>, <a href="#s_vertical_gradient">s_vertical_gradient</a>)
    2951201by: bc_s_t_val = (s_init(k=nz) - s_init(k=nz-1)) / dzu(nz).<br>
     1202
     1203
     1204
     1205
    2961206Using this value (assumed constant during the run) the concentration
    2971207boundary values
    298 are calculated as </p> <ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">s(k=nz+1) = s(k=nz) +
    299 bc_s_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
     1208are calculated as </p>
     1209
     1210
     1211
     1212 
     1213     
     1214     
     1215     
     1216      <ul>
     1217
     1218
     1219
     1220 
     1221       
     1222       
     1223       
     1224        <p style="font-style: normal;">s(k=nz+1) = s(k=nz) +
     1225bc_s_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
     1226
     1227
     1228
     1229 
     1230     
     1231     
     1232     
     1233      </ul>
     1234
     1235
     1236
     1237 
     1238     
     1239     
     1240     
     1241      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
    3001242equation for the scalar concentration is
    301 solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bc_sa_t"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_sa_t</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the salinity.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>).</p><p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed are the
     1243solved).</p>
     1244
     1245
     1246
     1247 </td>
     1248
     1249
     1250
     1251 </tr>
     1252
     1253
     1254
     1255 <tr>
     1256
     1257
     1258
     1259      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bc_sa_t"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_sa_t</span></td>
     1260
     1261
     1262
     1263      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     1264
     1265
     1266
     1267      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
     1268
     1269
     1270
     1271      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1272     
     1273     
     1274     
     1275      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the salinity.&nbsp; </p>
     1276
     1277
     1278
     1279 
     1280     
     1281     
     1282     
     1283      <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>).</p>
     1284
     1285
     1286
     1287     
     1288     
     1289     
     1290      <p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed are the
    3021291values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>(sa(k=nz+1)
    3031292does not change during the run) and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    304 (sa(k=nz+1)=sa(k=nz))<span style="font-style: italic;"></span>.&nbsp;<br><br>
     1293(sa(k=nz+1)=sa(k=nz))<span style="font-style: italic;"></span>.&nbsp;<br>
     1294
     1295
     1296
     1297      <br>
     1298
     1299
     1300
     1301
    3051302When a constant salinity flux is used at the top boundary (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>),
    306 <b>bc_sa_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
     1303      <b>bc_sa_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
    3071304must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
    308 the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p></td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_uv_b"></a><b>bc_uv_b</b></p>
    309 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    310 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    311 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
    312 horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed
     1305the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
     1306
     1307
     1308
     1309      </td>
     1310
     1311
     1312
     1313    </tr>
     1314
     1315
     1316
     1317    <tr>
     1318
     1319
     1320
     1321 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1322     
     1323     
     1324     
     1325      <p><a name="bc_uv_b"></a><b>bc_uv_b</b></p>
     1326
     1327
     1328
     1329
     1330      </td>
     1331
     1332
     1333
     1334 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     1335
     1336
     1337
     1338
     1339      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     1340
     1341
     1342
     1343
     1344      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1345     
     1346     
     1347     
     1348      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
     1349horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p>
     1350
     1351
     1352
     1353 
     1354     
     1355     
     1356     
     1357      <p>Allowed
    3131358values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>and
    314 <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>. <b>bc_uv_b</b>
     1359      <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>. <b>bc_uv_b</b>
    3151360= <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    3161361yields the
     
    3191364(below the bottom), while u(k=1) and v(k=1) are located at z = +0,5 *
    3201365dz. u=v=0 at the bottom is guaranteed using mirror boundary
    321 condition:&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">u(k=0) = - u(k=1) and v(k=0) = -
    322 v(k=1)</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">The
     1366condition:&nbsp; </p>
     1367
     1368
     1369
     1370 
     1371     
     1372     
     1373     
     1374      <ul>
     1375
     1376
     1377
     1378 
     1379       
     1380       
     1381       
     1382        <p style="font-style: normal;">u(k=0) = - u(k=1) and v(k=0) = -
     1383v(k=1)</p>
     1384
     1385
     1386
     1387 
     1388     
     1389     
     1390     
     1391      </ul>
     1392
     1393
     1394
     1395 
     1396     
     1397     
     1398     
     1399      <p style="font-style: normal;">The
    3231400Neumann boundary condition
    3241401yields the free-slip condition with u(k=0) = u(k=1) and v(k=0) =
     
    3261403With Prandtl - layer switched on, the free-slip condition is not
    3271404allowed (otherwise the run will be terminated)<font color="#000000">.</font></p>
    328 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_uv_t"></a><b>bc_uv_t</b></p>
    329 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    330 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
    331 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
    332 horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p> <p>Allowed
     1405
     1406
     1407
     1408
     1409      </td>
     1410
     1411
     1412
     1413 </tr>
     1414
     1415
     1416
     1417 <tr>
     1418
     1419
     1420
     1421 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1422     
     1423     
     1424     
     1425      <p><a name="bc_uv_t"></a><b>bc_uv_t</b></p>
     1426
     1427
     1428
     1429
     1430      </td>
     1431
     1432
     1433
     1434 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     1435
     1436
     1437
     1438
     1439      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
     1440
     1441
     1442
     1443
     1444      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1445     
     1446     
     1447     
     1448      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
     1449horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p>
     1450
     1451
     1452
     1453 
     1454     
     1455     
     1456     
     1457      <p>Allowed
    3331458values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
    3341459and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.
     
    3381463Neumann condition yields the free-slip condition with u(k=nz+1) =
    3391464u(k=nz) and v(k=nz+1) = v(k=nz) (up to k=nz the prognostic equations
    340 for the velocities are solved).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bottom_salinityflux"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bottom_salinityflux</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Kinematic salinity flux near the surface (in psu m/s).&nbsp;</p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).<p>The
     1465for the velocities are solved).</p>
     1466
     1467
     1468
     1469     
     1470     
     1471     
     1472      <p>In the <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled</a> ocean executable, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_uv_t">bc_uv_t</a>&nbsp;is internally set ('neumann') and does not need to be prescribed.</p>
     1473
     1474
     1475
     1476 </td>
     1477
     1478
     1479
     1480 </tr>
     1481
     1482
     1483
     1484 <tr>
     1485
     1486
     1487
     1488      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bottom_salinityflux"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bottom_salinityflux</span></td>
     1489
     1490
     1491
     1492      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1493
     1494
     1495
     1496      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
     1497
     1498
     1499
     1500      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1501     
     1502     
     1503     
     1504      <p>Kinematic salinity flux near the surface (in psu m/s).&nbsp;</p>
     1505
     1506
     1507
     1508This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).
     1509     
     1510     
     1511     
     1512      <p>The
    3411513respective salinity flux value is used
    3421514as bottom (horizontally homogeneous) boundary condition for the salinity equation. This additionally requires that a Neumann
    343 condition must be used for the salinity, which is currently the only available condition.<br> </p> </td></tr><tr>
    344 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_height"></a>building_height</span></td>
    345 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td> <td>Height
    346 of a single building in m.<br> <br> <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_height</span> must
     1515condition must be used for the salinity, which is currently the only available condition.<br>
     1516
     1517
     1518
     1519 </p>
     1520
     1521
     1522
     1523 </td>
     1524
     1525
     1526
     1527    </tr>
     1528
     1529
     1530
     1531    <tr>
     1532
     1533
     1534
     1535
     1536      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_height"></a>building_height</span></td>
     1537
     1538
     1539
     1540
     1541      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1542
     1543
     1544
     1545 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
     1546
     1547
     1548
     1549 <td>Height
     1550of a single building in m.<br>
     1551
     1552
     1553
     1554 <br>
     1555
     1556
     1557
     1558 <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_height</span> must
    3471559be less than the height of the model domain. This parameter requires
    3481560the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
    3491561= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
    350 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_x"></a>building_length_x</span></td>
    351 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td> <td><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>Width of a single
    352 building in m.<br> <br>
     1562
     1563
     1564
     1565
     1566    </tr>
     1567
     1568
     1569
     1570 <tr>
     1571
     1572
     1573
     1574 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_x"></a>building_length_x</span></td>
     1575
     1576
     1577
     1578
     1579      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1580
     1581
     1582
     1583 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
     1584
     1585
     1586
     1587 <td><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>Width of a single
     1588building in m.<br>
     1589
     1590
     1591
     1592 <br>
     1593
     1594
     1595
     1596
    3531597Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_length_x</span>
    3541598must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">3
    3551599*&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#dx">dx</a> and no more than <span style="font-style: italic;">(&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#nx">nx</a><span style="font-style: italic;"> - 1 ) </span><span style="font-style: italic;"> * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
    356 </span><span style="font-style: italic;">- <a href="#building_wall_left">building_wall_left</a></span>.
     1600      </span><span style="font-style: italic;">- <a href="#building_wall_left">building_wall_left</a></span>.
    3571601This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
    3581602= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
    359 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_y"></a>building_length_y</span></td>
    360 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td> <td>Depth
    361 of a single building in m.<br> <br>
     1603
     1604
     1605
     1606
     1607    </tr>
     1608
     1609
     1610
     1611 <tr>
     1612
     1613
     1614
     1615 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_y"></a>building_length_y</span></td>
     1616
     1617
     1618
     1619
     1620      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1621
     1622
     1623
     1624 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
     1625
     1626
     1627
     1628 <td>Depth
     1629of a single building in m.<br>
     1630
     1631
     1632
     1633 <br>
     1634
     1635
     1636
     1637
    3621638Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_length_y</span>
    3631639must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">3
     
    3651641the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
    3661642= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
    367 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_left"></a>building_wall_left</span></td>
    368 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in x-direction</span></td>
    369 <td>x-coordinate of the left building wall (distance between the
     1643
     1644
     1645
     1646
     1647    </tr>
     1648
     1649
     1650
     1651 <tr>
     1652
     1653
     1654
     1655 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_left"></a>building_wall_left</span></td>
     1656
     1657
     1658
     1659
     1660      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1661
     1662
     1663
     1664 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in x-direction</span></td>
     1665
     1666
     1667
     1668
     1669      <td>x-coordinate of the left building wall (distance between the
    3701670left building wall and the left border of the model domain) in m.<br>
    371 <br>
     1671
     1672
     1673
     1674
     1675      <br>
     1676
     1677
     1678
     1679
    3721680Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_left</span>
    3731681must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">1
     
    3761684This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
    3771685= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.<br>
    378 <br>
     1686
     1687
     1688
     1689
     1690      <br>
     1691
     1692
     1693
     1694
    3791695The default value&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_left</span>
    3801696= <span style="font-style: italic;">( ( <a href="#nx">nx</a>&nbsp;+
    38116971 ) * <a href="#dx">dx</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_x">building_length_x</a> ) / 2</span>
    382 centers the building in x-direction. </td> </tr> <tr>
    383 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_south"></a>building_wall_south</span></td>
    384 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;"></span><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in y-direction</span></td>
    385 <td>y-coordinate of the South building wall (distance between the
     1698centers the building in x-direction. </td>
     1699
     1700
     1701
     1702 </tr>
     1703
     1704
     1705
     1706 <tr>
     1707
     1708
     1709
     1710
     1711      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_south"></a>building_wall_south</span></td>
     1712
     1713
     1714
     1715
     1716      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     1717
     1718
     1719
     1720 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;"></span><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in y-direction</span></td>
     1721
     1722
     1723
     1724
     1725      <td>y-coordinate of the South building wall (distance between the
    3861726South building wall and the South border of the model domain) in m.<br>
    387 <br>
     1727
     1728
     1729
     1730
     1731      <br>
     1732
     1733
     1734
     1735
    3881736Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_south</span>
    3891737must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">1
     
    3921740This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
    3931741= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.<br>
    394 <br>
     1742
     1743
     1744
     1745
     1746      <br>
     1747
     1748
     1749
     1750
    3951751The default value&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_south</span>
    3961752= <span style="font-style: italic;">( ( <a href="#ny">ny</a>&nbsp;+
    39717531 ) * <a href="#dy">dy</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_y">building_length_y</a> ) / 2</span>
    398 centers the building in y-direction. </td> </tr> <tr>
    399 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="cloud_droplets"></a>cloud_droplets</span><br>
    400 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
    401 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br> </td>
    402 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on
    403 usage of cloud droplets.<br> <br>
     1754centers the building in y-direction. </td>
     1755
     1756
     1757
     1758 </tr>
     1759
     1760
     1761
     1762 <tr>
     1763
     1764
     1765
     1766
     1767      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="cloud_droplets"></a>cloud_droplets</span><br>
     1768
     1769
     1770
     1771
     1772      </td>
     1773
     1774
     1775
     1776 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
     1777
     1778
     1779
     1780 </td>
     1781
     1782
     1783
     1784
     1785      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
     1786
     1787
     1788
     1789 </td>
     1790
     1791
     1792
     1793
     1794      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on
     1795usage of cloud droplets.<br>
     1796
     1797
     1798
     1799 <br>
     1800
     1801
     1802
     1803
    4041804Cloud droplets require to use the particle package (<span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option <span style="font-family: monospace;">-p particles</span>),
    4051805so in this case a particle corresponds to a droplet. The droplet
     
    4081808The real number of initial droplets in a grid cell is equal to the
    4091809initial number of droplets (defined by the particle source parameters <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
    410 <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
    411 </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span>)
     1810      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
     1811      </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span>)
    4121812times the <a href="#initial_weighting_factor">initial_weighting_factor</a>.<br>
    413 <br>
     1813
     1814
     1815
     1816
     1817      <br>
     1818
     1819
     1820
     1821
    4141822In case of using cloud droplets, the default condensation scheme in
    4151823PALM cannot be used, i.e. <a href="#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
    4161824must be set <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.<br>
    417 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cloud_physics"></a><b>cloud_physics</b></p>
    418 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
    419 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Parameter to switch
     1825
     1826
     1827
     1828
     1829      </td>
     1830
     1831
     1832
     1833 </tr>
     1834
     1835
     1836
     1837 <tr>
     1838
     1839
     1840
     1841 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1842     
     1843     
     1844     
     1845      <p><a name="cloud_physics"></a><b>cloud_physics</b></p>
     1846
     1847
     1848
     1849
     1850      </td>
     1851
     1852
     1853
     1854 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
     1855
     1856
     1857
     1858 </td>
     1859
     1860
     1861
     1862
     1863      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
     1864
     1865
     1866
     1867 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1868     
     1869     
     1870     
     1871      <p>Parameter to switch
    4201872on the condensation scheme.&nbsp; </p>
     1873
     1874
     1875
     1876
    4211877For <b>cloud_physics =</b> <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>, equations
    4221878for the
     
