source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 3467

Last change on this file since 3467 was 3467, checked in by suehring, 3 years ago

Branch salsa @3446 re-integrated into trunk

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of the PALM model system.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
6! terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
7! Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
8! version.
9!
10! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
11! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
12! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
13!
14! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
15! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
16!
17! Copyright 1997-2018 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
18!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
19!
20! Current revisions:
21! ------------------
22!
23!
24! Former revisions:
25! -----------------
26! $Id: time_integration.f90 3467 2018-10-30 19:05:21Z suehring $
27! Implementation of a new aerosol module salsa.
28!
29! 3448 2018-10-29 18:14:31Z kanani
30! Add biometeorology
31!
32! 3421 2018-10-24 18:39:32Z gronemeier
33! Surface data output
34!
35! 3418 2018-10-24 16:07:39Z kanani
36! call to material_heat_model now with check if spinup runs (rvtils)
37!
38! 3378 2018-10-19 12:34:59Z kanani
39! merge from radiation branch (r3362) into trunk
40! (moh.hefny):
41! Bugfix in the if statement to call radiation_interaction
42!
43! 3347 2018-10-15 14:21:08Z suehring
44! - offline nesting separated from large-scale forcing module
45! - changes for synthetic turbulence generator
46!
47! 3343 2018-10-15 10:38:52Z suehring
48! - Formatting, clean-up, comments (kanani)
49! - Added CALL to chem_emissions_setup (Russo)
50! - Code added for decycling chemistry (basit)
51!
52! 3294 2018-10-01 02:37:10Z raasch
53! changes concerning modularization of ocean option
54!
55! 3274 2018-09-24 15:42:55Z knoop
56! Modularization of all bulk cloud physics code components
57!
58! 3241 2018-09-12 15:02:00Z raasch
59! unused variables removed
60!
61! 3198 2018-08-15 09:23:10Z sward
62! Added multi_agent_system_end; defined start time for MAS relative to
63! time_since_reference_point
64!
65! 3183 2018-07-27 14:25:55Z suehring
66! Replace simulated_time by time_since_reference_point in COSMO nesting mode.
67! Rename subroutines and variables in COSMO nesting mode
68!
69! 3182 2018-07-27 13:36:03Z suehring
70! Added multi agent system
71!
72! 3042 2018-05-25 10:44:37Z schwenkel
73! Changed the name specific humidity to mixing ratio
74!
75! 3040 2018-05-25 10:22:08Z schwenkel
76! Fixed bug in IF statement
77! Ensure that the time when calling the radiation to be the time step of the
78! pre-calculated time when first calculate the positions of the sun
79!
80! 3004 2018-04-27 12:33:25Z Giersch
81! First call of flow_statistics has been removed. It is already called in
82! run_control itself
83!
84! 2984 2018-04-18 11:51:30Z hellstea
85! CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation is removed (so far only commented out)
86! as seemingly unnecessary.
87!
88! 2941 2018-04-03 11:54:58Z kanani
89! Deduct spinup_time from RUN_CONTROL output of main 3d run
90! (use time_since_reference_point instead of simulated_time)
91!
92! 2938 2018-03-27 15:52:42Z suehring
93! Nesting of dissipation rate in case of RANS mode and TKE-e closure is applied
94!
95! 2936 2018-03-27 14:49:27Z suehring
96! Little formatting adjustment.
97!
98! 2817 2018-02-19 16:32:21Z knoop
99! Preliminary gust module interface implemented
100!
101! 2801 2018-02-14 16:01:55Z thiele
102! Changed lpm from subroutine to module.
103! Introduce particle transfer in nested models.
104!
105! 2776 2018-01-31 10:44:42Z Giersch
106! Variable use_synthetic_turbulence_generator has been abbreviated
107!
108! 2773 2018-01-30 14:12:54Z suehring
109! - Nesting for chemical species
110!
111! 2766 2018-01-22 17:17:47Z kanani
112! Removed preprocessor directive __chem
113!
114! 2718 2018-01-02 08:49:38Z maronga
115! Corrected "Former revisions" section
116!
117! 2696 2017-12-14 17:12:51Z kanani
118! - Change in file header (GPL part)
119! - Implementation of uv exposure model (FK)
120! - Moved vnest_boundary_conds_khkm from tcm_diffusivities to here (TG)
121! - renamed diffusivities to tcm_diffusivities (TG)
122! - implement prognostic equation for diss (TG)
123! - Moved/commented CALL to chem_emissions (FK)
124! - Added CALL to chem_emissions (FK)
125! - Implementation of chemistry module (FK)
126! - Calls for setting boundary conditions in USM and LSM (MS)
127! - Large-scale forcing with larger-scale models implemented (MS)
128! - Rename usm_radiation into radiation_interactions; merge with branch
129!   radiation (MS)
130! - added call for usm_green_heat_model for green building surfaces (RvT)
131! - added call for usm_temperature_near_surface for use in indoor model (RvT)
132!
133! 2617 2017-11-16 12:47:24Z suehring
134! Bugfix, assure that the reference state does not become zero.
135!
136! 2563 2017-10-19 15:36:10Z Giersch
137! Variable wind_turbine moved to module control_parameters
138!
139! 2365 2017-08-21 14:59:59Z kanani
140! Vertical grid nesting implemented (SadiqHuq)
141!
142! 2320 2017-07-21 12:47:43Z suehring
143! Set bottom boundary conditions after nesting interpolation and anterpolation
144!
145! 2299 2017-06-29 10:14:38Z maronga
146! Call of soil model adjusted
147!
