source: palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.2.html @ 97

Last change on this file since 97 was 97, checked in by raasch, 14 years ago

New:
---
ocean version including prognostic equation for salinity and equation of state for seawater. Routine buoyancy can be used with both temperature and density.
+ inipar-parameters bc_sa_t, bottom_salinityflux, ocean, sa_surface, sa_vertical_gradient, sa_vertical_gradient_level, top_salinityflux

advec_s_bc, average_3d_data, boundary_conds, buoyancy, check_parameters, data_output_2d, data_output_3d, diffusion_e, flow_statistics, header, init_grid, init_3d_model, modules, netcdf, parin, production_e, prognostic_equations, read_var_list, sum_up_3d_data, swap_timelevel, time_integration, user_interface, write_var_list, write_3d_binary

New:
eqn_state_seawater, init_ocean

Changed:


inipar-parameter use_pt_reference renamed use_reference

hydro_press renamed hyp, routine calc_mean_pt_profile renamed calc_mean_profile

format adjustments for the ocean version (run_control)

advec_particles, buoyancy, calc_liquid_water_content, check_parameters, diffusion_e, diffusivities, header, init_cloud_physics, modules, production_e, prognostic_equations, run_control

Errors:


Bugfix: height above topography instead of height above level k=0 is used for calculating the mixing length (diffusion_e and diffusivities).

Bugfix: error in boundary condition for TKE removed (advec_s_bc)

advec_s_bc, diffusion_e, prognostic_equations

  • Property svn:keywords set to Id
File size: 231.9 KB
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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
2<html><head>
3<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
4<body><h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
5parameters</a> and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
6parameters</a></h3>
7<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
8<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody>
9<tr>
10<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
11name</b></font></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
12<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br> <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p> </td>
13<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
14</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
15</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
16<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
17<td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
18all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br><br>This
19parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
20(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
21default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
22interval
23length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
24In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
25&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
26must hold.<br><br>If
27an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
28the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
29of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
30parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br><br>If
31an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
32will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
33restart runs, averaging intervals do not
34necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br><br>Parameters
35<a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
36and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
37can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
38profile data and spectra, respectively.<br> </td> </tr>
39<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
40</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
41<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
42interval</a><br>
43</span> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p>Averaging
44interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
45local
46file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
47</font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
48(in s).&nbsp; </p> <p>If
49this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
50averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
51data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
52limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
53In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
54</b>must
55hold.</p>If an interval is defined, then by default the average
56is calculated
57from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
58number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
59parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
60<p>If
61an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
62be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
63runs, averaging intervals do not
64necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p> </td> </tr>
65<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
66substeps</span></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
67</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
68<td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
69to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br> <br>
70In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
71pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
72be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
73timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
74by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
75= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
76In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
77field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
78case and in case
79of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
80= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
81should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
82</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
83</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
84<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>0.1,
850.8 or 0.9</i> <br> <i>(see right)</i></p>
86</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
87<p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
88allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
89diffusion-criterion
90dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
91dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
92in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
93the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
94&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
95&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br> </span></p>
96<p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
97cfl_factor depends on
98the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br> </span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
99is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br> </span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
100restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
101= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
102divergence
103significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
104be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
105appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
106</span></span></p> <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
107scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
108= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
109</tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
110</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
111<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
112<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Switch to
113impose random perturbations to the horizontal
114velocity field.&nbsp; </p> <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
115= <i>.T.,</i> random
116perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
117certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
118etc..<br> </p> <p>The temporal interval between
119these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
120the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
121and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
122and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
123In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
124and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
125the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
126and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
127A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
128determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
129distributed random number.