    4281884unsaturated (0%-or-100%-scheme). A simple precipitation scheme can
    4291885additionally be switched on with parameter <a href="#precipitation">precipitation</a>.
    430 Also cloud-top cooling by longwave radiation can be utilized (see <a href="#radiation">radiation</a>)<br> <b><br>
     1886Also cloud-top cooling by longwave radiation can be utilized (see <a href="#radiation">radiation</a>)<br>
     1887
     1888
     1889
     1890 <b><br>
     1891
     1892
     1893
     1894
    4311895cloud_physics =</b> <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.
    432 </span>requires&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>
     1896      </span>requires&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>
    4331897=<span style="font-style: italic;"> .TRUE.</span> .<br>
     1898
     1899
     1900
     1901
    4341902Detailed information about the condensation scheme is given in the
    4351903description of the <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM-1/Dokumentationen/Cloud_physics/wolken.pdf">cloud
    436 physics module</a> (pdf-file, only in German).<br> <br>
     1904physics module</a> (pdf-file, only in German).<br>
     1905
     1906
     1907
     1908 <br>
     1909
     1910
     1911
     1912
    4371913This condensation scheme is not allowed if cloud droplets are simulated
    4381914explicitly (see <a href="#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>).<br>
    439 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="conserve_volume_flow"></a>conserve_volume_flow</span></td>
    440 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td> <td>Conservation
    441 of volume flow in x- and y-direction.<br> <br> <span style="font-weight: bold;">conserve_volume_flow</span>
     1915
     1916
     1917
     1918
     1919      </td>
     1920
     1921
     1922
     1923 </tr>
     1924
     1925
     1926
     1927 <tr>
     1928
     1929
     1930
     1931 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="conserve_volume_flow"></a>conserve_volume_flow</span></td>
     1932
     1933
     1934
     1935
     1936      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     1937
     1938
     1939
     1940 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
     1941
     1942
     1943
     1944 <td>Conservation
     1945of volume flow in x- and y-direction.<br>
     1946
     1947
     1948
     1949 <br>
     1950
     1951
     1952
     1953 <span style="font-weight: bold;">conserve_volume_flow</span>
    4421954= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
    4431955guarantees that the volume flow through the xz- or yz-cross-section of
    4441956the total model domain remains constant (equal to the initial value at
    4451957t=0) throughout the run.<br>
    446 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cut_spline_overshoot"></a><b>cut_spline_overshoot</b></p>
    447 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    448 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Cuts off of
     1958
     1959
     1960
     1961
     1962      </td>
     1963
     1964
     1965
     1966 </tr>
     1967
     1968
     1969
     1970 <tr>
     1971
     1972
     1973
     1974 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1975     
     1976     
     1977     
     1978      <p><a name="cut_spline_overshoot"></a><b>cut_spline_overshoot</b></p>
     1979
     1980
     1981
     1982
     1983      </td>
     1984
     1985
     1986
     1987 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     1988
     1989
     1990
     1991
     1992      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span></td>
     1993
     1994
     1995
     1996 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     1997     
     1998     
     1999     
     2000      <p>Cuts off of
    4492001so-called overshoots, which can occur with the
    450 upstream-spline scheme.&nbsp; </p> <p><font color="#000000">The cubic splines tend to overshoot in
     2002upstream-spline scheme.&nbsp; </p>
     2003
     2004
     2005
     2006 
     2007     
     2008     
     2009     
     2010      <p><font color="#000000">The cubic splines tend to overshoot in
    4512011case of discontinuous changes of variables between neighbouring grid
    4522012points.</font><font color="#ff0000"> </font><font color="#000000">This
     
    4592019respective adjacent grid points. This interval can be adjusted
    4602020seperately for every prognostic variable (see initialization parameters
    461 <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_pt">overshoot_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_u">overshoot_limit_u</a>,
     2021      <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_pt">overshoot_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_u">overshoot_limit_u</a>,
    4622022etc.). This might be necessary in case that the
    4632023default interval has a non-tolerable effect on the model
    464 results.&nbsp; </p> <p>Overshoots may also be removed
     2024results.&nbsp; </p>
     2025
     2026
     2027
     2028 
     2029     
     2030     
     2031     
     2032      <p>Overshoots may also be removed
    4652033using the parameters <a href="#ups_limit_e">ups_limit_e</a>,
    466 <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>,
     2034      <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>,
    4672035etc. as well as by applying a long-filter (see <a href="#long_filter_factor">long_filter_factor</a>).</p>
    468 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="damp_level_1d"></a><b>damp_level_1d</b></p>
    469 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    470 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz+1)</span></td>
    471 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height where
     2036
     2037
     2038
     2039
     2040      </td>
     2041
     2042
     2043
     2044 </tr>
     2045
     2046
     2047
     2048 <tr>
     2049
     2050
     2051
     2052 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2053     
     2054     
     2055     
     2056      <p><a name="damp_level_1d"></a><b>damp_level_1d</b></p>
     2057
     2058
     2059
     2060
     2061      </td>
     2062
     2063
     2064
     2065 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2066
     2067
     2068
     2069
     2070      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz+1)</span></td>
     2071
     2072
     2073
     2074
     2075      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2076     
     2077     
     2078     
     2079      <p>Height where
    4722080the damping layer begins in the 1d-model
    473 (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter is used to
     2081(in m).&nbsp; </p>
     2082
     2083
     2084
     2085 
     2086     
     2087     
     2088     
     2089      <p>This parameter is used to
    4742090switch on a damping layer for the
    47520911d-model, which is generally needed for the damping of inertia
     
    4822098The values of K<sub>m</sub> are limited to 10 m**2/s at
    4832099maximum.&nbsp; <br>
     2100
     2101
     2102
     2103
    4842104This parameter only comes into effect if the 1d-model is switched on
    4852105for
    4862106the initialization of the 3d-model using <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
    4872107= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.
    488 <br> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dissipation_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dissipation_1d</span><br>
    489 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
    490 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br> </td>
    491 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Calculation method for
     2108      <br>
     2109
     2110
     2111
     2112 </p>
     2113
     2114
     2115
     2116 </td>
     2117
     2118
     2119
     2120 </tr>
     2121
     2122
     2123
     2124 <tr>
     2125
     2126
     2127
     2128 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dissipation_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dissipation_1d</span><br>
     2129
     2130
     2131
     2132
     2133      </td>
     2134
     2135
     2136
     2137 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
     2138
     2139
     2140
     2141
     2142      </td>
     2143
     2144
     2145
     2146 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     2147
     2148
     2149
     2150 <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br>
     2151
     2152
     2153
     2154 </td>
     2155
     2156
     2157
     2158
     2159      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Calculation method for
    4922160the energy dissipation term in the TKE equation of the 1d-model.<br>
    493 <br>
     2161
     2162
     2163
     2164
     2165      <br>
     2166
     2167
     2168
     2169
    4942170By default the dissipation is calculated as in the 3d-model using diss
    495 = (0.19 + 0.74 * l / l_grid) * e**1.5 / l.<br> <br>
     2171= (0.19 + 0.74 * l / l_grid) * e**1.5 / l.<br>
     2172
     2173
     2174
     2175 <br>
     2176
     2177
     2178
     2179
    4962180Setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">dissipation_1d</span>
    4972181= <span style="font-style: italic;">'detering'</span>
    4982182forces the dissipation to be calculated as diss = 0.064 * e**1.5 / l.<br>
    499 </td> </tr>
    500 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt"></a><b>dt</b></p> </td>
    501 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">variable</span></td>
    502 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Time step for
    503 the 3d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>By default, (i.e.
     2183
     2184
     2185
     2186
     2187      </td>
     2188
     2189
     2190
     2191 </tr>
     2192
     2193
     2194
     2195
     2196    <tr>
     2197
     2198
     2199
     2200 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2201     
     2202     
     2203     
     2204      <p><a name="dt"></a><b>dt</b></p>
     2205
     2206
     2207
     2208 </td>
     2209
     2210
     2211
     2212
     2213      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2214
     2215
     2216
     2217 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">variable</span></td>
     2218
     2219
     2220
     2221
     2222      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2223     
     2224     
     2225     
     2226      <p>Time step for
     2227the 3d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p>
     2228
     2229
     2230
     2231 
     2232     
     2233     
     2234     
     2235      <p>By default, (i.e.
    5042236if a Runge-Kutta scheme is used, see <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
    5052237the value of the time step is calculating after each time step
    5062238(following the time step criteria) and
    507 used for the next step.</p> <p>If the user assigns <b>dt</b>
     2239used for the next step.</p>
     2240
     2241
     2242
     2243 
     2244     
     2245     
     2246     
     2247      <p>If the user assigns <b>dt</b>
    5082248a value, then the time step is
    5092249fixed to this value throughout the whole run (whether it fulfills the
     
    5112251criteria or not). However, changes are allowed for restart runs,
    5122252because <b>dt</b> can also be used as a <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_laufparameter">run
    513 parameter</a>.&nbsp; </p> <p>In case that the
    514 calculated time step meets the condition<br> </p> <ul>
    515 <p><b>dt</b> &lt; 0.00001 * <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_max">dt_max</a> (with dt_max
    516 = 20.0)</p> </ul> <p>the simulation will be
     2253parameter</a>.&nbsp; </p>
     2254
     2255
     2256
     2257 
     2258     
     2259     
     2260     
     2261      <p>In case that the
     2262calculated time step meets the condition<br>
     2263
     2264
     2265
     2266 </p>
     2267
     2268
     2269
     2270 
     2271     
     2272     
     2273     
     2274      <ul>
     2275
     2276
     2277
     2278
     2279       
     2280       
     2281       
     2282        <p><b>dt</b> &lt; 0.00001 * <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_max">dt_max</a> (with dt_max
     2283= 20.0)</p>
     2284
     2285
     2286
     2287 
     2288     
     2289     
     2290     
     2291      </ul>
     2292
     2293
     2294
     2295 
     2296     
     2297     
     2298     
     2299      <p>the simulation will be
    5172300aborted. Such situations usually arise
    5182301in case of any numerical problem / instability which causes a
    519 non-realistic increase of the wind speed.&nbsp; </p> <p>A
     2302non-realistic increase of the wind speed.&nbsp; </p>
     2303
     2304
     2305
     2306 
     2307     
     2308     
     2309     
     2310      <p>A
    5202311small time step due to a large mean horizontal windspeed
    5212312speed may be enlarged by using a coordinate transformation (see <a href="#galilei_transformation">galilei_transformation</a>),
    522 in order to spare CPU time.<br> </p> <p>If the
     2313in order to spare CPU time.<br>
     2314
     2315
     2316
     2317 </p>
     2318
     2319
     2320
     2321 
     2322     
     2323     
     2324     
     2325      <p>If the
    5232326leapfrog timestep scheme is used (see <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
    5242327a temporary time step value dt_new is calculated first, with dt_new = <a href="chapter_4.2.html#fcl_factor">cfl_factor</a>
     
    5382341does not change at all. By doing so, permanent time step changes as
    5392342well as large
    540 sudden changes (increases) in the time step are avoided.</p> </td>
    541 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    542 <p><a name="dt_pr_1d"></a><b>dt_pr_1d</b></p>
    543 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    544 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
    545 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Temporal
     2343sudden changes (increases) in the time step are avoided.</p>
     2344
     2345
     2346
     2347 </td>
     2348
     2349
     2350
     2351
     2352    </tr>
     2353
     2354
     2355
     2356 <tr>
     2357
     2358
     2359
     2360 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2361     
     2362     
     2363     
     2364      <p><a name="dt_pr_1d"></a><b>dt_pr_1d</b></p>
     2365
     2366
     2367
     2368
     2369      </td>
     2370
     2371
     2372
     2373 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2374
     2375
     2376
     2377
     2378      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
     2379
     2380
     2381
     2382
     2383      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2384     
     2385     
     2386     
     2387      <p>Temporal
    5462388interval of vertical profile output of the 1D-model
    547 (in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>Data are written in ASCII
     2389(in s).&nbsp; </p>
     2390
     2391
     2392
     2393 
     2394     
     2395     
     2396     
     2397      <p>Data are written in ASCII
    5482398format to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL_1D">LIST_PROFIL_1D</a>.
    5492399This parameter is only in effect if the 1d-model has been switched on
     