148! 2292 2017-06-20 09:51:42Z schwenkel
149! Implementation of new microphysic scheme: cloud_scheme = 'morrison'
150! includes two more prognostic equations for cloud drop concentration (nc) 
151! and cloud water content (qc).
152!
153! 2271 2017-06-09 12:34:55Z sward
154! Start timestep message changed
155!
156! 2259 2017-06-08 09:09:11Z gronemeier
157! Implemented synthetic turbulence generator
158!
159! 2233 2017-05-30 18:08:54Z suehring
160!
161! 2232 2017-05-30 17:47:52Z suehring
162! Adjustments to new topography and surface concept
163! Modify passed parameters for disturb_field
164!
165! 2178 2017-03-17 11:07:39Z hellstea
166! Setting perturbations at all times near inflow boundary is removed
167! in case of nested boundaries
168!
169! 2174 2017-03-13 08:18:57Z maronga
170! Added support for nesting with cloud microphysics
171!
172! 2118 2017-01-17 16:38:49Z raasch
173! OpenACC directives and related code removed
174!
175! 2050 2016-11-08 15:00:55Z gronemeier
176! Implement turbulent outflow condition
177!
178! 2031 2016-10-21 15:11:58Z knoop
179! renamed variable rho to rho_ocean
180!
181! 2011 2016-09-19 17:29:57Z kanani
182! Flag urban_surface is now defined in module control_parameters,
183! removed commented CALLs of global_min_max.
184!
185! 2007 2016-08-24 15:47:17Z kanani
186! Added CALLs for new urban surface model
187!
188! 2000 2016-08-20 18:09:15Z knoop
189! Forced header and separation lines into 80 columns
190!
191! 1976 2016-07-27 13:28:04Z maronga
192! Simplified calls to radiation model
193!
194! 1960 2016-07-12 16:34:24Z suehring
195! Separate humidity and passive scalar
196!
197! 1957 2016-07-07 10:43:48Z suehring
198! flight module added
199!
200! 1919 2016-05-27 14:51:23Z raasch
201! Initial version of purely vertical nesting introduced.
202!
203! 1918 2016-05-27 14:35:57Z raasch
204! determination of time step moved to the end of the time step loop,
205! the first time step is now always calculated before the time step loop (i.e.
206! also in case of restart runs)
207!
208! 1914 2016-05-26 14:44:07Z witha
209! Added call for wind turbine model
210!
211! 1878 2016-04-19 12:30:36Z hellstea
212! Synchronization for nested runs rewritten
213!
214! 1853 2016-04-11 09:00:35Z maronga
215! Adjusted for use with radiation_scheme = constant
216!
217! 1849 2016-04-08 11:33:18Z hoffmann
218! Adapted for modularization of microphysics
219!
220! 1833 2016-04-07 14:23:03Z raasch
221! spectrum renamed spectra_mod, spectra related variables moved to spectra_mod
222!
223! 1831 2016-04-07 13:15:51Z hoffmann
224! turbulence renamed collision_turbulence
225!
226! 1822 2016-04-07 07:49:42Z hoffmann
227! icloud_scheme replaced by microphysics_*
228!
229! 1808 2016-04-05 19:44:00Z raasch
230! output message in case unscheduled radiation calls removed
231!
232! 1797 2016-03-21 16:50:28Z raasch
233! introduction of different datatransfer modes
234!
235! 1791 2016-03-11 10:41:25Z raasch
236! call of pmci_update_new removed
237!
238! 1786 2016-03-08 05:49:27Z raasch
239! +module spectrum
240!
241! 1783 2016-03-06 18:36:17Z raasch
242! switch back of netcdf data format for mask output moved to the mask output
243! routine
244!
245! 1781 2016-03-03 15:12:23Z raasch
246! some pmc calls removed at the beginning (before timeloop),
247! pmc initialization moved to the main program
248!
249! 1764 2016-02-28 12:45:19Z raasch
250! PMC_ACTIVE flags removed,
251! bugfix: nest synchronization after first call of timestep
252!
253! 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea
254! Introduction of nested domain feature
255!
256! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
257! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
258!
259! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
260! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
261! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
262!
263! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
264! Code annotations made doxygen readable
265!
266! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
267! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
268! for particles
269!
270! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
271! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
272!
273! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
274! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
275!
276! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
277! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
278!
279! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
280! location messages modified
281!
282! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
283! location messages added
284!
285! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
286! CALL of nudge_ref added
287! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
288!
289! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
290! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
291! +sums_ls_l
292! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
293
294! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
295! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
296!
297! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
298! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
299! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
300! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
301! old module precision_kind is removed,
302! revision history before 2012 removed,
303! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
304! all variable declaration statements
305! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
306! module interfaces removed
307!
308! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
309! +netcdf_data_format_save
310! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
311! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
312!
313! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
314! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
315!
316! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
317! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
318!
319! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
320! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
321! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
322! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
323! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
324! host update of arrays before timestep is called
325!
326! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
327! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
328! small bugfix for background communication
329!
330! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
331! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
332!
333! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
334! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
335! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
336! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
337! remaining points,
338! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
339! here
340!
341! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
342! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
343!
344! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
345! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
346! openACC directives updated
347! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
348!
349! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
350! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
351! openACC directives updated
352!
353! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
354! unused variables removed
355!
356! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
357! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
358!
359! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
360! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
361!
362! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
363! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
364!
365! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
366! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
367!
368! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
369! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
370!
371! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
372! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
373!
374! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
375! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
376!
377! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
378! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
379!
380! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
381! Initial revision
382!
383!