130After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
131Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
132solver.<br> </p> <p>The random number generator to
133be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
134</p> <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
135developed
136(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
137perturbations
138is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
139lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
140an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
141energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
142using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
143As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
144more random perturbations are assigned<br>
145.&nbsp; <br>
146Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
147the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
148by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
149velocities. </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
150</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
151<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
152<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of
153normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
154profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
155<p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
156= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If
157vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
158local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
159parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
160the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
161certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
162a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
163profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
164are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
165temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
166then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
167accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
168then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
169is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br> </p>
170<p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
171horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
172used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
173Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
174subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
175(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
176domain).&nbsp; </p> <p>The user can choose between
177the following normalization
178quantities: <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
179<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
180respect
181to the total surface sensible heat
182flux (k=0 ).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
183<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
184respect
185to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
186(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
187</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
188<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
189respect
190to the square of the characteristic
191temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
192as ratio of
193the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td> </tr>
194<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
195<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
196respect
197to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td> </tr>
198<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
199<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
200respect
201to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
202(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
203</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
204<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
205respect
206to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
207(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
208</tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For each
209coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
210an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
211<span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
212then the
213x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
214and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
215Data
216of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
217normalized.&nbsp; </p> <p>Using a normalization
218leaves all vertical profile data on
219local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
220unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
221normalization is steered
222by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
223which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
224(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
225&nbsp;<br>
226The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
227respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
228</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
229</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
230<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
231<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of
232normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
233profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
234<p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
235= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If
236vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
237local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
238parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
239the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
240certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
241the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
242comparability. </p> <p>The user can choose between the
243following normalization
244quantities: <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
245<td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
246respect
247to the boundary layer height
248(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
249value).</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For
250further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
251</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
252</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
253<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br> </td>
254<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Determines
255which vertical profiles are to be presented in
256which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
257&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
258&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
259= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The
260default assignment is:&nbsp; </p> <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
261=&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
262u v ',</span><br> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
263',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
264w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
265w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
266kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
267,</span><br>
26814 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
269'</span></p> </ul> <p>If plot output of
270vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
271the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
272Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
273which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
274program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
275The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
276determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
277which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
278expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
279coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
280drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
281names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
282The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
283must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
284string.&nbsp; </p> <p>Example:&nbsp; </p> <ul>
285<p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
286' pt '</span></p> </ul> <p>In this case the
287plot consists of two coordinate systems
288(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
289velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
290and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
291of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
292and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
293(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
294</p> <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
295depends on
296whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
297(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
298For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
299then
300the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
301temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
302to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
303then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
304but they are not drawn in the plot. <br> </p>
305The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
306with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
307and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
308Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
309distributed on several pages).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
310</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
311<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br> </td>
312<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>x-axis labels
313of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
314plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
315</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
316= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The
317default assignment is:&nbsp; </p> <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
318=&nbsp; </p> <ul> <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
319ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
320K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
321<span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
322ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
323m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
324m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;"> <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
325<br>14 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
326</ul> <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
327labels to vertical
328profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
329of vertical
330profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
331The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
332<a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
333according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
334and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p> <p>Umlauts
335are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
336well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
337each
338character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
339plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
340</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
341</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
342<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
343<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Type of cycle
344to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
345parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
346the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
347perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
348It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
349grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
350may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
351The
352computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
353however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p> </td>
354</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
355</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
356</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
357</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
358for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br><br>PALM
359allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
360averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
361parameter (see below).<br><br>By default, cross section
362data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
363below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
364<a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
365and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
366Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
367If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
368these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
369<a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
370<a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
371and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
372respectively.<br><br>The
373filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
374Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
375dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
376format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
377"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
378the PALM NetCDF data.<br><br>The following quantities are
379available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
380name</span></td><td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td><td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td><td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td><td></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
381is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
382= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
383pressure</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
384Pa</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
385concentration</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
386advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
387"-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
388particle/droplet radius </td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
389advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
390"-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
391is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
392= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
393is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
394= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
395temperature<br></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
396(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
397content</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
398= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
399or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
400= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
401water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
402= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
403water</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
404= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
405= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
406content (specific humidity)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
407= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
408= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
409the scalar</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
410= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
411= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
412characteristic temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
413is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
414the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
415friction velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
416is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
417the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
418temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
419the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple
420quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
421= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br><br>By
422assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
423output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
424respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
425appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
426</span>(for
427cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
428section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
429along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
430Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
431order:<br><br>Example:<br><br><div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br></div><br>This
432example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
433of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
434averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
435DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
436w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
437temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
438temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br><br>The
439user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
440own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br><br>The
441time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
442This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
443time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
444be
445declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br><br>Also,
446an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
447be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
448This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
449the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br><br>The
450parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
451can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
452Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
453<a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><p>With
454the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
455the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
456grid point.<br> </p> Cross sections extend through the
457total model
458domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
459&lt;= i
460&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
461&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
462the
463complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
464sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
465<a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
466causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
467normal to the respective section.<br><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br><br>Beside
468the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
469other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
470user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
471They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
472for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
473Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
474selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
475listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
476quantities.<br><br><p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
477on parallel machines:</p><p>
478By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
479of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
480are
481constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
482&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
483After PALM has
484finished, the contents of these individual
485files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
486using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
487(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
488configuration file).</p> <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
489collect all grid points of a
490cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
491one&nbsp;
492output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
493does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
494gridpoints, sufficient
495memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
496assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
497= <i>.F.</i>.</p><p>3d volume data output is
498always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
499has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p><p><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
500<p>Beside
501the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
502can
503also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
504using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p><p>By
505assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
506</span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
507the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
508Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
509the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
510The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
511for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
512= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
513means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
514v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
515averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
516creates
517a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
518with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
519As third and
520fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
521and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
522which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
523and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
524one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
525the file
526PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
527configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
528PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;)
529after PALM has
530finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
531can be done
532in
533compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
534Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
535<a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
5364.5.5</a>.</p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
537<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
538the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
539Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
540the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
541The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
542for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
543= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
544means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
545with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
546temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
547instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
548file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
549creates NAMELIST parameter files
550(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
551<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
552<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
553<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
554<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
555<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
556which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
557That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
558respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
559suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
560configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
561PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;)
562after PALM has
563finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
564respective data and
565parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
566file.
567The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
568parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
569(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
570All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
571file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
572in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
5734.5.4</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>There
574is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
575PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
576</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
577<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
578<td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br><br>By
579default, all data (profiles, time
580series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
581in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
582Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
583<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
584are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br><br>The
585numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br><br>The
586maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the
587parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
588if larger files have to be created.<br><br>For historical
589reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
590may be assigned the following values:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td><td>output
591of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
592read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
593</span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
594<a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td><td>output
595of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
596software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
597(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td><td>output
598of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
599software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
600(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple
601values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
602i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
603cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
604<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
605assigned.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
606There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
607future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br> </td> </tr> <tr>
608<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
609</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
61010&nbsp; <br>
611(100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
612* ' '</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
613<p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
614are to be output.&nbsp; </p> <p>By default vertical
615profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
616The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
617NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For
618historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
619file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
620which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
621parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
622for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br> </p>
623<p>For horizontally averaged vertical
624profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
625vertical
626grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
627profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
628also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
629</p> <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
630profiles is
631assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
632Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
633the profiles are ordered with respect to their
634output times.</p><p>Profiles can also be temporally
635averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).&nbsp;<br>
636</p> <p>The following list shows the values which can be
637assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
638The profile data is either defined on
639u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
640or
641on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
642According to this,
643the
644z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
645Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
646the lowest output
647level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
648u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
649.&nbsp; <br> </p> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
650<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
651velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
652<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
653velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
654<td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
655velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
656<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
657K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
658<td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
659temperature (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
660<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
661temperature (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
662<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
663(in kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
664<td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
665kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
666<td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
667(in kg/kg).</td> </tr> <tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
668<td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
669kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td> </tr> <tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
670<td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
671(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
672</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
673<td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
674(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
675</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
676<td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
677momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
678<td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
679<td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
680(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
681<td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
682</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
683<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
684subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
685</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