    5512401initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
    5522402= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
    553 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_run_control_1d"></a><b>dt_run_control_1d</b></p>
    554 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    555 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">60.0</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Temporal interval of
     2403
     2404
     2405
     2406
     2407      </td>
     2408
     2409
     2410
     2411 </tr>
     2412
     2413
     2414
     2415 <tr>
     2416
     2417
     2418
     2419 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2420     
     2421     
     2422     
     2423      <p><a name="dt_run_control_1d"></a><b>dt_run_control_1d</b></p>
     2424
     2425
     2426
     2427
     2428      </td>
     2429
     2430
     2431
     2432 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2433
     2434
     2435
     2436
     2437      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">60.0</span></td>
     2438
     2439
     2440
     2441 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2442     
     2443     
     2444     
     2445      <p>Temporal interval of
    5562446runtime control output of the 1d-model
    557 (in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>Data are written in ASCII
     2447(in s).&nbsp; </p>
     2448
     2449
     2450
     2451 
     2452     
     2453     
     2454     
     2455      <p>Data are written in ASCII
    5582456format to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
    5592457This parameter is only in effect if the 1d-model is switched on for the
    5602458initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
    5612459= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
    562 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dx"></a><b>dx</b></p>
    563 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    564 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Horizontal grid
    565 spacing along the x-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>Along
    566 x-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p> </td>
    567 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    568 <p><a name="dy"></a><b>dy</b></p>
    569 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    570 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Horizontal grid
    571 spacing along the y-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>Along y-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p> </td>
    572 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    573 <p><a name="dz"></a><b>dz</b></p>
    574 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    575 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Vertical grid
    576 spacing (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter must be
     2460
     2461
     2462
     2463
     2464      </td>
     2465
     2466
     2467
     2468 </tr>
     2469
     2470
     2471
     2472 <tr>
     2473
     2474
     2475
     2476 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2477     
     2478     
     2479     
     2480      <p><a name="dx"></a><b>dx</b></p>
     2481
     2482
     2483
     2484
     2485      </td>
     2486
     2487
     2488
     2489 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2490
     2491
     2492
     2493
     2494      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td>
     2495
     2496
     2497
     2498 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2499     
     2500     
     2501     
     2502      <p>Horizontal grid
     2503spacing along the x-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p>
     2504
     2505
     2506
     2507 
     2508     
     2509     
     2510     
     2511      <p>Along
     2512x-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p>
     2513
     2514
     2515
     2516     
     2517     
     2518     
     2519      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
     2520and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
     2521
     2522
     2523
     2524 </td>
     2525
     2526
     2527
     2528
     2529    </tr>
     2530
     2531
     2532
     2533 <tr>
     2534
     2535
     2536
     2537 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2538     
     2539     
     2540     
     2541      <p><a name="dy"></a><b>dy</b></p>
     2542
     2543
     2544
     2545
     2546      </td>
     2547
     2548
     2549
     2550 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2551
     2552
     2553
     2554
     2555      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td>
     2556
     2557
     2558
     2559 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2560     
     2561     
     2562     
     2563      <p>Horizontal grid
     2564spacing along the y-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p>
     2565
     2566
     2567
     2568 
     2569     
     2570     
     2571     
     2572      <p>Along y-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p>
     2573
     2574
     2575
     2576     
     2577     
     2578     
     2579      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
     2580and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
     2581
     2582
     2583
     2584 </td>
     2585
     2586
     2587
     2588
     2589    </tr>
     2590
     2591
     2592
     2593 <tr>
     2594
     2595
     2596
     2597 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2598     
     2599     
     2600     
     2601      <p><a name="dz"></a><b>dz</b></p>
     2602
     2603
     2604
     2605
     2606      </td>
     2607
     2608
     2609
     2610 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2611
     2612
     2613
     2614
     2615      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     2616
     2617
     2618
     2619 </td>
     2620
     2621
     2622
     2623 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2624     
     2625     
     2626     
     2627      <p>Vertical grid
     2628spacing (in m).&nbsp; </p>
     2629
     2630
     2631
     2632 
     2633     
     2634     
     2635     
     2636      <p>This parameter must be
    5772637assigned by the user, because no
    578 default value is given.<br> </p> <p>By default, the
     2638default value is given.<br>
     2639
     2640
     2641
     2642 </p>
     2643
     2644
     2645
     2646 
     2647     
     2648     
     2649     
     2650      <p>By default, the
    5792651model uses constant grid spacing along z-direction, but it can be
    5802652stretched using the parameters <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>
    5812653and <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>.
    582 In case of stretching, a maximum allowed grid spacing can be given by <a href="#dz_max">dz_max</a>.<br> </p> <p>Assuming
     2654In case of stretching, a maximum allowed grid spacing can be given by <a href="#dz_max">dz_max</a>.<br>
     2655
     2656
     2657
     2658 </p>
     2659
     2660
     2661
     2662 
     2663     
     2664     
     2665     
     2666      <p>Assuming
    5832667a constant <span style="font-weight: bold;">dz</span>,
    5842668the scalar levels (zu) are calculated directly by:&nbsp; </p>
    585 <ul> <p>zu(0) = - dz * 0.5&nbsp; <br>
    586 zu(1) = dz * 0.5</p> </ul> <p>The w-levels lie
    587 half between them:&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p>zw(k) =
    588 ( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5</p> </ul> </td> </tr>
    589 <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dz_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed maximum vertical grid
    590 spacing (in m).<br><br>If the vertical grid is stretched
     2669
     2670
     2671
     2672
     2673     
     2674     
     2675     
     2676      <ul>
     2677
     2678
     2679
     2680 
     2681       
     2682       
     2683       
     2684        <p>zu(0) = - dz * 0.5&nbsp; <br>
     2685
     2686
     2687
     2688
     2689zu(1) = dz * 0.5</p>
     2690
     2691
     2692
     2693 
     2694     
     2695     
     2696     
     2697      </ul>
     2698
     2699
     2700
     2701 
     2702     
     2703     
     2704     
     2705      <p>The w-levels lie
     2706half between them:&nbsp; </p>
     2707
     2708
     2709
     2710 
     2711     
     2712     
     2713     
     2714      <ul>
     2715
     2716
     2717
     2718 
     2719       
     2720       
     2721       
     2722        <p>zw(k) =
     2723( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5</p>
     2724
     2725
     2726
     2727 
     2728     
     2729     
     2730     
     2731      </ul>
     2732
     2733
     2734
     2735 </td>
     2736
     2737
     2738
     2739 </tr>
     2740
     2741
     2742
     2743
     2744    <tr>
     2745
     2746
     2747
     2748      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dz_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span></td>
     2749
     2750
     2751
     2752      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2753
     2754
     2755
     2756      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
     2757
     2758
     2759
     2760      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed maximum vertical grid
     2761spacing (in m).<br>
     2762
     2763
     2764
     2765      <br>
     2766
     2767
     2768
     2769If the vertical grid is stretched
    5912770(see <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>
    5922771and <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>),
    593 <span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span> can
    594 be used to limit the vertical grid spacing.</td></tr><tr>
    595 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dz_stretch_factor"></a><b>dz_stretch_factor</b></p>
    596 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    597 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.08</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Stretch factor for a
     2772      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span> can
     2773be used to limit the vertical grid spacing.</td>
     2774
     2775
     2776
     2777    </tr>
     2778
     2779
     2780
     2781    <tr>
     2782
     2783
     2784
     2785
     2786      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2787     
     2788     
     2789     
     2790      <p><a name="dz_stretch_factor"></a><b>dz_stretch_factor</b></p>
     2791
     2792
     2793
     2794
     2795      </td>
     2796
     2797
     2798
     2799 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2800
     2801
     2802
     2803
     2804      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.08</span></td>
     2805
     2806
     2807
     2808 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2809     
     2810     
     2811     
     2812      <p>Stretch factor for a
    5982813vertically stretched grid (see <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>).&nbsp;
    599 </p> <p>The stretch factor should not exceed a value of
     2814      </p>
     2815
     2816
     2817
     2818 
     2819     
     2820     
     2821     
     2822      <p>The stretch factor should not exceed a value of
    6002823approx. 1.10 -
    60128241.12, otherwise the discretization errors due to the stretched grid not
    602 negligible any more. (refer Kalnay de Rivas)</p> </td> </tr>
    603 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dz_stretch_level"></a><b>dz_stretch_level</b></p>
    604 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    605 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100000.0</span><br> </td>
    606 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height level
    607 above which the grid is to be stretched
    608 vertically (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>The vertical grid
     2825negligible any more. (refer Kalnay de Rivas)</p>
     2826
     2827
     2828
     2829 </td>
     2830
     2831
     2832
     2833 </tr>
     2834
     2835
     2836
     2837
     2838    <tr>
     2839
     2840
     2841
     2842 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2843     
     2844     
     2845     
     2846      <p><a name="dz_stretch_level"></a><b>dz_stretch_level</b></p>
     2847
     2848
     2849
     2850
     2851      </td>
     2852
     2853
     2854
     2855 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2856
     2857
     2858
     2859
     2860      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100000.0</span><br>
     2861
     2862
     2863
     2864 </td>
     2865
     2866
     2867
     2868
     2869      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     2870     
     2871     
     2872     
     2873      <p>Height level
     2874above/below which the grid is to be stretched
     2875vertically (in m).&nbsp; </p>
     2876
     2877
     2878
     2879 
     2880     
     2881     
     2882     
     2883      <p>For <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a> = .F., <b>dz_stretch_level </b>is the height level (in m)&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">above </span>which the grid is to be stretched
     2884vertically. The vertical grid
    6092885spacings <a href="#dz">dz</a>
    610 above this level are calculated as&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><b>dz</b>(k+1)
     2886above this level are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
     2887
     2888
     2889
     2890 
     2891     
     2892     
     2893     
     2894      <ul>
     2895
     2896
     2897
     2898 
     2899       
     2900       
     2901       
     2902        <p><b>dz</b>(k+1)
    6112903= <b>dz</b>(k) * <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a></p>
    612 </ul> <p>and used as spacings for the scalar levels (zu).
     2904
     2905
     2906
     2907
     2908     
     2909     
     2910     
     2911      </ul>
     2912
     2913
     2914
     2915 
     2916     
     2917     
     2918     
     2919      <p>and used as spacings for the scalar levels (zu).
    6132920The
    614 w-levels are then defined as:&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p>zw(k)
    615 = ( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5</p> </ul> </td> </tr>
    616 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="e_min"></a>e_min</span></td>
    617 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td> <td>Minimum
     2921w-levels are then defined as:&nbsp; </p>
     2922
     2923
     2924
     2925 
     2926     
     2927     
     2928     
     2929      <ul>
     2930
     2931
     2932
     2933 
     2934       
     2935       
     2936       
     2937        <p>zw(k)
     2938= ( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5.
     2939
     2940 
     2941     
     2942      </p>
     2943
     2944     
     2945      </ul>
     2946
     2947     
     2948      <p>For <a href="#ocean">ocean</a> = .T., <b>dz_stretch_level </b>is the height level (in m, negative) <span style="font-weight: bold;">below</span> which the grid is to be stretched
     2949vertically. The vertical grid
     2950spacings <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dz">dz</a> below this level are calculated correspondingly as
     2951
     2952 
     2953     
     2954      </p>
     2955
     2956     
     2957      <ul>
     2958
     2959       
     2960        <p><b>dz</b>(k-1)
     2961= <b>dz</b>(k) * <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>.</p>
     2962
     2963     
     2964      </ul>
     2965
     2966
     2967
     2968 </td>
     2969
     2970
     2971
     2972 </tr>
     2973
     2974
     2975
     2976
     2977    <tr>
     2978
     2979
     2980      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="e_init"></a>e_init</span></td>
     2981
     2982
     2983      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     2984
     2985
     2986      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
     2987
     2988
     2989      <td>Initial subgrid-scale TKE in m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-2</sup>.<br>
     2990
     2991
     2992
     2993
     2994      <br>
     2995
     2996
     2997
     2998This
     2999option prescribes an initial&nbsp;subgrid-scale TKE from which the initial diffusion coefficients K<sub>m</sub> and K<sub>h</sub> will be calculated if <span style="font-weight: bold;">e_init</span> is positive. This option only has an effect if&nbsp;<a href="#km_constant">km_constant</a> is not set.</td>
     3000
     3001
     3002    </tr>
     3003
     3004
     3005    <tr>
     3006
     3007
     3008
     3009 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="e_min"></a>e_min</span></td>
     3010
     3011
     3012
     3013
     3014      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     3015
     3016
     3017
     3018 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
     3019
     3020
     3021
     3022 <td>Minimum
    6183023subgrid-scale TKE in m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-2</sup>.<br>
    619 <br>This
     3024
     3025
     3026
     3027
     3028      <br>
     3029
     3030
     3031
     3032This
    6203033option&nbsp;adds artificial viscosity to the flow by ensuring that
    6213034the
    622 subgrid-scale TKE does not fall below the minimum threshold <span style="font-weight: bold;">e_min</span>.</td> </tr>
    623 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="end_time_1d"></a><b>end_time_1d</b></p>
    624 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    625 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">864000.0</span><br> </td>
    626 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Time to be
    627 simulated for the 1d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>The
     3035subgrid-scale TKE does not fall below the minimum threshold <span style="font-weight: bold;">e_min</span>.</td>
     3036
     3037
     3038
     3039 </tr>
     3040
     3041
     3042
     3043
     3044    <tr>
     3045
     3046
     3047
     3048 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3049     
     3050     
     3051     
     3052      <p><a name="end_time_1d"></a><b>end_time_1d</b></p>
     3053
     3054
     3055
     3056
     3057      </td>
     3058
     3059
     3060
     3061 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     3062
     3063
     3064
     3065
     3066      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">864000.0</span><br>
     3067
     3068
     3069
     3070 </td>
     3071
     3072
     3073
     3074
     3075      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3076     
     3077     
     3078     
     3079      <p>Time to be
     3080simulated for the 1d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p>
     3081
     3082
     3083
     3084 
     3085     
     3086     
     3087     
     3088      <p>The
    6283089default value corresponds to a simulated time of 10 days.
    6293090Usually, after such a period the inertia oscillations have completely
     
    6333094initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
    6343095= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
    635 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="fft_method"></a><b>fft_method</b></p>
    636 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
    637 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'system-</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">specific'</span></td>
    638 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>FFT-method to
    639 be used.<br> </p> <p><br>
     3096
     3097
     3098
     3099
     3100      </td>
     3101
     3102
     3103
     3104 </tr>
     3105
     3106
     3107
     3108 <tr>
     3109
     3110
     3111
     3112 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3113     
     3114     
     3115     
     3116      <p><a name="fft_method"></a><b>fft_method</b></p>
     3117
     3118
     3119
     3120
     3121      </td>
     3122
     3123
     3124
     3125 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
     3126
     3127
     3128
     3129
     3130      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'system-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     3131
     3132
     3133
     3134 <span style="font-style: italic;">specific'</span></td>
     3135
     3136
     3137
     3138
     3139      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3140     
     3141     
     3142     
     3143      <p>FFT-method to
     3144be used.<br>
     3145
     3146
     3147
     3148 </p>
     3149
     3150
     3151
     3152 
     3153     
     3154     
     3155     
     3156      <p><br>
     3157
     3158
     3159
     3160
    6403161The fast fourier transformation (FFT) is used for solving the
    6413162perturbation pressure equation with a direct method (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
    6423163and for calculating power spectra (see optional software packages,
    6433164section <a href="chapter_4.2.html#spectra_package">4.2</a>).</p>
    644 <p><br>
     3165
     3166
     3167
     3168
     3169     
     3170     
     3171     
     3172      <p><br>
     3173
     3174
     3175
     3176
    6453177By default, system-specific, optimized routines from external
    6463178vendor libraries are used. However, these are available only on certain
    6473179computers and there are more or less severe restrictions concerning the
    648 number of gridpoints to be used with them.<br> </p> <p>There
     3180number of gridpoints to be used with them.<br>
     3181
     3182
     3183
     3184 </p>
     3185
     3186
     3187
     3188 
     3189     
     3190     
     3191     
     3192      <p>There
    6493193are two other PALM internal methods available on every
    6503194machine (their respective source code is part of the PALM source code):</p>
    651 <p>1.: The <span style="font-weight: bold;">Temperton</span>-method
     3195
     3196
     3197
     3198
     3199     
     3200     
     3201     
     3202      <p>1.: The <span style="font-weight: bold;">Temperton</span>-method
    6523203from Clive Temperton (ECWMF) which is computationally very fast and
    6533204switched on with <b>fft_method</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'temperton-algorithm'</span>.
    6543205The number of horizontal gridpoints (nx+1, ny+1) to be used with this
    655 method must be composed of prime factors 2, 3 and 5.<br> </p>
     3206method must be composed of prime factors 2, 3 and 5.<br>
     3207
     3208
     3209
     3210 </p>
     3211
     3212
     3213
     3214
    65632152.: The <span style="font-weight: bold;">Singleton</span>-method
    6573216which is very slow but has no restrictions concerning the number of
    6583217gridpoints to be used with, switched on with <b>fft_method</b>
    6593218= <span style="font-style: italic;">'singleton-algorithm'</span>.
    660 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="galilei_transformation"></a><b>galilei_transformation</b></p>
    661 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    662 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
    663 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Application of a
     3219      </td>
     3220
     3221
     3222
     3223 </tr>
     3224
     3225
     3226
     3227 <tr>
     3228
     3229
     3230
     3231 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3232     
     3233     
     3234     
     3235      <p><a name="galilei_transformation"></a><b>galilei_transformation</b></p>
     3236
     3237
     3238
     3239
     3240      </td>
     3241
     3242
     3243
     3244 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     3245
     3246
     3247
     3248
     3249      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
     3250
     3251
     3252
     3253
     3254      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Application of a
    6643255Galilei-transformation to the
    6653256coordinate
    666 system of the model.<br><p>With <b>galilei_transformation</b>
     3257system of the model.<br>
     3258
     3259
     3260
     3261     
     3262     
     3263     
     3264      <p>With <b>galilei_transformation</b>
    6673265= <i>.T.,</i> a so-called
    6683266Galilei-transformation is switched on which ensures that the coordinate
     