384! Description:
385! ------------
386!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
387!> output
388!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
389 SUBROUTINE time_integration
390 
391
392    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
393        ONLY:  ws_statistics
394
395    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
396        ONLY:  diss, diss_p, dzu, e, e_p, nc, nc_p, nr, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, &
397               q_init, q, qc, qc_p, ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr, qr_p, q_p,      &
398               ref_state, rho_ocean, s, s_p, sa_p, tend, u, u_p, v, vpt,       &
399               v_p, w, w_p
400
401    USE biometeorology_mod,                                                    &
402        ONLY:  biom_calculate_static_grid, time_biom_results
403
404    USE bulk_cloud_model_mod,                                                  &
405        ONLY: bulk_cloud_model, calc_liquid_water_content,                     &
406              collision_turbulence, microphysics_morrison, microphysics_seifert
407
408    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
409        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
410
411    USE chem_emissions_mod,                                                    &
412        ONLY:  chem_emissions_setup
413
414    USE chem_modules,                                                          &
415        ONLY:  bc_cs_t_val, call_chem_at_all_substeps, cs_name,                &
416               constant_csflux, do_emis, nspec, nspec_out
417
418    USE chemistry_model_mod,                                                   &
419        ONLY:  chem_boundary_conds, chem_species
420
421    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
422        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, air_chemistry,        &
423               average_count_3d, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
424               bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val, bc_q_t_val, biometeorology,  &
425               call_psolver_at_all_substeps,  child_domain, cloud_droplets,    &
426               constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,                         &
427               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
428               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
429               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
430               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
431               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
432               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
433               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control, end_time,    &
434               first_call_lpm, first_call_mas, galilei_transformation,         &
435               humidity, intermediate_timestep_count,                          &
436               intermediate_timestep_count_max,                                &
437               land_surface, large_scale_forcing,                              &
438               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks, mid,              &
439               multi_agent_system_end, multi_agent_system_start,               &
440               nesting_offline, neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,       &
441               ocean_mode, passive_scalar, pt_reference,                       &
442               pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, rans_mode,                    &
443               rans_tke_e, run_coupled, simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,    &
444               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
445               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
446               skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface, stop_dt,             &
447               surface_data_output, terminate_coupled, terminate_run,          &
448               timestep_scheme,                                                &
449               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
450               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
451               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
452               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
453               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
454               turbulent_inflow, turbulent_outflow, urban_surface,             &
455               use_initial_profile_as_reference,                               &
456               use_single_reference_value, uv_exposure, u_gtrans, v_gtrans,    &
457               virtual_flight, wind_turbine, ws_scheme_mom, ws_scheme_sca
458
459    USE cpulog,                                                                &
460        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
461
462    USE date_and_time_mod,                                                     &
463        ONLY:  calc_date_and_time, hour_call_emis, hour_of_year
464
465    USE flight_mod,                                                            &
466        ONLY:  flight_measurement
467
468    USE gust_mod,                                                              &
469        ONLY:  gust_actions, gust_module_enabled
470
471    USE indices,                                                               &
472        ONLY:  nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr, nxrg, nzb, nzt
473
474    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
475        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
476
477    USE interfaces
478
479    USE kinds
480
481    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
482        ONLY:  lsm_boundary_condition, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,     &
483               skip_time_do_lsm
484
485    USE lsf_nudging_mod,                                                       &
486        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert, nudge_ref
487
488    USE multi_agent_system_mod,                                                &
489        ONLY:  agents_active, multi_agent_system
490
491    USE nesting_offl_mod,                                                      &
492        ONLY:  nesting_offl_bc, nesting_offl_mass_conservation
493       
494    USE netcdf_data_input_mod,                                                 &
495        ONLY:  chem_emis, chem_emis_att, nest_offl,                            &
496               netcdf_data_input_offline_nesting
497
498    USE ocean_mod,                                                             &
499        ONLY:  prho_reference
500
501    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
502        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
503               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
504
505    USE pegrid
506
507    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
508        ONLY:  nested_run, nesting_mode, pmci_boundary_conds, pmci_datatrans,  &
509               pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation, pmci_synchronize
510
511    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
512        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
513
514    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
515        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_cache, prognostic_equations_vector
516
517    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
518        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation, radiation_control,&
519              radiation_interaction, radiation_interactions,                   &
520              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
521
522    USE spectra_mod,                                                           &
523        ONLY: average_count_sp, averaging_interval_sp, calc_spectra, dt_dosp,  &
524              skip_time_dosp
525
526    USE statistics,                                                            &
527        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
528
529    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
530        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
531
532    USE surface_mod,                                                           &
533        ONLY:  surf_def_h, surf_lsm_h, surf_usm_h
534
535    USE surface_output_mod,                                                    &
536        ONLY:  average_count_surf, averaging_interval_surf, dt_dosurf,         &
537               dt_dosurf_av, surface_output, surface_output_averaging,         &
538               skip_time_dosurf, skip_time_dosurf_av, time_dosurf,             &
539               time_dosurf_av
540
541    USE turbulence_closure_mod,                                                &
542        ONLY:  tcm_diffusivities, production_e_init
543
544    USE urban_surface_mod,                                                     &
545        ONLY:  usm_boundary_condition, usm_material_heat_model,                &
546               usm_material_model,                                             &
547               usm_surface_energy_balance, usm_green_heat_model,               &
548               usm_temperature_near_surface
549
550    USE synthetic_turbulence_generator_mod,                                    &
551        ONLY:  dt_stg_call, dt_stg_adjust, parametrize_inflow_turbulence,      &
552               stg_adjust, stg_main, time_stg_adjust, time_stg_call,           &
553               use_syn_turb_gen
554         
555    USE salsa_mod,                                                             &
556        ONLY: aerosol_number, aerosol_mass, nbins, ncc_tot, ngast, salsa,      &
557              salsa_boundary_conds, salsa_gas, salsa_gases_from_chem,          &
558              skip_time_do_salsa           
559
560    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
561        ONLY:  user_actions
562
563    USE uv_exposure_model_mod,                                                 &
564        ONLY:  uvem_calc_exposure
565
566    USE wind_turbine_model_mod,                                                &
567        ONLY:  wtm_forces
568
569    USE lpm_mod,                                                               &
570        ONLY:  lpm
571
572    USE vertical_nesting_mod,                                                  &
573        ONLY:  vnested, vnest_anterpolate, vnest_anterpolate_e,                &
574               vnest_boundary_conds, vnest_boundary_conds_khkm,                & 
575               vnest_deallocate, vnest_init, vnest_init_fine,                  &
576               vnest_start_time
577
578    IMPLICIT NONE
579
580    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string   !<
581   
582    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  b !< index for aerosol size bins   
583    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  c !< index for chemical compounds in aerosol size bins
584    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  g !< index for gaseous compounds
585    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  lsp
586    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  lsp_usr   !<
587    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  n         !< loop counter for chemistry species
588
589    REAL(wp) ::  dt_3d_old  !< temporary storage of timestep to be used for
590                            !< steering of run control output interval
591    REAL(wp) ::  time_since_reference_point_save  !< original value of
592                                                  !< time_since_reference_point
593
594!