686<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
687resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
688</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
689<td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
690vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
691(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td> </tr>
692<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
693<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
694subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
695</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
696<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
697resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
698</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
699<td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
700vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
701(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td> </tr>
702<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
703<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
704sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
705<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
706sensible
707heat flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
708<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
709heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
710(in K
711m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
712<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
713sensible heat flux using the
714Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
715<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
716heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
717(<i>w"pt"</i>
718+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
719<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
720<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
721buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
722<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
723buoyancy
724flux (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
725<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
726flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
727<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
728water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
729<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
730flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
731<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
732(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
733<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
734latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
735<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
736heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
737<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
738heat
739flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
740<td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
741<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
742scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
743</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
744<td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
745concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td> </tr>
746<tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
747<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
748concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
749</tr> <tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
750salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
751<td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
752perturbation energy (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
753<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
754u-velocity
755component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
756<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
757v-velocity
758component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
759<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
760temperature (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
761<td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
762temperature (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
763<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
764w-velocity component (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
765<td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
766w-velocity
767component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
768= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
769</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
770<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
771</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
772<td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
773</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
774<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
775shear
776(resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
777<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
778turbulent transport of pressure
779fluctuations (resolved)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
780<td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
781transport of resolved-scale TKE</td> </tr> </tbody>
782</table> <br>Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
783variables can be also be
784output (this output is only done once
785with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
786later
787times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
788above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br> <ul>
789<p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
790<i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l</i></p>
791</ul> <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
792the user or
793have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>The
794user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
795own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br><br>In case
796of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
797PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
798which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
799Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
800using these two files. The
801plot layout is
802steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
803are determined by
804a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
805<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
806<a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
807<a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
808etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
809input
810file. <br><br>Further details about plotting vertical
811profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
812be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
8134.5.2</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
814<br> <b>_each_pe</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br> </td>
815<td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
816data by one or
817all processors.&nbsp; <p>In runs with several processors, by
818default, each processor
819outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
820file. After PALM
821has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
822file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
823the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
824<p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
825= <i>.F.,</i>
826the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
827into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
828have to be
829called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
830gridpoints, sufficient
831memory is required on PE0. </p> </td> </tr>
832<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
833_amplitude</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
834<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Maximum
835perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
836imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
837<p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
838describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
839field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
840the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
841only an
842approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p> </td>
843</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
844<br> <b>_limit</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
845<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Upper
846limit value of the perturbation energy of
847the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
848perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
849</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
850describes how to impose
851random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
852energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
853of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
854mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
855assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
856velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
857must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
858number of grid points).</span> </font> </p> </td>
859</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
860</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
861<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>zu(nz*2/3)<br>see right</i></td>
862<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
863limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
864imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
865</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
866parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
867&lt;= zu(</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
868Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
869&lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a>
870<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must
871also hold.</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">(nz * 2) / 3</span>.</span></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
872parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
873describes how to impose
874random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
875</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
876</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
877<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>zu(nzt-3)<br>see right</i></td>
878<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
879limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
880imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
881</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
882parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
883&lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
884Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a>
885<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;=
886<b>disturbance_level_t</b>
887must also hold.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">nzt - 3</span>.</span></span><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
888parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
889describes how to impose
890random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
891</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
892</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
893<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
894<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Output of 2d
895cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p> <p>The
896temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
897are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
898and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
899By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
900an additional output
901will be made at the
902beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
903starting times of restart runs).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
904<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
905</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
906<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
907<td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
908at the beginning
909of a run.<br><br>The temporal intervals of output times of
9103d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
911is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
912By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
913an additional output
914will be made at the
915beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
916starting times of restart runs).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
917</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
918<td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br> </td>
919<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Output of data
920for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
921parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
922= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>Output
923of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
924(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
925reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
926form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
927= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
928assigned. This
929yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
930parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_precision">do3d_precision</a>
931can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
932each quantity.<br> </p> <p>So far compressed data
933output is only possible for Cray-T3E
934machines. Additional information for
935handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
9364.5.6</a>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
937</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
9387&nbsp; <br>
939&nbsp; (100)</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">see
940right<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
941<p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
942output.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
943&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
944= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>In
945case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
946(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
947this parameter determines the number of significant digits
948which are to be output.<br> </p> <p>Fewer digits
949clearly reduce the amount
950of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
951quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
952name&gt;&lt;number of
953significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
954Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
955are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
956are not very reasonable
957because they do not effect a significant compression).<br> </p>
958<p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
959= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p> </td>
960</tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
961</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
962<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
963<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
964step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
965</font></font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
966<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is
967described in
968detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">).