    6803278each case, the distance the coordinate system has been moved is written
    6813279to the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
    682 </p> <p>Non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
     3280      </p>
     3281
     3282
     3283
     3284 
     3285     
     3286     
     3287     
     3288      <p>Non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    6833289and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>), the specification
    6843290of a gestrophic
    6853291wind that is not constant with height
    6863292as well as e.g. stationary inhomogeneities at the bottom boundary do
    687 not allow the use of this transformation.</p> </td> </tr>
    688 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="grid_matching"></a><b>grid_matching</b></p>
    689 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 6</td>
    690 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'match'</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variable to adjust the
     3293not allow the use of this transformation.</p>
     3294
     3295
     3296
     3297 </td>
     3298
     3299
     3300
     3301 </tr>
     3302
     3303
     3304
     3305
     3306    <tr>
     3307
     3308
     3309
     3310 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3311     
     3312     
     3313     
     3314      <p><a name="grid_matching"></a><b>grid_matching</b></p>
     3315
     3316
     3317
     3318
     3319      </td>
     3320
     3321
     3322
     3323 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 6</td>
     3324
     3325
     3326
     3327
     3328      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'match'</span></td>
     3329
     3330
     3331
     3332 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variable to adjust the
    6913333subdomain
    692 sizes in parallel runs.<br> <br>
     3334sizes in parallel runs.<br>
     3335
     3336
     3337
     3338 <br>
     3339
     3340
     3341
     3342
    6933343For <b>grid_matching</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
    6943344the subdomains are forced to have an identical
     
    6993349and <a href="#nz">nz</a>).
    7003350Advantage of this method is that all PEs bear the same computational
    701 load.<br> <br>
     3351load.<br>
     3352
     3353
     3354
     3355 <br>
     3356
     3357
     3358
     3359
    7023360There is no such restriction by default, because then smaller
    7033361subdomains are allowed on those processors which
     
    7073365the grid point numbers used. Information about the respective settings
    7083366are given in file <a href="file:///home/raasch/public_html/PALM_group/home/raasch/public_html/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.<br>
    709 <br>
     3367
     3368
     3369
     3370
     3371      <br>
     3372
     3373
     3374
     3375
    7103376When using a multi-grid method for solving the Poisson equation (see <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
    7113377only <b>grid_matching</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>
    712 is allowed.<br> <br> <b>Note:</b><br>
     3378is allowed.<br>
     3379
     3380
     3381
     3382 <br>
     3383
     3384
     3385
     3386 <b>Note:</b><br>
     3387
     3388
     3389
     3390
    7133391In some cases for small processor numbers there may be a very bad load
    7143392balancing among the
    715 processors which may reduce the performance of the code.</td> </tr>
    716 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_begin"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
    717 begin</b></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    718 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(10,</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">nx/2 or ny/2)</span></td>
    719 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Lower
     3393processors which may reduce the performance of the code.</td>
     3394
     3395
     3396
     3397 </tr>
     3398
     3399
     3400
     3401
     3402    <tr>
     3403
     3404
     3405
     3406 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_begin"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
     3407
     3408
     3409
     3410
     3411begin</b></td>
     3412
     3413
     3414
     3415 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     3416
     3417
     3418
     3419
     3420      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(10,</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     3421
     3422
     3423
     3424 <span style="font-style: italic;">nx/2 or ny/2)</span></td>
     3425
     3426
     3427
     3428
     3429      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Lower
    7203430limit of the horizontal range for which random perturbations are to be
    721 imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br> <br>
     3431imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br>
     3432
     3433
     3434
     3435 <br>
     3436
     3437
     3438
     3439
    7223440If non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    7233441or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
     
    7263444horizontal velocity field. Perturbations must be switched on with
    7273445parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>.</td>
    728 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_end"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
    729 end</b></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    730 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(100,</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*nx or</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*ny)</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Upper
     3446
     3447
     3448
     3449
     3450    </tr>
     3451
     3452
     3453
     3454 <tr>
     3455
     3456
     3457
     3458 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_end"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
     3459
     3460
     3461
     3462
     3463end</b></td>
     3464
     3465
     3466
     3467 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     3468
     3469
     3470
     3471
     3472      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(100,</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     3473
     3474
     3475
     3476 <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*nx or</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     3477
     3478
     3479
     3480 <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*ny)</span></td>
     3481
     3482
     3483
     3484 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Upper
    7313485limit of the horizontal range for which random perturbations are
    732 to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br> <br>
     3486to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br>
     3487
     3488
     3489
     3490 <br>
     3491
     3492
     3493
     3494
    7333495If non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    7343496or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
     
    7373499horizontal
    7383500velocity field. Perturbations must be switched on with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>.</td>
    739 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    740 <p><a name="initializing_actions"></a><b>initializing_actions</b></p>
    741 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 100</td>
    742 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p style="font-style: normal;">Initialization actions
    743 to be carried out.&nbsp; </p> <p style="font-style: normal;">This parameter does not have a
     3501
     3502
     3503
     3504
     3505    </tr>
     3506
     3507
     3508
     3509 <tr>
     3510
     3511
     3512
     3513 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3514     
     3515     
     3516     
     3517      <p><a name="initializing_actions"></a><b>initializing_actions</b></p>
     3518
     3519
     3520
     3521
     3522      </td>
     3523
     3524
     3525
     3526 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 100</td>
     3527
     3528
     3529
     3530
     3531      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     3532
     3533
     3534
     3535 </td>
     3536
     3537
     3538
     3539 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3540     
     3541     
     3542     
     3543      <p style="font-style: normal;">Initialization actions
     3544to be carried out.&nbsp; </p>
     3545
     3546
     3547
     3548 
     3549     
     3550     
     3551     
     3552      <p style="font-style: normal;">This parameter does not have a
    7443553default value and therefore must be assigned with each model run. For
    7453554restart runs <b>initializing_actions</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'read_restart_data'</span>
    7463555must be set. For the initial run of a job chain the following values
    747 are allowed:&nbsp; </p> <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>
    748 </p> <ul> <p>A horizontal wind profile consisting
     3556are allowed:&nbsp; </p>
     3557
     3558
     3559
     3560 
     3561     
     3562     
     3563     
     3564      <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>
     3565      </p>
     3566
     3567
     3568
     3569 
     3570     
     3571     
     3572     
     3573      <ul>
     3574
     3575
     3576
     3577 
     3578       
     3579       
     3580       
     3581        <p>A horizontal wind profile consisting
    7493582of linear sections (see <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>,
    750 <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>,
    751 <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient_level">ug_vertical_gradient_level</a>
     3583        <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>,
     3584        <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient_level">ug_vertical_gradient_level</a>
    7523585and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>, <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient">vg_vertical_gradient</a>,
    753 <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient_level">vg_vertical_gradient_level</a>,
     3586        <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient_level">vg_vertical_gradient_level</a>,
    7543587respectively) as well as a vertical temperature (humidity) profile
    7553588consisting of
    7563589linear sections (see <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>,
    757 <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>,
    758 <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>
     3590        <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>,
     3591        <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>
    7593592and <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>)
    7603593are assumed as initial profiles. The subgrid-scale TKE is set to 0 but K<sub>m</sub>
    7613594and K<sub>h</sub> are set to very small values because
    7623595otherwise no TKE
    763 would be generated.</p> </ul> <p style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles' </p>
    764 <ul> <p>The arrays of the 3d-model are initialized with
     3596would be generated.</p>
     3597
     3598
     3599
     3600 
     3601     
     3602     
     3603     
     3604      </ul>
     3605
     3606
     3607
     3608 
     3609     
     3610     
     3611     
     3612      <p style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles' </p>
     3613
     3614
     3615
     3616
     3617     
     3618     
     3619     
     3620      <ul>
     3621
     3622
     3623
     3624 
     3625       
     3626       
     3627       
     3628        <p>The arrays of the 3d-model are initialized with
    7653629the
    7663630(stationary) solution of the 1d-model. These are the variables e, kh,
     
    77036341d-model. For steering of the 1d-model a set of parameters with suffix
    7713635"_1d" (e.g. <a href="#end_time_1d">end_time_1d</a>,
    772 <a href="#damp_level_1d">damp_level_1d</a>)
    773 is available.</p> </ul> <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'by_user'</span></p><p style="margin-left: 40px;">The initialization of the arrays
     3636        <a href="#damp_level_1d">damp_level_1d</a>)
     3637is available.</p>
     3638
     3639
     3640
     3641 
     3642     
     3643     
     3644     
     3645      </ul>
     3646
     3647
     3648
     3649 
     3650     
     3651     
     3652     
     3653      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'by_user'</span></p>
     3654
     3655
     3656
     3657     
     3658     
     3659     
     3660      <p style="margin-left: 40px;">The initialization of the arrays
    7743661of the 3d-model is under complete control of the user and has to be
    7753662done in routine <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init_3d_model">user_init_3d_model</a>
    776 of the user-interface.<span style="font-style: italic;"></span></p><p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_vortex'</span>
    777 </p> <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The initial
     3663of the user-interface.<span style="font-style: italic;"></span></p>
     3664
     3665
     3666
     3667     
     3668     
     3669     
     3670      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_vortex'</span>
     3671      </p>
     3672
     3673
     3674
     3675 
     3676     
     3677     
     3678     
     3679      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The initial
    7783680velocity field of the
    77936813d-model corresponds to a
     
    7903692extends from k = 0 to k = nz+1. Its radius is 8 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
    7913693and the exponentially decaying part ranges to 32 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
    792 (see init_rankine.f90). </div> <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_ptanom'</span>
    793 </p> <ul> <p>A 2d-Gauss-like shape disturbance
     3694(see init_rankine.f90). </div>
     3695
     3696
     3697
     3698 
     3699     
     3700     
     3701     
     3702      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_ptanom'</span>
     3703      </p>
     3704
     3705
     3706
     3707 
     3708     
     3709     
     3710     
     3711      <ul>
     3712
     3713
     3714
     3715 
     3716       
     3717       
     3718       
     3719        <p>A 2d-Gauss-like shape disturbance
    7943720(x,y) is added to the
    7953721initial temperature field with radius 10.0 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
     
    8043730requires the user to comment out the call of <span style="font-family: monospace;">buoyancy</span> in the
    8053731source code of <span style="font-family: monospace;">prognostic_equations.f90</span>).</p>
    806 </ul> <p style="font-style: normal;">Values may be
     3732
     3733
     3734
     3735
     3736     
     3737     
     3738     
     3739      </ul>
     3740
     3741
     3742
     3743 
     3744     
     3745     
     3746     
     3747      <p style="font-style: normal;">Values may be
    8073748combined, e.g. <b>initializing_actions</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles
    8083749initialize_vortex'</span>, but the values of <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>,
    809 <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>
     3750      <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>
    8103751, and <span style="font-style: italic;">'by_user'</span>
    811 must not be given at the same time.</p> <p style="font-style: italic;"> </p> </td> </tr>
    812 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="km_constant"></a><b>km_constant</b></p>
    813 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    814 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable<br>
    815 (computed from TKE)</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Constant eddy
     3752must not be given at the same time.</p>
     3753
     3754
     3755
     3756 
     3757     
     3758     
     3759     
     3760      <p style="font-style: italic;"> </p>
     3761
     3762
     3763
     3764 </td>
     3765
     3766
     3767
     3768 </tr>
     3769
     3770
     3771
     3772
     3773    <tr>
     3774
     3775
     3776
     3777 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3778     
     3779     
     3780     
     3781      <p><a name="km_constant"></a><b>km_constant</b></p>
     3782
     3783
     3784
     3785
     3786      </td>
     3787
     3788
     3789
     3790 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     3791
     3792
     3793
     3794
     3795      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable<br>
     3796
     3797
     3798
     3799
     3800(computed from TKE)</i></td>
     3801
     3802
     3803
     3804 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3805     
     3806     
     3807     
     3808      <p>Constant eddy
    8163809diffusivities are used (laminar
    817 simulations).&nbsp; </p> <p>If this parameter is
     3810simulations).&nbsp; </p>
     3811
     3812
     3813
     3814 
     3815     
     3816     
     3817     
     3818      <p>If this parameter is
    8183819specified, both in the 1d and in the
    81938203d-model constant values for the eddy diffusivities are used in
     
    8223823The prognostic equation for the subgrid-scale TKE is switched off.
    8233824Constant eddy diffusivities are only allowed with the Prandtl layer (<a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
    824 switched off.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="km_damp_max"></a><b>km_damp_max</b></p>
    825 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    826 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.5*(dx
    827 or dy)</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
     3825switched off.</p>
     3826
     3827
     3828
     3829 </td>
     3830
     3831
     3832
     3833 </tr>
     3834
     3835
     3836
     3837 <tr>
     3838
     3839
     3840
     3841 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3842     
     3843     
     3844     
     3845      <p><a name="km_damp_max"></a><b>km_damp_max</b></p>
     3846
     3847
     3848
     3849
     3850      </td>
     3851
     3852
     3853
     3854 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     3855
     3856
     3857
     3858
     3859      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.5*(dx
     3860or dy)</span></td>
     3861
     3862
     3863
     3864 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
    8283865diffusivity used for filtering the velocity field in the vicinity of
    829 the outflow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).<br> <br>
     3866the outflow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).<br>
     3867
     3868
     3869
     3870 <br>
     3871
     3872
     3873
     3874
    8303875When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    8313876or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
     