595!-- At beginning determine the first time step
596    CALL timestep
597!
598!-- Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
599    IF ( nested_run )  THEN
600!
601!--    Synchronization by unifying the time step.
602!--    Global minimum of all time-steps is used for all.
603       CALL pmci_synchronize
604    ENDIF
605
606!
607!-- Determine and print out the run control quantities before the first time
608!-- step of this run. For the initial run, some statistics (e.g. divergence)
609!-- need to be determined first --> CALL flow_statistics at the beginning of
610!-- run_control
611    CALL run_control
612!
613!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
614!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
615    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled .AND. .NOT. vnested)  THEN
616!
617!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
618!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
619       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling  .AND.  terminate_coupled == 0 )
620          CALL surface_coupler
621          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
622       ENDDO
623       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp  .AND.                                      &
624           time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling )                          &
625       THEN
626          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
627       ENDIF
628    ENDIF
629
630#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
631!
632!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
633    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
634#endif
635
636    CALL location_message( 'starting timestep-sequence', .TRUE. )
637!
638!-- Start of the time loop
639    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
640                .NOT. terminate_run )
641
642       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
643!
644!--    Vertical nesting: initialize fine grid
645       IF ( vnested ) THEN
646          IF ( .NOT. vnest_init  .AND.  simulated_time >= vnest_start_time )  THEN
647             CALL cpu_log( log_point(80), 'vnest_init', 'start' )
648             CALL vnest_init_fine
649             vnest_init = .TRUE.
650             CALL cpu_log( log_point(80), 'vnest_init', 'stop' )
651          ENDIF
652       ENDIF
653!
654!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
655!--    LSF_DATA
656       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
657           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
658           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
659       ENDIF
660
661!
662!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
663!--    NUDGING_DATA
664       IF ( nudging )  THEN
665           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
666!
667!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
668!--        boundary condition
669           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
670           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
671           IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
672              DO  lsp = 1, nspec
673                 bc_cs_t_val = (  chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init(nzt+1)       &
674                                - chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init(nzt) )       &
675                               / dzu(nzt+1)
676              ENDDO
677           ENDIF
678       ENDIF
679!
680!--    If forcing by larger-scale models is applied, check if new data
681!--    at domain boundaries need to be read.
682       IF ( nesting_offline )  THEN
683          IF ( nest_offl%time(nest_offl%tind_p) <= time_since_reference_point )&
684             CALL netcdf_data_input_offline_nesting
685       ENDIF
686
687!
688!--    Execute the gust module actions
689       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
690          CALL gust_actions( 'before_timestep' )
691       ENDIF
692
693!
694!--    Execute the user-defined actions
695       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
696
697!
698!--    Calculate forces by wind turbines
699       IF ( wind_turbine )  THEN
700
701          CALL cpu_log( log_point(55), 'wind_turbine', 'start' )
702
703          CALL wtm_forces
704
705          CALL cpu_log( log_point(55), 'wind_turbine', 'stop' )
706
707       ENDIF   
708       
709!
710!--    Start of intermediate step loop
711       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
712       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
713                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
714
715          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
716
717!
718!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
719!--       on the timestep scheme
720          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
721
722!
723!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
724!--       global communication
725          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
726               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
727!
728!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
729!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
730!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
731             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
732                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
733                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
734             ENDIF
735             IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
736                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho_ocean, 64 )
737                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
738             ENDIF
739             IF ( humidity )  THEN
740                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
741                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
742             ENDIF
743!
744!--          Assure that ref_state does not become zero at any level
745!--          ( might be the case if a vertical level is completely occupied
746!--            with topography ).
747             ref_state = MERGE( MAXVAL(ref_state), ref_state,                  &
748                                ref_state == 0.0_wp )
749          ENDIF
750
751          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
752          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
753               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
754!
755!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
756!--       means of u, v, pt and q
757          IF ( nudging )  THEN
758             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
759             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
760             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
761             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
762             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
763          ENDIF
764
765!