969Additionally, it may be
970used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
971is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
972time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span>
973</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
974</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
975<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
976<td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
977of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br><br>By
978default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
979are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
980&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
981the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
982reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
983average's statistics.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
984variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
985the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
986averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
987is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
988MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
989<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
990gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
991this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp;
992<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>With
993an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
994<span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
995the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
996s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
997larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
998(maximum) 10 time levels.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
999is allowed
1000to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
1001the last averaging
1002interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
1003has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
1004spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
1005averaging interval.<br><br></span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
1006be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
1007vertical profile data and spectra.<br> </td> </tr>
1008<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
1009</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1010<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>averaging_<br>input</a></span></td>
1011<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
1012interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
1013profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
1014</font></font> </p> <p>By default, data from
1015each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
1016used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
1017&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
1018the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
1019reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
1020average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br> </p><p>For
1021more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p></td>
1022</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
1023</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1024<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
1025</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
1026at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
1027averaged),
1028cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
1029spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
1030<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
1031data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
1032parameter can be used to
1033assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
1034output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
1035simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
1036which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1037time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1038takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
1039dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
1040+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
1041+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
1042etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
1043the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
1044deviate
1045from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br>Individual temporal
1046intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
1047parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
1048and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
1049</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
1050</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1051<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1052&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i>
1053</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
1054at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
1055shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
1056output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
1057parameter can be used to
1058assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
1059output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
1060simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
1061which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1062time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1063takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
1064dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
1065+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
1066+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
1067etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
1068the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
1069deviate from
1070these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br></font></span>The
1071length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
1072</tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
1073</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1074<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1075<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1076interval</font> at which random
1077perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
1078(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
1079</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
1080describes how to impose
1081random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
1082</font> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
1083</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1084<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1085&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1086<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
1087interval at
1088which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
1089file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
1090or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
1091<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1092</font></span> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1093horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
1094parameter can be used to
1095assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
1096be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
1097zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1098time is the beginning
1099of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
1100takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
1101<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
1102+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
1103etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
1104profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
1105interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
1106If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
1107example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
1108the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
1109model uses a variable time step, these
1110deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
1111different for each output time.<br> </font></span></p>
1112<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
1113order to
1114guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
1115<span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
1116should be equal or a little bit
1117larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
1118= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
1119</span>and 3600.0
1120seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
1121&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
1122</p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
1123profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
1124</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
1125</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1126<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1127<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1128interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
1129vertical
1130profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
1131<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
1132</p> <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
1133parameter can be used to
1134assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
1135time is the beginning
1136of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
1137= 1800.0,
1138then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
1139profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
1140interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
1141If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
1142example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
1143the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
1144are related to
1145the
1146example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
1147deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
1148different for each output time.<br> </font></span></p>
1149<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
1150order to
1151guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
1152<span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
1153should be a little bit
1154larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
1155= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
1156</span>and 3600.0
1157seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
1158&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
1159variable time steps are used
1160(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
1161should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
1162<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
1163and output
1164format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
1165<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
1166internally fixed. In this file
1167the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
1168adjacent columns.</font></span> </p> </td> </tr>
1169<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
1170</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1171<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
1172<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1173interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
1174output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
1175</p> <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
1176is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
1177calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p><p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1178IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
1179== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1180<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
1181MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1182ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1183<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
1184MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
1185)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1186ENDIF</p><p>This parameter can be used to
1187assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1188time is the beginning of
1189&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
11902*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
1191actual output times can
1192deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
1193Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
1194of the time series are
1195written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
1196= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
1197value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
1198is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1199IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
1200== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1201<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
1202MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1203ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1204<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
1205MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
1206<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
1207)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1208ENDIF<br><br>(which minimizes the number of calls of
1209routine flow_statistics).<br><p>By default time series data
1210is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
1211Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
1212it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
1213format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
1214data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>The
1215file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
1216gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
1217</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
1218kinetic energy of
1219the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
1220(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
1221</tr> <tr> <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
1222</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
1223kinetic
1224energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
1225</sup>(normalized
1226with respect to the total number of grid
1227points)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
1228</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
1229size (in s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
1230<td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
1231m/s)
1232(horizontal average).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
1233<td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
1234of
1235the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td> </tr> <tr>