    8373882parallel to the outflow boundary are filtered (e.g. v and w, if the
    8383883outflow is along x). Damping is applied from the bottom to the top of
    839 the domain.<br> <br>
     3884the domain.<br>
     3885
     3886
     3887
     3888 <br>
     3889
     3890
     3891
     3892
    8403893The horizontal range of the smoothing is controlled by <a href="#outflow_damping_width">outflow_damping_width</a>
    8413894which defines the number of gridpoints (counted from the outflow
     
    8463899up to the outflow boundary. If at a certain grid point the eddy
    8473900diffusivity calculated from the flow field is larger than as described
    848 above, it is used instead.<br> <br>
     3901above, it is used instead.<br>
     3902
     3903
     3904
     3905 <br>
     3906
     3907
     3908
     3909
    8493910The default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">km_damp_max</span>
    850 has been empirically proven to be sufficient.</td> </tr> <tr>
    851 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="long_filter_factor"></a><b>long_filter_factor</b></p>
    852 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    853 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    854 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Filter factor
    855 for the so-called Long-filter.<br> </p> <p><br>
     3911has been empirically proven to be sufficient.</td>
     3912
     3913
     3914
     3915 </tr>
     3916
     3917
     3918
     3919 <tr>
     3920
     3921
     3922
     3923
     3924      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3925     
     3926     
     3927     
     3928      <p><a name="long_filter_factor"></a><b>long_filter_factor</b></p>
     3929
     3930
     3931
     3932
     3933      </td>
     3934
     3935
     3936
     3937 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     3938
     3939
     3940
     3941
     3942      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     3943
     3944
     3945
     3946
     3947      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     3948     
     3949     
     3950     
     3951      <p>Filter factor
     3952for the so-called Long-filter.<br>
     3953
     3954
     3955
     3956 </p>
     3957
     3958
     3959
     3960 
     3961     
     3962     
     3963     
     3964      <p><br>
     3965
     3966
     3967
     3968
    8563969This filter very efficiently
    8573970eliminates 2-delta-waves sometimes cauesed by the upstream-spline
     
    8613974= <i>0.01</i>
    8623975sufficiently removes the small-scale waves without affecting the
    863 longer waves.<br> </p> <p>By default, the filter is
     3976longer waves.<br>
     3977
     3978
     3979
     3980 </p>
     3981
     3982
     3983
     3984 
     3985     
     3986     
     3987     
     3988      <p>By default, the filter is
    8643989switched off (= <i>0.0</i>).
    8653990It is exclusively applied to the tendencies calculated by the
     
    87039952-delta-waves is reduced. There, the amplitude of these waves is only
    8713996reduced by approx. 50%, otherwise by nearly 100%.&nbsp; <br>
     3997
     3998
     3999
     4000
    8724001Filter factors with values &gt; <i>0.01</i> also
    8734002reduce the amplitudes
    8744003of waves with wavelengths longer than 2-delta (see the paper by Mahrer
    8754004and
    876 Pielke, quoted above). </p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="loop_optimization"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">C*16</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td><td>Method used to optimize loops for solving the prognostic equations .<br><br>By
     4005Pielke, quoted above). </p>
     4006
     4007
     4008
     4009 </td>
     4010
     4011
     4012
     4013 </tr>
     4014
     4015
     4016
     4017 <tr>
     4018
     4019
     4020
     4021      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="loop_optimization"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span></td>
     4022
     4023
     4024
     4025      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*16</td>
     4026
     4027
     4028
     4029      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
     4030
     4031
     4032
     4033      <td>Method used to optimize loops for solving the prognostic equations .<br>
     4034
     4035
     4036
     4037      <br>
     4038
     4039
     4040
     4041By
    8774042default, the optimization method depends on the host on which PALM is
    8784043running. On machines with vector-type CPUs, single 3d-loops are used to
    8794044calculate each tendency term of each prognostic equation, while on all
    8804045other machines, all prognostic equations are solved within one big loop
    881 over the two horizontal indices<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> i </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> j </span>(giving a good cache uitilization).<br><br>The default behaviour can be changed by setting either <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'vector'</span> or <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'cache'</span>.</td></tr><tr>
    882 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mixing_length_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">mixing_length_1d</span><br>
    883 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
    884 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br> </td>
    885 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length used in the
    886 1d-model.<br> <br>
     4046over the two horizontal indices<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> i </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> j </span>(giving a good cache uitilization).<br>
     4047
     4048
     4049
     4050      <br>
     4051
     4052
     4053
     4054The default behaviour can be changed by setting either <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'vector'</span> or <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'cache'</span>.</td>
     4055
     4056
     4057
     4058    </tr>
     4059
     4060
     4061
     4062    <tr>
     4063
     4064
     4065
     4066
     4067      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mixing_length_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">mixing_length_1d</span><br>
     4068
     4069
     4070
     4071
     4072      </td>
     4073
     4074
     4075
     4076 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
     4077
     4078
     4079
     4080
     4081      </td>
     4082
     4083
     4084
     4085 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     4086
     4087
     4088
     4089 <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br>
     4090
     4091
     4092
     4093 </td>
     4094
     4095
     4096
     4097
     4098      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length used in the
     40991d-model.<br>
     4100
     4101
     4102
     4103 <br>
     4104
     4105
     4106
     4107
    8874108By default the mixing length is calculated as in the 3d-model (i.e. it
    888 depends on the grid spacing).<br> <br>
     4109depends on the grid spacing).<br>
     4110
     4111
     4112
     4113 <br>
     4114
     4115
     4116
     4117
    8894118By setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">mixing_length_1d</span>
    8904119= <span style="font-style: italic;">'blackadar'</span>,
    8914120the so-called Blackadar mixing length is used (l = kappa * z / ( 1 +
    8924121kappa * z / lambda ) with the limiting value lambda = 2.7E-4 * u_g / f).<br>
    893 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="humidity"></a><b>humidity</b></p>
    894 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    895 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
    896 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Parameter to
     4122
     4123
     4124
     4125
     4126      </td>
     4127
     4128
     4129
     4130 </tr>
     4131
     4132
     4133
     4134 <tr>
     4135
     4136
     4137
     4138 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4139     
     4140     
     4141     
     4142      <p><a name="humidity"></a><b>humidity</b></p>
     4143
     4144
     4145
     4146
     4147      </td>
     4148
     4149
     4150
     4151 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     4152
     4153
     4154
     4155
     4156      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
     4157
     4158
     4159
     4160
     4161      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4162     
     4163     
     4164     
     4165      <p>Parameter to
    8974166switch on the prognostic equation for specific
    898 humidity q.<br> </p> <p>The initial vertical
     4167humidity q.<br>
     4168
     4169
     4170
     4171 </p>
     4172
     4173
     4174
     4175 
     4176     
     4177     
     4178     
     4179      <p>The initial vertical
    8994180profile of q can be set via parameters <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_surface">q_surface</a>, <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>
    9004181and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>.&nbsp;
    9014182Boundary conditions can be set via <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_surface_initial_change">q_surface_initial_change</a>
    9024183and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#surface_waterflux">surface_waterflux</a>.<br>
    903 </p>
     4184
     4185
     4186
     4187
     4188      </p>
     4189
     4190
     4191
     4192
    9044193If the condensation scheme is switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
    9054194= .TRUE.), q becomes the total liquid water content (sum of specific
    906 humidity and liquid water content).</td> </tr>
    907 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="momentum_advec"></a><b>momentum_advec</b></p>
    908 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
    909 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'pw-scheme'</i></td>
    910 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Advection
    911 scheme to be used for the momentum equations.<br> <br>
     4195humidity and liquid water content).</td>
     4196
     4197
     4198
     4199 </tr>
     4200
     4201
     4202
     4203
     4204    <tr>
     4205
     4206
     4207
     4208 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4209     
     4210     
     4211     
     4212      <p><a name="momentum_advec"></a><b>momentum_advec</b></p>
     4213
     4214
     4215
     4216
     4217      </td>
     4218
     4219
     4220
     4221 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
     4222
     4223
     4224
     4225
     4226      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'pw-scheme'</i></td>
     4227
     4228
     4229
     4230
     4231      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4232     
     4233     
     4234     
     4235      <p>Advection
     4236scheme to be used for the momentum equations.<br>
     4237
     4238
     4239
     4240 <br>
     4241
     4242
     4243
     4244
    9124245The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
    913 &nbsp;<br> <br> <span style="font-style: italic;">'pw-scheme'</span><br>
    914 </p> <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The scheme of
     4246
     4247
     4248
     4249
     4250&nbsp;<br>
     4251
     4252
     4253
     4254 <br>
     4255
     4256
     4257
     4258 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pw-scheme'</span><br>
     4259
     4260
     4261
     4262
     4263      </p>
     4264
     4265
     4266
     4267 
     4268     
     4269     
     4270     
     4271      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The scheme of
    9154272Piascek and
    9164273Williams (1970, J. Comp. Phys., 6,
    9174274392-405) with central differences in the form C3 is used.<br>
     4275
     4276
     4277
     4278
    9184279If intermediate Euler-timesteps are carried out in case of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>
    9194280= <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span>
    9204281the
    9214282advection scheme is - for the Euler-timestep - automatically switched
    922 to an upstream-scheme.<br> </div> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span><br>
    923 </p> <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The
     4283to an upstream-scheme.<br>
     4284
     4285
     4286
     4287 </div>
     4288
     4289
     4290
     4291 
     4292     
     4293     
     4294     
     4295      <p> </p>
     4296
     4297
     4298
     4299 
     4300     
     4301     
     4302     
     4303      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span><br>
     4304
     4305
     4306
     4307
     4308      </p>
     4309
     4310
     4311
     4312 
     4313     
     4314     
     4315     
     4316      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The
    9244317upstream-spline scheme is
    9254318used
     
    9384331because otherwise the scalar variables would
    9394332be subject to large numerical diffusion due to the upstream
    940 scheme.&nbsp; </div> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">Since
     4333scheme.&nbsp; </div>
     4334
     4335
     4336
     4337 
     4338     
     4339     
     4340     
     4341      <p style="margin-left: 40px;">Since
    9414342the cubic splines used tend
    9424343to overshoot under
    9434344certain circumstances, this effect must be adjusted by suitable
    9444345filtering and smoothing (see <a href="#cut_spline_overshoot">cut_spline_overshoot</a>,
    945 <a href="#long_filter_factor">long_filter_factor</a>,
    946 <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_u">ups_limit_u</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_v">ups_limit_v</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_w">ups_limit_w</a>).
     4346      <a href="#long_filter_factor">long_filter_factor</a>,
     4347      <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_u">ups_limit_u</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_v">ups_limit_v</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_w">ups_limit_w</a>).
    9474348This is always neccessary for runs with stable stratification,
    9484349even if this stratification appears only in parts of the model domain.<br>
    949 </p> <div style="margin-left: 40px;">With stable
     4350
     4351
     4352
     4353
     4354      </p>
     4355
     4356
     4357
     4358 
     4359     
     4360     
     4361     
     4362      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">With stable
    9504363stratification the
    9514364upstream-spline scheme also
    9524365produces gravity waves with large amplitude, which must be
    9534366suitably damped (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>).<br>
    954 <br> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important: </span>The&nbsp;
     4367
     4368
     4369
     4370
     4371      <br>
     4372
     4373
     4374
     4375 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important: </span>The&nbsp;
    9554376upstream-spline scheme is not implemented for humidity and passive
    9564377scalars (see&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>
     