766!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
767!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
768!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
769!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
770!--       inlining problems.
771          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
772             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
773          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
774             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
775          ENDIF
776
777!
778!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
779!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
780!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
781!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
782          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
783               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
784               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
785             CALL lpm
786             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
787          ENDIF
788
789!
790!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and mixing ratio.
791!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
792!--       advec_particles.
793          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
794               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
795          THEN
796             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
797          ENDIF
798
799!
800!--       Movement of agents in multi agent system
801          IF ( agents_active  .AND.                                            &
802               time_since_reference_point >= multi_agent_system_start  .AND.   &
803               time_since_reference_point <= multi_agent_system_end    .AND.   &
804               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
805             CALL multi_agent_system
806             first_call_mas = .FALSE.
807          ENDIF
808
809!
810!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
811          CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
812
813          CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
814          CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
815          CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
816          CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
817          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
818          IF ( rans_tke_e  .OR.  wang_kernel  .OR.  collision_turbulence       &
819               .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles )  THEN
820             IF ( rans_tke_e )  THEN
821                CALL exchange_horiz( diss_p, nbgp )
822             ELSE
823                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
824             ENDIF
825          ENDIF
826          IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
827             CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
828             CALL exchange_horiz( rho_ocean, nbgp )
829             CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
830          ENDIF
831          IF ( humidity )  THEN
832             CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
833             IF ( bulk_cloud_model .AND. microphysics_morrison )  THEN
834                CALL exchange_horiz( qc_p, nbgp )
835                CALL exchange_horiz( nc_p, nbgp )
836             ENDIF
837             IF ( bulk_cloud_model .AND. microphysics_seifert )  THEN
838                CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
839                CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
840             ENDIF
841          ENDIF
842          IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
843             CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
844             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
845             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
846             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
847          ENDIF
848          IF ( passive_scalar )  CALL exchange_horiz( s_p, nbgp )
849          IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
850             DO  lsp = 1, nspec
851                CALL exchange_horiz( chem_species(lsp)%conc_p, nbgp )
852!
853!--             kanani: Push chem_boundary_conds after CALL boundary_conds
854                lsp_usr = 1
855                DO WHILE ( TRIM( cs_name( lsp_usr ) ) /= 'novalue' )
856                   IF ( TRIM(chem_species(lsp)%name) == TRIM(cs_name(lsp_usr)) )  THEN
857                      CALL chem_boundary_conds( chem_species(lsp)%conc_p,              &
858                                                chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init )
859                   ENDIF
860                   lsp_usr = lsp_usr + 1
861                ENDDO
862             ENDDO
863          ENDIF
864
865          IF ( salsa  .AND.  time_since_reference_point >= skip_time_do_salsa )&
866          THEN
867             CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(91), 'salsa exch-horiz ', 'start' )
868             DO  b = 1, nbins
869                CALL exchange_horiz( aerosol_number(b)%conc_p, nbgp )
870                CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
871                CALL salsa_boundary_conds( aerosol_number(b)%conc_p,           &
872                                           aerosol_number(b)%init )
873                CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
874                DO  c = 1, ncc_tot
875                   CALL exchange_horiz( aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%conc_p,    &
876                                        nbgp )
877                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
878                   CALL salsa_boundary_conds( aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%conc_p,&
879                                              aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%init )
880                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
881                ENDDO
882             ENDDO
883             IF ( .NOT. salsa_gases_from_chem )  THEN
884                DO  g = 1, ngast
885                   CALL exchange_horiz( salsa_gas(g)%conc_p, nbgp ) 
886                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
887                   CALL salsa_boundary_conds( salsa_gas(g)%conc_p,             &
888                                              salsa_gas(g)%init )
889                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
890             ENDDO
891             ENDIF
892             CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(91), 'salsa exch-horiz ', 'stop' )
893          ENDIF         
894
895          CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
896
897!
898!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
899!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
900          CALL boundary_conds
901!
902!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
903          CALL swap_timelevel
904
905!
906!--       Vertical nesting: Interpolate fine grid data to the coarse grid
907          IF ( vnest_init ) THEN
908             CALL cpu_log( log_point(81), 'vnest_anterpolate', 'start' )
909             CALL vnest_anterpolate
910             CALL cpu_log( log_point(81), 'vnest_anterpolate', 'stop' )
911          ENDIF
912
913          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
914
915             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
916!
917!--          Domain nesting. The data transfer subroutines pmci_parent_datatrans
918!--          and pmci_child_datatrans are called inside the wrapper
919!--          subroutine pmci_datatrans according to the control parameters
920!--          nesting_mode and nesting_datatransfer_mode.
921!--          TO_DO: why is nesting_mode given as a parameter here?
922             CALL pmci_datatrans( nesting_mode )
923
924             IF ( TRIM( nesting_mode ) == 'two-way' .OR.                       &
925                  nesting_mode == 'vertical' )  THEN
926!
927!--             Exchange_horiz is needed for all parent-domains after the
928!--             anterpolation
929                CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
930                CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
931                CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
932                IF ( .NOT. neutral )  CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
933
934                IF ( humidity )  THEN
935
936                   CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
937
938                   IF ( bulk_cloud_model  .AND.  microphysics_morrison )  THEN
939                       CALL exchange_horiz( qc, nbgp )
940                       CALL exchange_horiz( nc, nbgp )
941                   ENDIF
942                   IF ( bulk_cloud_model  .AND.  microphysics_seifert )  THEN
943                       CALL exchange_horiz( qr, nbgp )
944                       CALL exchange_horiz( nr, nbgp )
945                   ENDIF
946
947                ENDIF
948
949                IF ( passive_scalar )  CALL exchange_horiz( s, nbgp ) 
950               
951                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
952
953                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion  .AND.  rans_mode  .AND.         &
954                                                      rans_tke_e )             &
955                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
956
957                IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
958                   DO  n = 1, nspec     
959                      CALL exchange_horiz( chem_species(n)%conc, nbgp ) 
960                   ENDDO
961                ENDIF
962
963             ENDIF
964!