1236<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
1237<td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
1238scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
1239/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
1240(horizontal
1241average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
1242</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
1243u-component of the
1244velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
1245</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
1246v-component of the
1247velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
1248</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
1249w-component of the
1250velocity (in m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
1251</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
1252of the velocity
1253field before the pressure
1254solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
1255grid points) (in 1/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
1256<td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
1257velocity
1258field after the pressure
1259solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
1260grid points) (in 1/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
1261<td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
1262boundary layer (horizontal average)
1263determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
1264</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
1265<td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
1266boundary layer (horizontal average)
1267determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td> </tr> <tr>
1268<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
1269<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
1270heat flux near the surface (horizontal
1271average)
1272between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it
1273corresponds to
1274the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
1275<td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
1276(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
1277m/s).</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
1278<td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
1279(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td> </tr> <tr>
1280<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
1281<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
1282the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr>
1283<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
1284<td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
1285z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td> </tr> <tr>
1286<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
1287<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1288using upstream scheme along x with
1289upstream-spline advection switched on.</td> </tr> <tr>
1290<td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
1291<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1292using upstream scheme along y with
1293upstream-spline
1294advection switched on.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
1295<td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1296using upstream scheme along z with
1297upstream-spline
1298advection switched on.<br> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
1299<td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
1300</tr> </tbody> </table><br>Additionally, the
1301user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
1302user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
1303These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
1304this.<br><br>Time series data refers to the total
1305domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
1306However, the following time series always present the values of the
1307total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
1308<i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
1309<i>div_new</i>.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
1310</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1311<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1312&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1313<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1314interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
1315shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1316</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1317horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1318<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
1319</font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
1320parameter can be used to
1321assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
1322output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
1323simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
1324which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1325time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1326takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
1327<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
1328+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
1329+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
1330etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
1331(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1332</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1333has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
1334the time t = 0 or at the
1335respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1336</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
1337</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1338<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1339&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1340<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1341interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
1342(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1343</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1344horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1345<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
1346</font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
1347this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
1348cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
1349be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
1350has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
1351the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
1352+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
1353<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
1354+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
1355+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
1356can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1357</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1358has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
1359the time t = 0 or at the
1360respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1361</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
1362</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1363<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1364&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1365<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1366interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
1367(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
1368</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1369horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1370<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
1371</font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
1372this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
1373cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
1374be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
1375has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1376time is the beginning of
1377the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
1378+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
1379<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
1380+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
1381</span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
1382times
1383can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1384</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1385has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
1386the time t = 0 or at the
1387respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1388</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
1389</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1390<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1391&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1392<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1393interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
1394<font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1395<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
1396output of
13973d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
1398to assign
1399th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
1400interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
1401be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
1402zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
1403time is the
1404beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
1405+ dt_do3d</b>,
1406<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
1407+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
1408+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
1409deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
1410</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1411has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
1412the time t = 0 or at the
1413respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1414</td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td><td>Maximum
1415allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br><br>By default,
1416the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
1417simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
1418changed for other situations.</td></tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
1419</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1420<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1421<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1422interval</font> at which a new
1423restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
1424description
1425how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
1426does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
1427has not been set.</font></span> </p> </td> </tr>
1428<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
1429</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1430<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
1431<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1432interval</font> at which run control
1433output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1434</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
1435information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
1436output time, one line
1437with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
1438kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
1439beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
14402*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
1441etc., and always at
1442the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1443respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
1444deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1445</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
1446information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
1447= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p> </td>
1448</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
1449</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1450<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
1451<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
1452model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1453</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
1454is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
1455starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span>
1456</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
1457</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
1458<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
1459<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Steering of
1460header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
1461</p> <p>By default, informations about the model
1462parameters in use are
1463output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
1464(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
1465file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
1466With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
1467these informations are
1468also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
1469at restart runs.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
1470</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1471<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
1472<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
1473cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br> <br>
1474This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
1475multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1476perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1477The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
1478</p> <br>By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>-
14791</i>), the
1480number of cycles
1481depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
1482and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
1483for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
1484the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br> <br>
1485By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
1486cycles can be
1487fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br> <br>
1488<b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
1489must
1490examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
1491regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
1492sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
1493least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
1494both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
1495and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
1496good choice, for
1497non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
1498= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
1499sufficient.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
1500level</b></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1501<td style="vertical-align: top;"><br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