    9604381very long execution times! The scheme is also not allowed for
    9614382non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    962 and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</div> </td>
    963 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_precision"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span><br>
    964 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
    965 (10)<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">single preci-</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">sion for all</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">output quan-</span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">tities</span><br> </td>
    966 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Defines the accuracy of
    967 the NetCDF output.<br> <br>
     4383and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</div>
     4384
     4385
     4386
     4387 </td>
     4388
     4389
     4390
     4391
     4392    </tr>
     4393
     4394
     4395
     4396 <tr>
     4397
     4398
     4399
     4400 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_precision"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span><br>
     4401
     4402
     4403
     4404
     4405      </td>
     4406
     4407
     4408
     4409 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
     4410
     4411
     4412
     4413
     4414(10)<br>
     4415
     4416
     4417
     4418 </td>
     4419
     4420
     4421
     4422 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">single preci-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     4423
     4424
     4425
     4426 <span style="font-style: italic;">sion for all</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     4427
     4428
     4429
     4430 <span style="font-style: italic;">output quan-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
     4431
     4432
     4433
     4434 <span style="font-style: italic;">tities</span><br>
     4435
     4436
     4437
     4438 </td>
     4439
     4440
     4441
     4442
     4443      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Defines the accuracy of
     4444the NetCDF output.<br>
     4445
     4446
     4447
     4448 <br>
     4449
     4450
     4451
     4452
    9684453By default, all NetCDF output data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
    9694454have single precision&nbsp; (4 byte) accuracy. Double precision (8
    9704455byte) can be choosen alternatively.<br>
     4456
     4457
     4458
     4459
    9714460Accuracy for the different output data (cross sections, 3d-volume data,
    972 spectra, etc.) can be set independently.<br> <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;_NF90_REAL4'</span>
     4461spectra, etc.) can be set independently.<br>
     4462
     4463
     4464
     4465 <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;_NF90_REAL4'</span>
    9734466(single precision) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;_NF90_REAL8'</span>
    9744467(double precision) are the two principally allowed values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span>,
    9754468where the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;'
    976 </span>can be chosen out of the following list:<br> <br>
    977 <table style="text-align: left; width: 284px; height: 234px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody>
    978 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xy'</span><br> </td>
    979 <td style="vertical-align: top;">horizontal cross section<br>
    980 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xz'</span><br> </td>
    981 <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (xz) cross
    982 section<br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'yz'</span><br> </td>
    983 <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (yz) cross
    984 section<br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'2d'</span><br> </td>
    985 <td style="vertical-align: top;">all cross sections<br>
    986 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'3d'</span><br> </td>
    987 <td style="vertical-align: top;">volume data<br> </td>
    988 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'pr'</span><br> </td>
    989 <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical profiles<br>
    990 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'ts'</span><br> </td>
    991 <td style="vertical-align: top;">time series, particle
    992 time series<br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'sp'</span><br> </td>
    993 <td style="vertical-align: top;">spectra<br> </td>
    994 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'prt'</span><br> </td>
    995 <td style="vertical-align: top;">particles<br> </td>
    996 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'all'</span><br> </td>
    997 <td style="vertical-align: top;">all output quantities<br>
    998 </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <br> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
     4469      </span>can be chosen out of the following list:<br>
     4470
     4471
     4472
     4473 <br>
     4474
     4475
     4476
     4477
     4478     
     4479     
     4480     
     4481      <table style="text-align: left; width: 284px; height: 234px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
     4482
     4483
     4484
     4485 <tbody>
     4486
     4487
     4488
     4489
     4490          <tr>
     4491
     4492
     4493
     4494 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xy'</span><br>
     4495
     4496
     4497
     4498 </td>
     4499
     4500
     4501
     4502
     4503            <td style="vertical-align: top;">horizontal cross section<br>
     4504
     4505
     4506
     4507
     4508            </td>
     4509
     4510
     4511
     4512 </tr>
     4513
     4514
     4515
     4516 <tr>
     4517
     4518
     4519
     4520 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xz'</span><br>
     4521
     4522
     4523
     4524 </td>
     4525
     4526
     4527
     4528
     4529            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (xz) cross
     4530section<br>
     4531
     4532
     4533
     4534 </td>
     4535
     4536
     4537
     4538 </tr>
     4539
     4540
     4541
     4542 <tr>
     4543
     4544
     4545
     4546 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'yz'</span><br>
     4547
     4548
     4549
     4550 </td>
     4551
     4552
     4553
     4554
     4555            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (yz) cross
     4556section<br>
     4557
     4558
     4559
     4560 </td>
     4561
     4562
     4563
     4564 </tr>
     4565
     4566
     4567
     4568 <tr>
     4569
     4570
     4571
     4572 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'2d'</span><br>
     4573
     4574
     4575
     4576 </td>
     4577
     4578
     4579
     4580
     4581            <td style="vertical-align: top;">all cross sections<br>
     4582
     4583
     4584
     4585
     4586            </td>
     4587
     4588
     4589
     4590 </tr>
     4591
     4592
     4593
     4594 <tr>
     4595
     4596
     4597
     4598 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'3d'</span><br>
     4599
     4600
     4601
     4602 </td>
     4603
     4604
     4605
     4606
     4607            <td style="vertical-align: top;">volume data<br>
     4608
     4609
     4610
     4611 </td>
     4612
     4613
     4614
     4615
     4616          </tr>
     4617
     4618
     4619
     4620 <tr>
     4621
     4622
     4623
     4624 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'pr'</span><br>
     4625
     4626
     4627
     4628 </td>
     4629
     4630
     4631
     4632
     4633            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical profiles<br>
     4634
     4635
     4636
     4637
     4638            </td>
     4639
     4640
     4641
     4642 </tr>
     4643
     4644
     4645
     4646 <tr>
     4647
     4648
     4649
     4650 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'ts'</span><br>
     4651
     4652
     4653
     4654 </td>
     4655
     4656
     4657
     4658
     4659            <td style="vertical-align: top;">time series, particle
     4660time series<br>
     4661
     4662
     4663
     4664 </td>
     4665
     4666
     4667
     4668 </tr>
     4669
     4670
     4671
     4672 <tr>
     4673
     4674
     4675
     4676 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'sp'</span><br>
     4677
     4678
     4679
     4680 </td>
     4681
     4682
     4683
     4684
     4685            <td style="vertical-align: top;">spectra<br>
     4686
     4687
     4688
     4689 </td>
     4690
     4691
     4692
     4693
     4694          </tr>
     4695
     4696
     4697
     4698 <tr>
     4699
     4700
     4701
     4702 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'prt'</span><br>
     4703
     4704
     4705
     4706 </td>
     4707
     4708
     4709
     4710
     4711            <td style="vertical-align: top;">particles<br>
     4712
     4713
     4714
     4715 </td>
     4716
     4717
     4718
     4719
     4720          </tr>
     4721
     4722
     4723
     4724 <tr>
     4725
     4726
     4727
     4728 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'all'</span><br>
     4729
     4730
     4731
     4732 </td>
     4733
     4734
     4735
     4736
     4737            <td style="vertical-align: top;">all output quantities<br>
     4738
     4739
     4740
     4741
     4742            </td>
     4743
     4744
     4745
     4746 </tr>
     4747
     4748
     4749
     4750 
     4751       
     4752       
     4753       
     4754        </tbody>
     4755     
     4756     
     4757     
     4758      </table>
     4759
     4760
     4761
     4762 <br>
     4763
     4764
     4765
     4766 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
     4767
     4768
     4769
     4770
    9994771If all cross section data and the particle data shall be output in
    10004772double precision and all other quantities in single precision, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'2d_NF90_REAL8'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'prt_NF90_REAL8'</span>
    1001 has to be assigned.<br> </td> </tr>
    1002 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="npex"></a><b>npex</b></p> </td>
    1003 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of processors
     4773has to be assigned.<br>
     4774
     4775
     4776
     4777 </td>
     4778
     4779
     4780
     4781 </tr>
     4782
     4783
     4784
     4785
     4786    <tr>
     4787
     4788
     4789
     4790 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4791     
     4792     
     4793     
     4794      <p><a name="npex"></a><b>npex</b></p>
     4795
     4796
     4797
     4798 </td>
     4799
     4800
     4801
     4802
     4803      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     4804
     4805
     4806
     4807 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     4808
     4809
     4810
     4811 </td>
     4812
     4813
     4814
     4815 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4816     
     4817     
     4818     
     4819      <p>Number of processors
    10044820along x-direction of the virtual
    10054821processor
    1006 net.&nbsp; </p> <p>For parallel runs, the total
     4822net.&nbsp; </p>
     4823
     4824
     4825
     4826 
     4827     
     4828     
     4829     
     4830      <p>For parallel runs, the total
    10074831number of processors to be used
    10084832is given by
     
    10274851differ extremely, the
    10284852processor net should be manually adjusted using adequate values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>.&nbsp; </p>
    1029 <p><b>Important:</b> The value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> * <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span> must exactly
     4853
     4854
     4855
     4856
     4857     
     4858     
     4859     
     4860      <p><b>Important:</b> The value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> * <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span> must exactly
    10304861correspond to the
    10314862value assigned by the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
    1032 <tt>-X</tt>.
     4863      <tt>-X</tt>.
    10334864Otherwise the model run will abort with a corresponding error
    10344865message.&nbsp; <br>
     4866
     4867
     4868
     4869
    10354870Additionally, the specification of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
    10364871and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
     
    10384873override the default setting for the domain decomposition (1d or 2d)
    10394874which may have a significant (negative) effect on the code performance.
    1040 </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="npey"></a><b>npey</b></p>
    1041 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1042 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of processors
     4875      </p>
     4876
     4877
     4878
     4879 </td>
     4880
     4881
     4882
     4883 </tr>
     4884
     4885
     4886
     4887 <tr>
     4888
     4889
     4890
     4891 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4892     
     4893     
     4894     
     4895      <p><a name="npey"></a><b>npey</b></p>
     4896
     4897
     4898
     4899
     4900      </td>
     4901
     4902
     4903
     4904 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     4905
     4906
     4907
     4908
     4909      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     4910
     4911
     4912
     4913 </td>
     4914
     4915
     4916
     4917 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4918     
     4919     
     4920     
     4921      <p>Number of processors
    10434922along y-direction of the virtual
    10444923processor
    1045 net.&nbsp; </p> <p>For further information see <a href="#npex">npex</a>.</p> </td> </tr>
    1046 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nsor_ini"></a><b>nsor_ini</b></p>
    1047 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1048 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100</i></td>
    1049 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Initial number
    1050 of iterations with the SOR algorithm.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     4924net.&nbsp; </p>
     4925
     4926
     4927
     4928 
     4929     
     4930     
     4931     
     4932      <p>For further information see <a href="#npex">npex</a>.</p>
     4933
     4934
     4935
     4936 </td>
     4937
     4938
     4939
     4940 </tr>
     4941
     4942
     4943
     4944
     4945    <tr>
     4946
     4947
     4948
     4949 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4950     
     4951     
     4952     
     4953      <p><a name="nsor_ini"></a><b>nsor_ini</b></p>
     4954
     4955
     4956
     4957
     4958      </td>
     4959
     4960
     4961
     4962 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     4963
     4964
     4965
     4966
     4967      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100</i></td>
     4968
     4969
     4970
     4971
     4972      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     4973     
     4974     
     4975     
     4976      <p>Initial number
     4977of iterations with the SOR algorithm.&nbsp; </p>
     4978
     4979
     4980
     4981 
     4982     
     4983     
     4984     
     4985      <p>This
    10514986parameter is only effective if the SOR algorithm was
    10524987selected as the pressure solver scheme (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>
     
    10634998test runs should determine whether sufficient convergence of the
    10644999solution is obtained with the default value and if necessary the value
    1065 of <b>nsor_ini</b> should be changed.</p> </td>
    1066 </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1067 <p><a name="nx"></a><b>nx</b></p>
    1068 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1069 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of grid
    1070 points in x-direction.&nbsp; </p> <p>A value for this
     5000of <b>nsor_ini</b> should be changed.</p>
     5001
     5002
     5003
     5004 </td>
     5005
     5006
     5007
     5008
     5009    </tr>
     5010
     5011
     5012
     5013 <tr>
     5014
     5015
     5016
     5017 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5018     
     5019     
     5020     
     5021      <p><a name="nx"></a><b>nx</b></p>
     5022
     5023
     5024
     5025
     5026      </td>
     5027
     5028
     5029
     5030 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     5031
     5032
     5033
     5034
     5035      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     5036
     5037
     5038
     5039 </td>
     5040
     5041
     5042
     5043 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5044     
     5045     
     5046     
     5047      <p>Number of grid
     5048points in x-direction.&nbsp; </p>
     5049
     5050
     5051
     5052 
     5053     
     5054     
     5055     
     5056      <p>A value for this
    10715057parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
    10725058array bound in PALM
    10735059starts with i = 0, the actual number of grid points is equal to <b>nx+1</b>.
    10745060In case of cyclic boundary conditions along x, the domain size is (<b>nx+1</b>)*
    1075 <a href="#dx">dx</a>.</p> <p>For
     5061      <a href="#dx">dx</a>.</p>
     5062
     5063
     5064
     5065 
     5066     
     5067     
     5068     
     5069      <p>For
    10765070parallel runs, in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
    10775071= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
    1078 <b>nx+1</b> must
     5072      <b>nx+1</b> must
    10795073be an integral multiple
    10805074of the processor numbers (see <a href="#npex">npex</a>
    10815075and <a href="#npey">npey</a>)
    10825076along x- as well as along y-direction (due to data
    1083 transposition restrictions).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
    1084 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ny"></a><b>ny</b></p>
    1085 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1086 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of grid
    1087 points in y-direction.&nbsp; </p> <p>A value for this
     5077transposition restrictions).</p>
     5078
     5079
     5080
     5081     
     5082     
     5083     
     5084      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
     5085and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
     5086
     5087
     5088
     5089 </td>
     5090
     5091
     5092
     5093 </tr>
     5094
     5095
     5096
     5097 <tr>
     5098
     5099
     5100
     5101
     5102      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5103     
     5104     
     5105     
     5106      <p><a name="ny"></a><b>ny</b></p>
     5107
     5108
     5109
     5110
     5111      </td>
     5112
     5113
     5114
     5115 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     5116
     5117
     5118
     5119
     5120      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     5121
     5122
     5123
     5124 </td>
     5125
     5126
     5127
     5128 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5129     
     5130     
     5131     
     5132      <p>Number of grid
     5133points in y-direction.&nbsp; </p>
     5134
     5135
     5136
     5137 
     5138     
     5139     
     5140     
     5141      <p>A value for this
    10885142parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
    10895143array bound in PALM starts with i = 0, the actual number of grid points
     
    10915145conditions along
    10925146y, the domain size is (<b>ny+1</b>) * <a href="#dy">dy</a>.</p>
    1093 <p>For parallel runs, in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
     5147
     5148
     5149
     5150
     5151     
     5152     
     5153     
     5154      <p>For parallel runs, in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
    10945155= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
    1095 <b>ny+1</b> must
     5156      <b>ny+1</b> must
    10965157be an integral multiple
    10975158of the processor numbers (see <a href="#npex">npex</a>
    10985159and <a href="#npey">npey</a>)&nbsp;
    10995160along y- as well as along x-direction (due to data
    1100 transposition restrictions).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
    1101 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nz"></a><b>nz</b></p>
    1102 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1103 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of grid
    1104 points in z-direction.&nbsp; </p> <p>A value for this
     5161transposition restrictions).</p>
     5162
     5163
     5164
     5165     
     5166     
     5167     
     5168      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
     5169and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
     5170
     5171
     5172
     5173 </td>
     5174
     5175
     5176
     5177 </tr>
     5178
     5179
     5180
     5181 <tr>
     5182
     5183
     5184
     5185
     5186      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5187     
     5188     
     5189     
     5190      <p><a name="nz"></a><b>nz</b></p>
     5191
     5192
     5193
     5194
     5195      </td>
     5196
     5197
     5198
     5199 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     5200
     5201
     5202
     5203
     5204      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
     5205
     5206
     5207
     5208 </td>
     5209
     5210
     5211
     5212 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5213     
     5214     
     5215     
     5216      <p>Number of grid
     5217points in z-direction.&nbsp; </p>
     5218
     5219
     5220
     5221 
     5222     
     5223     
     5224     
     5225      <p>A value for this
    11055226parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
    11065227array bound in PALM
     