965!--          Set boundary conditions again after interpolation and anterpolation.
966             CALL pmci_boundary_conds
967!
968!--          Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
969!--          This action must never be done for the root domain. Vertical
970!--          Commented out April 18, 2018 as seemingly unnecessary.
971!--          Will later be completely removed.
972!--             IF ( child_domain )  THEN
973!--                CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
974!--             ENDIF
975
976
977             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
978
979          ENDIF
980
981!
982!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
983!--       when a sloping surface is used
984          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
985             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
986                                                    pt_slope_offset
987             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
988                                                    pt_slope_offset
989          ENDIF
990
991!
992!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
993          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
994
995!
996!--       Set values at outflow boundary using the special outflow condition
997          IF ( turbulent_outflow )  CALL  outflow_turbulence
998
999!
1000!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
1001          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
1002               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
1003               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
1004          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
1005               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
1006          THEN
1007             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
1008             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
1009                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
1010                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
1011                   CALL disturb_field( 'u', tend, u )
1012                   CALL disturb_field( 'v', tend, v )
1013                ELSEIF ( ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )            &
1014                     .AND. .NOT. child_domain  .AND.  .NOT.  nesting_offline )  &
1015                THEN
1016!
1017!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
1018!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
1019                   dist_range = 1
1020                   CALL disturb_field( 'u', tend, u )
1021                   CALL disturb_field( 'v', tend, v )
1022                   dist_range = 0
1023                ENDIF
1024                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
1025             ENDIF
1026          ENDIF
1027
1028!
1029!--       Map forcing data derived from larger scale model onto domain
1030!--       boundaries.
1031          IF ( nesting_offline  .AND.  intermediate_timestep_count ==          &
1032                                       intermediate_timestep_count_max  )      &
1033             CALL nesting_offl_bc
1034!
1035!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using synthetic generated turbulence,
1036!--       only once per time step.
1037          IF ( use_syn_turb_gen  .AND.  time_stg_call >= dt_stg_call  .AND.    &
1038             intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )  THEN! &
1039             CALL stg_main
1040          ENDIF
1041!
1042!--       Ensure mass conservation. This need to be done after imposing
1043!--       synthetic turbulence and top boundary condition for pressure is set to
1044!--       Neumann conditions.
1045!--       Is this also required in case of Dirichlet?
1046          IF ( nesting_offline )  CALL nesting_offl_mass_conservation
1047!
1048!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
1049!--       pressure.
1050          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
1051                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
1052
1053             IF (  vnest_init ) THEN
1054!
1055!--             Compute pressure in the CG, interpolate top boundary conditions
1056!--             to the FG and then compute pressure in the FG
1057                IF ( coupling_mode == 'vnested_crse' )  CALL pres
1058
1059                CALL cpu_log( log_point(82), 'vnest_bc', 'start' )
1060                CALL vnest_boundary_conds
1061                CALL cpu_log( log_point(82), 'vnest_bc', 'stop' )
1062 
1063                IF ( coupling_mode == 'vnested_fine' )  CALL pres
1064
1065!--             Anterpolate TKE, satisfy Germano Identity
1066                CALL cpu_log( log_point(83), 'vnest_anter_e', 'start' )
1067                CALL vnest_anterpolate_e
1068                CALL cpu_log( log_point(83), 'vnest_anter_e', 'stop' )
1069
1070             ELSE
1071
1072                CALL pres
1073
1074             ENDIF
1075
1076          ENDIF
1077
1078!
1079!--       If required, compute liquid water content
1080          IF ( bulk_cloud_model )  THEN
1081             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
1082          ENDIF
1083!
1084!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
1085          IF ( humidity )  THEN
1086             CALL compute_vpt
1087          ENDIF
1088
1089!
1090!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
1091          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
1092
1093!
1094!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
1095!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
1096!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
1097             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
1098                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
1099             THEN
1100                CALL ls_forcing_surf( simulated_time )
1101             ENDIF
1102
1103!
1104!--          First the vertical (and horizontal) fluxes in the surface
1105!--          (constant flux) layer are computed
1106             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
1107                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
1108                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
1109                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
1110             ENDIF
1111!
1112!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
1113!--          model. Call for horizontal as well as vertical surfaces
1114             IF ( land_surface .AND. time_since_reference_point >= skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
1115
1116                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
1117!
1118!--             Call for horizontal upward-facing surfaces
1119                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .TRUE., -1 )
1120                CALL lsm_soil_model( .TRUE., -1, .TRUE. )
1121!
1122!--             Call for northward-facing surfaces
1123                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 0 )
1124                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 0, .TRUE. )
1125!
1126!--             Call for southward-facing surfaces
1127                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 1 )
1128                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 1, .TRUE. )
1129!
1130!--             Call for eastward-facing surfaces
1131                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 2 )
1132                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 2, .TRUE. )
1133!
1134!--             Call for westward-facing surfaces
1135                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 3 )
1136                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 3, .TRUE. )
1137!
1138!--             At the end, set boundary conditons for potential temperature
1139!--             and humidity after running the land-surface model. This
1140!--             might be important for the nesting, where arrays are transfered.