1502level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br> <br>
1503In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
1504the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
1505the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
1506gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
1507The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
1508gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
1509It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
1510determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
1511this level.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
1512</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br> </td>
1513<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br> </td>
1514<td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files will have 64
1515bit offset format.<br><br>By
1516default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
1517GByte. Using netcdf_64bit = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
1518GByte.<br><br>The 64 bit offset format can be separately
1519switched off for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume date (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
1520<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>)
1521using <a href="#netcdf_64bit_3d">netcdf_64bit_3d</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>Some
1522(PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
1523</td> </tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit_3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">.T.</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files containing 3d
1524volume data will have 64 bit offset format.<br><br>This
1525switch&nbsp;only comes into effect if <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
1526= .TRUE.. It allows to switch off separately the 64 bit offset format
1527for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume data (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
1528<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>).</td></tr><tr>
1529<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p> </td>
1530<td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
1531<td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
1532level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br> <br>
1533In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
1534the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
1535the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
1536gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
1537The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
1538gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
1539It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
1540determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
1541this level.</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
1542</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1543<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br> </td>
1544<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Determines the
1545subdomain from which the normalization
1546quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p> <p>If output
1547data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
1548(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
1549is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
1550<a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
1551the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
1552the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
1553= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
1554domain. Instead
1555of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
1556subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
1557where <i>1</i>
1558&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
1559hold. These
1560quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
1561of the total domain).</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
1562</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1563<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
1564<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
1565iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p> <p>This
1566parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
1567as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
1568= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
1569The number of
1570iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
1571on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
1572runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
1573point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
1574SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
1575</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
1576</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1577<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
1578<td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
1579volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br><br>By
1580default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
1581can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
1582(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
1583output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
1584for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
1585see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
1586</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
1587</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1588<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
1589<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Convergence
1590factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p> <p>If
1591the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
1592= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
1593this parameter
1594determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
1595&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
1596The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
1597depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
1598space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
1599appropriate test runs.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
1600</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1601<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
1602<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Ratio of the
1603eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
1604</p> <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
1605this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
1606/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p> </td> </tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="precipitation_amount_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">precipitation_amount_</span><br style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">interval</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
1607&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_<br>xy</a></i></td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1608interval</font> for which the precipitation amount (in mm) shall be calculated and output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1609</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">This
1610parameter requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>The interval must be smaller or equal than the output interval for 2d horizontal cross sections given by </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_do2d_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). The output of the precipitation amount also requires setting of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> =<span style="font-style: italic;"> 'pra*'</span>.<br>
1611</font></span></p> <span lang="en-GB"></span></td></tr><tr>
1612<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
1613</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1614<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
1615<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of
1616coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
1617in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1618</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1619= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
1620determines the layout of plots of
1621horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
1622when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
1623Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
1624plotted on one page are
1625determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
1626<b>profile_columns</b>
1627determines how many panels are to be
1628arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
1629respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1630According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
1631the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
1632then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
1633&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
1634the remaining
1635panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
1636then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
1637If
1638row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
1639is reduced automatically.</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
1640<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
1641</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1642<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
1643<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Number of rows
1644of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
1645by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1646</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1647= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
1648determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
1649profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
1650</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
1651</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
1652<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
1653<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Scheme to be
1654used to solve the Poisson equation for the
1655perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p> <br>
1656The user can choose between the following schemes:<br> <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
1657<td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
1658along x and y, solution of a
1659tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
1660FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
1661used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
1662This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
1663Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
1664</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><i>poisfft_</i>
1665<br> <i>hybrid</i></p>
1666</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
1667method using FFT
1668along x and y, solution of a
1669tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
1670FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
1671used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
1672This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
1673Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
1674</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
1675<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Multi-grid
1676scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
1677and
1678w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
1679are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
1680steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
1681the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
1682and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
1683to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
1684can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
1685<span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
1686The
1687smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
1688case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
1689<br>If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
1690is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
1691multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
1692the number of
1693grid points in the three directions
1694of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
1695where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
1696</i>the
1697multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
1698its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
1699affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
1700always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
1701for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
1702because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
1703parameter. <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
1704points of
1705the
1706subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
1707of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
1708With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
1709data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
1710for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
1711be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
1712<p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
1713identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
1714</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
1715<td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
1716relaxation
1717method (SOR). The convergence of
1718this
1719iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
1720<a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
1721and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
1722<br>Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
1723scheme
1724needs substantially
1725more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
1726errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td> </tr>
1727</tbody> </table> <br>In order to speed-up
1728performance, the Poisson equation is by default
1729only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
1730at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
1731</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
1732<br> <b>_factor</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
1733<i>0.01</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1734<p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p> <p>A
1735so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
1736variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
1737If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
1738respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
1739damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
1740is assigned to.