    11155236and v is at k = <b>nz+1</b> (u, v) while at k = <b>nz</b>
    11165237for all
    1117 other quantities.&nbsp; </p> <p>For parallel
     5238other quantities.&nbsp; </p>
     5239
     5240
     5241
     5242 
     5243     
     5244     
     5245     
     5246      <p>For parallel
    11185247runs,&nbsp; in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
    11195248= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
    1120 <b>nz</b> must
     5249      <b>nz</b> must
    11215250be an integral multiple of
    11225251the number of processors in x-direction (due to data transposition
    1123 restrictions).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="ocean"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on&nbsp;ocean runs.<br><br>By default PALM is configured to simulate&nbsp;atmospheric flows. However, starting from version 3.3, <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> allows&nbsp;simulation of ocean turbulent flows. Setting this switch has several effects:<br><br><ul><li>An additional prognostic equation for salinity is solved.</li><li>Potential temperature in buoyancy and stability-related terms is replaced by potential density.</li><li>Potential
     5252restrictions).</p>
     5253
     5254
     5255
     5256 </td>
     5257
     5258
     5259
     5260 </tr>
     5261
     5262
     5263
     5264 <tr>
     5265
     5266
     5267
     5268      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="ocean"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span></td>
     5269
     5270
     5271
     5272      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     5273
     5274
     5275
     5276      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
     5277
     5278
     5279
     5280      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on&nbsp;ocean runs.<br>
     5281
     5282
     5283
     5284      <br>
     5285
     5286
     5287
     5288By default PALM is configured to simulate&nbsp;atmospheric flows. However, starting from version 3.3, <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> allows&nbsp;simulation of ocean turbulent flows. Setting this switch has several effects:<br>
     5289
     5290
     5291
     5292      <br>
     5293
     5294
     5295
     5296     
     5297     
     5298     
     5299      <ul>
     5300
     5301
     5302
     5303        <li>An additional prognostic equation for salinity is solved.</li>
     5304
     5305
     5306
     5307        <li>Potential temperature in buoyancy and stability-related terms is replaced by potential density.</li>
     5308
     5309
     5310
     5311        <li>Potential
    11245312density is calculated from the equation of state for seawater after
    11255313each timestep, using the algorithm proposed by Jackett et al. (2006, J.
    1126 Atmos. Oceanic Technol., <span style="font-weight: bold;">23</span>, 1709-1728).<br>So far, only the initial hydrostatic pressure is entered into this equation.</li><li>z=0 (sea surface) is assumed at the model top (vertical grid index <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">k=nzt</span> on the w-grid), with negative values of z indicating the depth.</li><li>Initial profiles are constructed (e.g. from <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a> / <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>) starting from the sea surface, using surface values&nbsp;given by <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>, and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.</li><li>Zero salinity flux is used as default boundary condition at the bottom of the sea.</li><li>If switched on, random perturbations are by default imposed to the upper model domain from zu(nzt*2/3) to zu(nzt-3).</li></ul><br>Relevant parameters to be exclusively used for steering ocean runs are <a href="#bc_sa_t">bc_sa_t</a>, <a href="#bottom_salinityflux">bottom_salinityflux</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>, and <a href="#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>.<br><br>Section <a href="chapter_4.2.2.html">4.4.2</a> gives an example for appropriate settings of these and other parameters neccessary for ocean runs.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> does not allow settings of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span> as well as <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Current limitations:</span><br>Using
    1127 a vertical grid stretching is not recommended since it would still
    1128 stretch the grid towards the top boundary of the model (sea surface)
    1129 instead of the bottom boundary.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="omega"></a><b>omega</b></p>
    1130 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1131 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>7.29212E-5</i></td>
    1132 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Angular
     5314Atmos. Oceanic Technol., <span style="font-weight: bold;">23</span>, 1709-1728).<br>
     5315
     5316
     5317
     5318So far, only the initial hydrostatic pressure is entered into this equation.</li>
     5319
     5320
     5321
     5322        <li>z=0 (sea surface) is assumed at the model top (vertical grid index <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">k=nzt</span> on the w-grid), with negative values of z indicating the depth.</li>
     5323
     5324
     5325
     5326        <li>Initial profiles are constructed (e.g. from <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a> / <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>) starting from the sea surface, using surface values&nbsp;given by <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>, and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.</li>
     5327
     5328
     5329
     5330        <li>Zero salinity flux is used as default boundary condition at the bottom of the sea.</li>
     5331
     5332
     5333
     5334        <li>If switched on, random perturbations are by default imposed to the upper model domain from zu(nzt*2/3) to zu(nzt-3).</li>
     5335
     5336
     5337
     5338     
     5339     
     5340     
     5341      </ul>
     5342
     5343
     5344
     5345      <br>
     5346
     5347
     5348
     5349Relevant parameters to be exclusively used for steering ocean runs are <a href="#bc_sa_t">bc_sa_t</a>, <a href="#bottom_salinityflux">bottom_salinityflux</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>, and <a href="#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>.<br>
     5350
     5351
     5352
     5353      <br>
     5354
     5355
     5356
     5357Section <a href="chapter_4.2.2.html">4.4.2</a> gives an example for appropriate settings of these and other parameters neccessary for ocean runs.<br>
     5358
     5359
     5360
     5361      <br>
     5362
     5363
     5364
     5365      <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> does not allow settings of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span> as well as <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span>.<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><br>
     5366      </td>
     5367
     5368
     5369
     5370    </tr>
     5371
     5372
     5373
     5374    <tr>
     5375
     5376
     5377
     5378 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5379     
     5380     
     5381     
     5382      <p><a name="omega"></a><b>omega</b></p>
     5383
     5384
     5385
     5386
     5387      </td>
     5388
     5389
     5390
     5391 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5392
     5393
     5394
     5395
     5396      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>7.29212E-5</i></td>
     5397
     5398
     5399
     5400
     5401      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5402     
     5403     
     5404     
     5405      <p>Angular
    11335406velocity of the rotating system (in rad s<sup>-1</sup>).&nbsp;
    1134 </p> <p>The angular velocity of the earth is set by
     5407      </p>
     5408
     5409
     5410
     5411 
     5412     
     5413     
     5414     
     5415      <p>The angular velocity of the earth is set by
    11355416default. The
    11365417values
    1137 of the Coriolis parameters are calculated as:&nbsp; </p> <ul>
    1138 <p>f = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * sin(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)&nbsp;
    1139 <br>f* = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * cos(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)</p>
    1140 </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="outflow_damping_width"></a><b>outflow_damping_width</b></p>
    1141 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
    1142 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(20,
     5418of the Coriolis parameters are calculated as:&nbsp; </p>
     5419
     5420
     5421
     5422 
     5423     
     5424     
     5425     
     5426      <ul>
     5427
     5428
     5429
     5430
     5431       
     5432       
     5433       
     5434        <p>f = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * sin(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)&nbsp;
     5435        <br>
     5436
     5437
     5438
     5439f* = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * cos(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)</p>
     5440
     5441
     5442
     5443
     5444     
     5445     
     5446     
     5447      </ul>
     5448
     5449
     5450
     5451 </td>
     5452
     5453
     5454
     5455 </tr>
     5456
     5457
     5458
     5459 <tr>
     5460
     5461
     5462
     5463 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5464     
     5465     
     5466     
     5467      <p><a name="outflow_damping_width"></a><b>outflow_damping_width</b></p>
     5468
     5469
     5470
     5471
     5472      </td>
     5473
     5474
     5475
     5476 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
     5477
     5478
     5479
     5480
     5481      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(20,
    11435482nx/2</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">ny/2)</span></td>
    1144 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Width of
     5483
     5484
     5485
     5486
     5487      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Width of
    11455488the damping range in the vicinity of the outflow (gridpoints).<br>
    1146 <br>
     5489
     5490
     5491
     5492
     5493      <br>
     5494
     5495
     5496
     5497
    11475498When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
    11485499or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
     
    11535504in gridpoints counted from the respective outflow boundary. For further
    11545505details about the smoothing see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_damp_max">km_damp_max</a>,
    1155 which defines the magnitude of the damping.</td> </tr>
    1156 <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="overshoot_limit_e"></a><b>overshoot_limit_e</b></p>
    1157 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1158 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1159 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Allowed limit
     5506which defines the magnitude of the damping.</td>
     5507
     5508
     5509
     5510 </tr>
     5511
     5512
     5513
     5514
     5515    <tr>
     5516
     5517
     5518
     5519 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5520     
     5521     
     5522     
     5523      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_e"></a><b>overshoot_limit_e</b></p>
     5524
     5525
     5526
     5527
     5528      </td>
     5529
     5530
     5531
     5532 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5533
     5534
     5535
     5536
     5537      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     5538
     5539
     5540
     5541
     5542      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5543     
     5544     
     5545     
     5546      <p>Allowed limit
    11605547for the overshooting of subgrid-scale TKE in
    11615548case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
    1162 </p> <p>By deafult, if cut-off of overshoots is switched
     5549      </p>
     5550
     5551
     5552
     5553 
     5554     
     5555     
     5556     
     5557      <p>By deafult, if cut-off of overshoots is switched
    11635558on for the
    11645559upstream-spline scheme (see <a href="#cut_spline_overshoot">cut_spline_overshoot</a>),
     
    11665561is given a non-zero value, overshoots with the respective
    11675562amplitude (both upward and downward) are allowed.&nbsp; </p>
    1168 <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_e</b>.</p>
    1169 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="overshoot_limit_pt"></a><b>overshoot_limit_pt</b></p>
    1170 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1171 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1172 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Allowed limit
     5563
     5564
     5565
     5566
     5567     
     5568     
     5569     
     5570      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_e</b>.</p>
     5571
     5572
     5573
     5574
     5575      </td>
     5576
     5577
     5578
     5579 </tr>
     5580
     5581
     5582
     5583 <tr>
     5584
     5585
     5586
     5587 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5588     
     5589     
     5590     
     5591      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_pt"></a><b>overshoot_limit_pt</b></p>
     5592
     5593
     5594
     5595
     5596      </td>
     5597
     5598
     5599
     5600 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5601
     5602
     5603
     5604
     5605      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     5606
     5607
     5608
     5609
     5610      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5611     
     5612     
     5613     
     5614      <p>Allowed limit
    11735615for the overshooting of potential temperature in
    11745616case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on (in K).&nbsp; </p>
    1175 <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
    1176 </p> <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_pt</b>.</p>
    1177 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="overshoot_limit_u"></a><b>overshoot_limit_u</b></p>
    1178 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1179 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1180 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed limit for the
     5617
     5618
     5619
     5620
     5621     
     5622     
     5623     
     5624      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
     5625      </p>
     5626
     5627
     5628
     5629 
     5630     
     5631     
     5632     
     5633      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_pt</b>.</p>
     5634
     5635
     5636
     5637
     5638      </td>
     5639
     5640
     5641
     5642 </tr>
     5643
     5644
     5645
     5646 <tr>
     5647
     5648
     5649
     5650 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5651     
     5652     
     5653     
     5654      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_u"></a><b>overshoot_limit_u</b></p>
     5655
     5656
     5657
     5658
     5659      </td>
     5660
     5661
     5662
     5663 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5664
     5665
     5666
     5667
     5668      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     5669
     5670
     5671
     5672
     5673      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed limit for the
    11815674overshooting of
    11825675the u-component of velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is
    1183 switched on (in m/s). <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
    1184 </p> <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_u</b>.</p>
    1185 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="overshoot_limit_v"></a><b>overshoot_limit_v</b></p>
    1186 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1187 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1188 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Allowed limit
     5676switched on (in m/s).
     5677     
     5678     
     5679     
     5680      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
     5681      </p>
     5682
     5683
     5684
     5685 
     5686     
     5687     
     5688     
     5689      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_u</b>.</p>
     5690
     5691
     5692
     5693
     5694      </td>
     5695
     5696
     5697
     5698 </tr>
     5699
     5700
     5701
     5702 <tr>
     5703
     5704
     5705
     5706 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5707     
     5708     
     5709     
     5710      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_v"></a><b>overshoot_limit_v</b></p>
     5711
     5712
     5713
     5714
     5715      </td>
     5716
     5717
     5718
     5719 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5720
     5721
     5722
     5723
     5724      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     5725
     5726
     5727
     5728
     5729      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5730     
     5731     
     5732     
     5733      <p>Allowed limit
    11895734for the overshooting of the v-component of
    11905735velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on
    1191 (in m/s).&nbsp; </p> <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
    1192 </p> <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_v</b>.</p>
    1193 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="overshoot_limit_w"></a><b>overshoot_limit_w</b></p>
    1194 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1195 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1196 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Allowed limit
     5736(in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
     5737
     5738
     5739
     5740 
     5741     
     5742     
     5743     
     5744      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
     5745      </p>
     5746
     5747
     5748
     5749 
     5750     
     5751     
     5752     
     5753      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_v</b>.</p>
     5754
     5755
     5756
     5757
     5758      </td>
     5759
     5760
     5761
     5762 </tr>
     5763
     5764
     5765
     5766 <tr>
     5767
     5768
     5769
     5770 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5771     
     5772     
     5773     
     5774      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_w"></a><b>overshoot_limit_w</b></p>
     5775
     5776
     5777
     5778
     5779      </td>
     5780
     5781
     5782
     5783 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5784
     5785
     5786
     5787
     5788      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     5789
     5790
     5791
     5792
     5793      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5794     
     5795     
     5796     
     5797      <p>Allowed limit
    11975798for the overshooting of the w-component of
    11985799velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on
    1199 (in m/s).&nbsp; </p> <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
    1200 </p> <p>Only positive values are permitted for <b>overshoot_limit_w</b>.</p>
    1201 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="passive_scalar"></a><b>passive_scalar</b></p>
    1202 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    1203 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
    1204 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Parameter to
     5800(in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
     5801
     5802
     5803
     5804 
     5805     
     5806     
     5807     
     5808      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
     5809      </p>
     5810
     5811
     5812
     5813 
     5814     
     5815     
     5816     
     5817      <p>Only positive values are permitted for <b>overshoot_limit_w</b>.</p>
     5818
     5819
     5820
     5821
     5822      </td>
     5823
     5824
     5825
     5826 </tr>
     5827
     5828
     5829
     5830 <tr>
     5831
     5832
     5833
     5834 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5835     
     5836     
     5837     
     5838      <p><a name="passive_scalar"></a><b>passive_scalar</b></p>
     5839
     5840
     5841
     5842
     5843      </td>
     5844
     5845
     5846
     5847 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     5848
     5849
     5850
     5851
     5852      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
     5853
     5854
     5855
     5856
     5857      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5858     
     5859     
     5860     
     5861      <p>Parameter to
    12055862switch on the prognostic equation for a passive
    1206 scalar. <br> </p> <p>The initial vertical profile
     5863scalar. <br>
     5864
     5865
     5866
     5867 </p>
     5868
     5869
     5870
     5871 
     5872     
     5873     
     5874     
     5875      <p>The initial vertical profile
    12075876of s can be set via parameters <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>,
    1208 <a href="#s_vertical_gradient">s_vertical_gradient</a>
     5877      <a href="#s_vertical_gradient">s_vertical_gradient</a>
    12095878and&nbsp; <a href="#s_vertical_gradient_level">s_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
    12105879Boundary conditions can be set via <a href="#s_surface_initial_change">s_surface_initial_change</a>
    12115880and <a href="#surface_scalarflux">surface_scalarflux</a>.&nbsp;
    1212 </p> <p><b>Note:</b> <br>
     5881      </p>
     5882
     5883
     5884
     5885 
     5886     
     5887     
     5888     
     5889      <p><b>Note:</b> <br>
     5890
     5891
     5892
     5893
    12135894With <span style="font-weight: bold;">passive_scalar</span>
    12145895switched
    12155896on, the simultaneous use of humidity (see&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>)
    1216 is impossible.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="phi"></a><b>phi</b></p>
    1217 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1218 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>55.0</i></td>
    1219 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Geographical
    1220 latitude (in degrees).&nbsp; </p> <p>The value of
     5897is impossible.</p>
     5898
     5899
     5900
     5901 </td>
     5902
     5903
     5904
     5905 </tr>
     5906
     5907
     5908
     5909 <tr>
     5910
     5911
     5912
     5913 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5914     
     5915     
     5916     
     5917      <p><a name="phi"></a><b>phi</b></p>
     5918
     5919
     5920
     5921
     5922      </td>
     5923
     5924
     5925
     5926 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     5927
     5928
     5929
     5930
     5931      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>55.0</i></td>
     5932
     5933
     5934
     5935
     5936      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5937     
     5938     
     5939     
     5940      <p>Geographical
     5941latitude (in degrees).&nbsp; </p>
     5942
     5943
     5944
     5945 
     5946     
     5947     
     5948     
     5949      <p>The value of
    12215950this parameter determines the value of the
    12225951Coriolis parameters f and f*, provided that the angular velocity (see <a href="#omega">omega</a>)
    1223 is non-zero.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="prandtl_layer"></a><b>prandtl_layer</b></p>
    1224 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    1225 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.T.</i></td>
    1226 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Parameter to
    1227 switch on a Prandtl layer.&nbsp; </p> <p>By default,
     5952is non-zero.</p>
     5953
     5954
     5955
     5956 </td>
     5957
     5958
     5959
     5960 </tr>
     5961
     5962
     5963
     5964 <tr>
     5965
     5966
     5967
     5968 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5969     
     5970     
     5971     
     5972      <p><a name="prandtl_layer"></a><b>prandtl_layer</b></p>
     5973
     5974
     5975
     5976
     5977      </td>
     5978
     5979
     5980
     5981 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     5982
     5983
     5984
     5985
     5986      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.T.</i></td>
     5987
     5988
     5989
     5990
     5991      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     5992     
     5993     
     5994     
     5995      <p>Parameter to
     5996switch on a Prandtl layer.&nbsp; </p>
     5997
     5998
     5999
     6000 
     6001     
     6002     
     6003     
     6004      <p>By default,
    12286005a Prandtl layer is switched on at the bottom
    12296006boundary between z = 0 and z = 0.5 * <a href="#dz">dz</a>
     