1141                CALL lsm_boundary_condition
1142
1143                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
1144             ENDIF
1145!
1146!--          If required, solve the energy balance for urban surfaces and run
1147!--          the material heat model
1148             IF (urban_surface) THEN
1149                CALL cpu_log( log_point(74), 'urban_surface', 'start' )
1150               
1151                CALL usm_surface_energy_balance( .FALSE. )
1152                IF ( usm_material_model )  THEN
1153                   CALL usm_green_heat_model
1154                   CALL usm_material_heat_model ( .FALSE. )
1155                ENDIF
1156
1157                CALL usm_temperature_near_surface
1158!
1159!--             At the end, set boundary conditons for potential temperature
1160!--             and humidity after running the urban-surface model. This
1161!--             might be important for the nesting, where arrays are transfered.
1162                CALL usm_boundary_condition
1163
1164                CALL cpu_log( log_point(74), 'urban_surface', 'stop' )
1165             ENDIF
1166!
1167!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
1168             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
1169             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
1170                IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
1171                   CALL tcm_diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
1172                ELSE
1173                   CALL tcm_diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
1174                ENDIF
1175             ELSE
1176                CALL tcm_diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
1177             ENDIF
1178             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
1179!
1180!--          Vertical nesting: set fine grid eddy viscosity top boundary condition
1181             IF ( vnest_init )  CALL vnest_boundary_conds_khkm
1182
1183          ENDIF
1184
1185!
1186!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
1187          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
1188               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. time_since_reference_point >    &
1189               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
1190
1191               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
1192
1193             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
1194             THEN
1195
1196                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
1197
1198                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
1199                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
1200                ENDIF
1201
1202!
1203!--             Adjust the current time to the time step of the radiation model.
1204!--             Needed since radiation is pre-calculated and stored only on apparent
1205!--             solar positions
1206                time_since_reference_point_save = time_since_reference_point
1207                time_since_reference_point =                                   &
1208                                    REAL( FLOOR( time_since_reference_point /  &
1209                                                 dt_radiation), wp )           &
1210                                             * dt_radiation
1211
1212                CALL radiation_control
1213
1214                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
1215
1216                IF ( ( urban_surface  .OR.  land_surface )  .AND.               &
1217                     radiation_interactions )  THEN
1218                   CALL cpu_log( log_point(75), 'radiation_interaction', 'start' )
1219                   CALL radiation_interaction
1220                   CALL cpu_log( log_point(75), 'radiation_interaction', 'stop' )
1221                ENDIF
1222   
1223!
1224!--             Return the current time to its original value
1225                time_since_reference_point = time_since_reference_point_save
1226
1227             ENDIF
1228          ENDIF
1229
1230       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
1231!
1232!--    If required, consider chemical emissions
1233       IF ( air_chemistry  .AND.  do_emis )  THEN
1234!
1235!--       Update the time --> kanani: revise location of this CALL
1236          CALL calc_date_and_time
1237!
1238!--       Call emission routine only once an hour
1239          IF (hour_of_year  .GT.  hour_call_emis )  THEN
1240             CALL chem_emissions_setup( chem_emis_att, chem_emis, nspec_out )
1241             hour_call_emis = hour_of_year
1242          ENDIF
1243       ENDIF
1244!
1245!--    If required, do UV exposure calculations
1246       IF ( uv_exposure )  THEN
1247          CALL uvem_calc_exposure
1248       ENDIF
1249!
1250!--    Increase simulation time and output times
1251       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
1252       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
1253       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
1254       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
1255       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( time_since_reference_point )
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
1261          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
1262       ENDIF
1263       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
1264          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
1265       ENDIF
1266       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
1267          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
1268       ENDIF
1269       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
1270          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
1271       ENDIF
1272       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
1273          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
1274       ENDIF
1275       DO  mid = 1, masks
1276          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
1277             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
1278          ENDIF
1279       ENDDO
1280       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
1281       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
1282          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
1283       ENDIF
1284       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
1285       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
1286          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
1287       ENDIF
1288       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
1289          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
1290       ENDIF
1291       time_dopr_listing  = time_dopr_listing + dt_3d
1292       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
1293!
1294!--    Increment time-counter for surface output
1295       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1296          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf )  THEN
1297             time_dosurf    = time_dosurf + dt_3d
1298          ENDIF
1299          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf_av )  THEN
1300             time_dosurf_av = time_dosurf_av + dt_3d
1301          ENDIF
1302       ENDIF
1303!
1304!--    In case of synthetic turbulence generation and parametrized turbulence
1305!--    information, update the time counter and if required, adjust the
1306!--    STG to new atmospheric conditions.
1307       IF ( use_syn_turb_gen  )  THEN
1308          IF ( parametrize_inflow_turbulence )  THEN
1309             time_stg_adjust = time_stg_adjust + dt_3d
1310             IF ( time_stg_adjust >= dt_stg_adjust )  CALL stg_adjust
1311          ENDIF
1312          time_stg_call = time_stg_call + dt_3d
1313       ENDIF
1314
1315!
1316!--    Data exchange between coupled models
1317       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled                   &
1318                                          .AND. .NOT. vnested )  THEN
1319          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
1320
1321!
1322!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
1323!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
1324!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
1325!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
1326!--       next restart run.
1327          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
1328             CALL surface_coupler
1329             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
1330          ENDDO
1331       ENDIF
1332
1333!
1334!--    Biometeorology calculation of stationary thermal indices
1335       IF ( biometeorology  .AND.  time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1336          CALL biom_calculate_static_grid ( .FALSE. )
1337          time_biom_results = time_since_reference_point
1338       ENDIF
1339
1340!
1341!--    Execute the gust module actions
1342       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
1343          CALL gust_actions( 'after_integration' )
1344       ENDIF
1345
1346!
1347!--    Execute user-defined actions
1348       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
1349
1350!
1351!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
1352!--    model has moved so far
1353       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
1354          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
1355          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
1356       ENDIF
1357
1358!
1359!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
1360!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
1361!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
1362       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
1363
1364!
1365!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
1366!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
1367!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
1368!--    interval in case of restart runs
1369
1370!
1371!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
1372!--    for this time step
1373       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
1374
1375!
1376!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
1377       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
1378            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
1379            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
1380          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
1381          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
1382             do_sum = .TRUE.
1383             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
1384                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
1385          ENDIF
1386       ENDIF
1387       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
1388
1389!
1390!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1391       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
1392            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
1393            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
1394       THEN
1395          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
1396          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
1397             CALL sum_up_3d_data
1398             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
1399             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
1400          ENDIF
1401       ENDIF
1402!
1403!--    Average surface data
1404       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1405          IF ( averaging_interval_surf /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                        & 
1406               ( dt_dosurf_av - time_dosurf_av ) <= averaging_interval_surf    &
1407          .AND.  simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf_av )  THEN
1408             IF ( time_dosurf_av >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN       
1409                CALL surface_output_averaging
1410                average_count_surf = average_count_surf + 1
1411             ENDIF
1412          ENDIF
1413       ENDIF
1414
1415!
1416!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
1417       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
1418            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
1419            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
1420          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
1421          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
1422             CALL calc_spectra
1423             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
1424                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
1425          ENDIF
1426       ENDIF
1427
1428!
1429!--    Call flight module and output data
1430       IF ( virtual_flight )  THEN
1431          CALL flight_measurement
1432          CALL data_output_flight
1433       ENDIF
1434
1435!
1436!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
1437       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1438          CALL print_1d
1439          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1440                                                           dt_3d ) )
1441       ENDIF
1442
1443!
1444!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1445       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1446          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1447          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1448          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1449       ENDIF
1450
1451!
1452!--    Graphic output for time series
1453       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1454          CALL data_output_tseries
1455          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1456       ENDIF
1457
1458!
1459!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1460!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1461       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1462          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1463          CALL data_output_spectra
1464          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1465       ENDIF
1466
1467!
1468!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1469       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1470          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1471          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1472       ENDIF
1473       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1474          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1475          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1476       ENDIF
1477       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1478          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1479          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1480       ENDIF
1481
1482!
1483!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1484       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1485          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1486          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1487       ENDIF
1488
1489!
1490!--    Masked data output
1491       DO  mid = 1, masks
1492          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1493             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1494             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1495                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1496          ENDIF
1497       ENDDO
1498
1499!
1500!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1501       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1502          CALL average_3d_data
1503          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1504          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1505          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1506          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1507          DO  mid = 1, masks
1508             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1509          ENDDO
1510          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1511       ENDIF
1512!
1513!--    Output of surface data, instantaneous and averaged data
1514       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1515          IF ( time_dosurf >= dt_dosurf )  THEN
1516             CALL surface_output( 0 )
1517             time_dosurf = MOD( time_dosurf, MAX( dt_dosurf, dt_3d ) )
1518          ENDIF
1519          IF ( time_dosurf_av >= dt_dosurf_av )  THEN
1520             CALL surface_output( 1 )
1521             time_dosurf_av = MOD( time_dosurf_av, MAX( dt_dosurf_av, dt_3d ) )
1522          ENDIF
1523       ENDIF
1524
1525!
1526!--    Output of particle time series
1527       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1528          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1529               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1530                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1531             CALL data_output_ptseries
1532             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1533          ENDIF
1534       ENDIF
1535
1536!
1537!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1538#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1539       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1540#endif
1541       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1542          CALL data_output_dvrp
1543          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1544       ENDIF
1545#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1546       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1547#endif
1548
1549!
1550!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1551       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  THEN
1552          IF ( surf_def_h(0)%ns >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_def_h(0) )
1553          IF ( surf_lsm_h%ns    >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_lsm_h    )
1554          IF ( surf_usm_h%ns    >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_usm_h    )
1555       ENDIF
1556
1557!
1558!--    Execute the gust module actions
1559       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
1560          CALL gust_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1561       ENDIF
1562
1563!
1564!--    Execute user-defined actions
1565       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1566
1567!
1568!--    Determine size of next time step. Save timestep dt_3d because it is
1569!--    newly calculated in routine timestep, but required further below for
1570!--    steering the run control output interval
1571       dt_3d_old = dt_3d
1572       CALL timestep
1573
1574!
1575!--    Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
1576       IF ( nested_run )  THEN
1577!
1578!--       Synchronize by unifying the time step.
1579!--       Global minimum of all time-steps is used for all.
1580          CALL pmci_synchronize
1581       ENDIF
1582
1583!
1584!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
1585!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
1586       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
1587            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
1588       THEN
1589          CALL run_control
1590          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
1591             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
1592                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d_old ) )
1593          ENDIF
1594       ENDIF
1595
1596!
1597!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1598       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1599
1600       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1601
1602
1603    ENDDO   ! time loop
1604
1605!
1606!-- Vertical nesting: Deallocate variables initialized for vertical nesting   
1607    IF ( vnest_init )  CALL vnest_deallocate
1608
1609    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1610
1611#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1612    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1613#endif
1614
1615    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1616
1617 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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