    12346011are not allowed. Likewise, laminar
    12356012simulations with constant eddy diffusivities (<a href="#km_constant">km_constant</a>)
    1236 are forbidden.&nbsp; </p> <p>With Prandtl-layer
     6013are forbidden.&nbsp; </p>
     6014
     6015
     6016
     6017 
     6018     
     6019     
     6020     
     6021      <p>With Prandtl-layer
    12376022switched off, the TKE boundary condition <a href="#bc_e_b">bc_e_b</a>
    12386023= '<i>(u*)**2+neumann'</i> must not be used and is
     
    12426027boundary condition <a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>
    12436028= <i>'neumann+inhomo'</i>&nbsp; is not allowed. </p>
    1244 <p>The roughness length is declared via the parameter <a href="#roughness_length">roughness_length</a>.</p>
    1245 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="precipitation"></a><b>precipitation</b></p>
    1246 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
    1247 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Parameter to switch
    1248 on the precipitation scheme.<br> </p> <p>For
     6029
     6030
     6031
     6032
     6033     
     6034     
     6035     
     6036      <p>The roughness length is declared via the parameter <a href="#roughness_length">roughness_length</a>.</p>
     6037
     6038
     6039
     6040
     6041      </td>
     6042
     6043
     6044
     6045 </tr>
     6046
     6047
     6048
     6049 <tr>
     6050
     6051
     6052
     6053 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6054     
     6055     
     6056     
     6057      <p><a name="precipitation"></a><b>precipitation</b></p>
     6058
     6059
     6060
     6061
     6062      </td>
     6063
     6064
     6065
     6066 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
     6067
     6068
     6069
     6070
     6071      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
     6072
     6073
     6074
     6075 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6076     
     6077     
     6078     
     6079      <p>Parameter to switch
     6080on the precipitation scheme.<br>
     6081
     6082
     6083
     6084 </p>
     6085
     6086
     6087
     6088 
     6089     
     6090     
     6091     
     6092      <p>For
    12496093precipitation processes PALM uses a simplified Kessler
    12506094scheme. This scheme only considers the
     
    12526096coagulation of cloud drops among themselves. Precipitation begins and
    12536097is immediately removed from the flow as soon as the liquid water
    1254 content exceeds the critical value of 0.5 g/kg.</p><p>The precipitation rate and amount can be output by assigning the runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'prr*'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'pra*'</span>, respectively. The time interval on which the precipitation amount is defined can be controlled via runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a>.</p> </td> </tr>
    1255 <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="pt_reference"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">use horizontal average as
    1256 refrence</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">Reference
    1257 temperature to be used in all buoyancy terms (in K).<br><br>By
     6098content exceeds the critical value of 0.5 g/kg.</p>
     6099
     6100
     6101
     6102     
     6103     
     6104     
     6105      <p>The precipitation rate and amount can be output by assigning the runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'prr*'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'pra*'</span>, respectively. The time interval on which the precipitation amount is defined can be controlled via runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a>.</p>
     6106
     6107
     6108
     6109 </td>
     6110
     6111
     6112
     6113 </tr>
     6114
     6115
     6116
     6117
     6118    <tr>
     6119
     6120
     6121
     6122      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="pt_reference"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span></td>
     6123
     6124
     6125
     6126      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     6127
     6128
     6129
     6130      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">use horizontal average as
     6131refrence</span></td>
     6132
     6133
     6134
     6135      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Reference
     6136temperature to be used in all buoyancy terms (in K).<br>
     6137
     6138
     6139
     6140      <br>
     6141
     6142
     6143
     6144By
    12586145default, the instantaneous horizontal average over the total model
    1259 domain is used.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), always a reference temperature is used in the buoyancy terms with a default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span> = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_surface"></a><b>pt_surface</b></p>
    1260 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1261 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>300.0</i></td>
    1262 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Surface
    1263 potential temperature (in K).&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     6146domain is used.<br>
     6147
     6148
     6149
     6150      <br>
     6151
     6152
     6153
     6154      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
     6155
     6156
     6157
     6158In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), always a reference temperature is used in the buoyancy terms with a default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span> = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.</td>
     6159
     6160
     6161
     6162    </tr>
     6163
     6164
     6165
     6166    <tr>
     6167
     6168
     6169
     6170 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6171     
     6172     
     6173     
     6174      <p><a name="pt_surface"></a><b>pt_surface</b></p>
     6175
     6176
     6177
     6178
     6179      </td>
     6180
     6181
     6182
     6183 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     6184
     6185
     6186
     6187
     6188      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>300.0</i></td>
     6189
     6190
     6191
     6192
     6193      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6194     
     6195     
     6196     
     6197      <p>Surface
     6198potential temperature (in K).&nbsp; </p>
     6199
     6200
     6201
     6202 
     6203     
     6204     
     6205     
     6206      <p>This
    12646207parameter assigns the value of the potential temperature
    1265 <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt</span> at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
     6208      <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt</span> at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
    12666209the
    12676210initial vertical temperature profile is constructed with <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    12686211and <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level
    1269 </a>.
    1270 This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p><p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>),
     6212      </a>.
     6213This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p>
     6214
     6215
     6216
     6217     
     6218     
     6219     
     6220      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
     6221
     6222
     6223
     6224In case of ocean runs (see <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>),
    12716225this parameter gives the temperature value at the sea surface, which is
    12726226at k=nzt. The profile is then constructed from the surface down to the
    12736227bottom of the model.</p>
    1274 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_surface_initial_change"></a><b>pt_surface_initial</b>
    1275 <br> <b>_change</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
    1276 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Change in
     6228
     6229
     6230
     6231
     6232      </td>
     6233
     6234
     6235
     6236 </tr>
     6237
     6238
     6239
     6240 <tr>
     6241
     6242
     6243
     6244 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6245     
     6246     
     6247     
     6248      <p><a name="pt_surface_initial_change"></a><b>pt_surface_initial</b>
     6249      <br>
     6250
     6251
     6252
     6253 <b>_change</b></p>
     6254
     6255
     6256
     6257 </td>
     6258
     6259
     6260
     6261 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     6262
     6263
     6264
     6265 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
     6266
     6267
     6268
     6269 </td>
     6270
     6271
     6272
     6273
     6274      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6275     
     6276     
     6277     
     6278      <p>Change in
    12776279surface temperature to be made at the beginning of
    12786280the 3d run
    1279 (in K).&nbsp; </p> <p>If <b>pt_surface_initial_change</b>
     6281(in K).&nbsp; </p>
     6282
     6283
     6284
     6285 
     6286     
     6287     
     6288     
     6289      <p>If <b>pt_surface_initial_change</b>
    12806290is set to a non-zero
    12816291value, the near surface sensible heat flux is not allowed to be given
    12826292simultaneously (see <a href="#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>).</p>
    1283 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b></p>
    1284 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
    1285 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>10 * 0.0</i></td>
    1286 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Temperature
     6293
     6294
     6295
     6296
     6297      </td>
     6298
     6299
     6300
     6301 </tr>
     6302
     6303
     6304
     6305 <tr>
     6306
     6307
     6308
     6309 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6310     
     6311     
     6312     
     6313      <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b></p>
     6314
     6315
     6316
     6317
     6318      </td>
     6319
     6320
     6321
     6322 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
     6323
     6324
     6325
     6326
     6327      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>10 * 0.0</i></td>
     6328
     6329
     6330
     6331
     6332      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6333     
     6334     
     6335     
     6336      <p>Temperature
    12876337gradient(s) of the initial temperature profile (in
    12886338K
    1289 / 100 m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This temperature gradient
     6339/ 100 m).&nbsp; </p>
     6340
     6341
     6342
     6343 
     6344     
     6345     
     6346     
     6347      <p>This temperature gradient
    12906348holds starting from the height&nbsp;
    12916349level defined by <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>
     
    12996357= <i>0.0</i>) can be assigned. The surface temperature is
    13006358assigned via <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.&nbsp;
    1301 </p> <p>Example:&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
     6359      </p>
     6360
     6361
     6362
     6363 
     6364     
     6365     
     6366     
     6367      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
     6368
     6369
     6370
     6371 
     6372     
     6373     
     6374     
     6375      <ul>
     6376
     6377
     6378
     6379 
     6380       
     6381       
     6382       
     6383        <p><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
    13026384= <i>1.0</i>, <i>0.5</i>,&nbsp; <br>
    1303 <b>pt_vertical_gradient_level</b> = <i>500.0</i>,
    1304 <i>1000.0</i>,</p> </ul> <p>That
     6385
     6386
     6387
     6388
     6389        <b>pt_vertical_gradient_level</b> = <i>500.0</i>,
     6390        <i>1000.0</i>,</p>
     6391
     6392
     6393
     6394 
     6395     
     6396     
     6397     
     6398      </ul>
     6399
     6400
     6401
     6402 
     6403     
     6404     
     6405     
     6406      <p>That
    13056407defines the temperature profile to be neutrally
    13066408stratified
     
    13106412100 m and for z &gt; 1000.0 m up to the top boundary it is
    131164130.5 K / 100 m (it is assumed that the assigned height levels correspond
    1312 with uv levels).</p><p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
     6414with uv levels).</p>
     6415
     6416
     6417
     6418     
     6419     
     6420     
     6421      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
     6422
     6423
     6424
     6425In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
    13136426the profile is constructed like described above, but starting from the
    13146427sea surface (k=nzt) down to the bottom boundary of the model. Height
    1315 levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
    1316 <br> <b>_level</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp;
    1317 <span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
    1318 </p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
    1319 <p>Height level from which on the temperature gradient defined by
    1320 <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    1321 is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. The
     6428levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.</p>
     6429
     6430
     6431
     6432 </td>
     6433
     6434
     6435
     6436 </tr>
     6437
     6438
     6439
     6440 <tr>
     6441
     6442
     6443
     6444 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6445     
     6446     
     6447     
     6448      <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
     6449      <br>
     6450
     6451
     6452
     6453 <b>_level</b></p>
     6454
     6455
     6456
     6457 </td>
     6458
     6459
     6460
     6461 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
     6462
     6463
     6464
     6465 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6466     
     6467     
     6468     
     6469      <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp;
     6470      <span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
     6471
     6472
     6473
     6474
     6475      </p>
     6476
     6477
     6478
     6479 </td>
     6480
     6481
     6482
     6483 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6484     
     6485     
     6486     
     6487      <p>Height level from which on the temperature gradient defined by
     6488      <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
     6489is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p>
     6490
     6491
     6492
     6493 
     6494     
     6495     
     6496     
     6497      <p>The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. The
    13226498default values result in a neutral stratification regardless of the
    13236499values of <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
    13246500(unless the top boundary of the model is higher than 100000.0 m).
    1325 For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>.</p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.
    1326 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="q_surface"></a><b>q_surface</b></p>
    1327 </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
    1328 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
    1329 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Surface
    1330 specific humidity / total water content (kg/kg).&nbsp; </p> <p>This
     6501For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>.</p>
     6502
     6503
     6504
     6505      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
     6506
     6507
     6508
     6509In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.
     6510      </td>
     6511
     6512
     6513
     6514 </tr>
     6515
     6516
     6517
     6518 <tr>
     6519
     6520
     6521
     6522 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6523     
     6524     
     6525     
     6526      <p><a name="q_surface"></a><b>q_surface</b></p>
     6527
     6528
     6529
     6530
     6531      </td>
     6532
     6533
     6534
     6535 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
     6536
     6537
     6538
     6539
     6540      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
     6541
     6542
     6543
     6544
     6545      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
     6546     
     6547     
     6548     
     6549      <p>Surface
     6550specific humidity / total water content (kg/kg).&nbsp; </p>
     6551
     6552
     6553
     6554 
     6555     
     6556     
     6557     
     6558      <p>This
    13316559parameter assigns the value of the specific humidity q at
    13326560the surface (k=0).&nbsp; Starting from this value, the initial
     
    13356563and <a href="#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
    13366564This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p>
    1337 </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="q_surface_initial_change"></a><b>q_surface_initial</b>