1741The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
1742and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
1743maximum value
1744at
1745the top boundary. </p> <p>This method
1746effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
1747which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
1748reflected&nbsp; at the top
1749boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
1750switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
1751or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
1752Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
1753= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
1754off.&nbsp; </p> <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
1755hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
1756&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
1757&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
1758numerical instabilities.</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
1759<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
1760<br> <b>_height</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>2/3 *</i>
1761<br><span style="font-style: italic;">zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
1762</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height
1763where the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>With
1764Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
1765this parameter determines the range where damping is applied. By
1766default, Rayleigh damping will be applied in the upper third of the
1767model
1768domain.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
1769</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1770<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
1771<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Largest
1772residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
1773</p> <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the
1774multi-grid
1775scheme (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1776The assigned cycle (v- or w-cycle, see <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
1777is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If
1778this
1779is not the case after 1000 cycles, the PALM aborts with a corresponding
1780error message.</p> <p>The reciprocal value of this
1781parameter can be interpreted as
1782a factor by the divergence of the provisional
1783velocity field is approximately reduced after the multi-grid scheme has
1784been applied (thus the default value causes a reduction of the
1785divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p> </td>
1786</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
1787</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1788<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1789<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Simulated time
1790after which a restart run is to be carried out
1791(in s). </p> <p>The simulated time refers to the
1792beginning of the
1793initial run (t = 0), not to the beginning of the respective
1794restart run. Restart runs can additionally be forced to be carried out
1795in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>. </p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
1796A successful operation of this parameter requires additional
1797modifications in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-call
1798for the respective run (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
17993.3</a>).<br> </p> <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b>
1800or <b>dt_restart</b> does
1801not override the automatic start of restart runs in case that the job
1802runs out of CPU time. <br> </p> </td> </tr>
1803<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
1804</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
1805</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
1806</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position
1807of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross
1808sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output
1809of
1810horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
1811parameter can be used to
1812define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
1813cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xy</b>
1814the
1815corresponding vertical grid point index/indices k of the requested
1816cross section(s). The exact location (height level) of the cross
1817section depends on the variable for which the output is made: zu(k) for
1818scalars and horizontal velocities, zw(k) for the vertical velocity.
1819Information about the exact location of the cross section is contained
1820in the NetCDF output file (if the default NetCDF output is switched on;
1821see <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
1822creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In
1823the
1824NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
1825z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
1826does not effect the output of horizontal cross sections of variable u<sub>*</sub>
1827and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For
1828these quantities always only one cross
1829section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
1830<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
1831if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
1832= <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>),
1833then the respective data are
1834successively written to file. The output order follows the order given
1835by <b>section_xy</b>.&nbsp;</font></span></td>
1836</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
1837</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
1838</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
1839<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
1840for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point
1841index j).&nbsp; </font> </p> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1842vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
1843parameter can be used to
1844define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
1845cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b>
1846the
1847corresponding horizontal grid point index/indices j of the requested
1848cross section(s). The exact position (in y-direction) of the cross
1849section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
1850on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in
1851the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
1852default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
1853no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all
1854positions.<br><br>Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
1855creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along y. In the
1856NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
1857y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
1858<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
1859</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
1860selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>,
1861<i>27</i>),
1862then the respective data are successively written to file. The output
1863order follows the order given by <b>section_xz</b>.</font></span></td>
1864</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
1865</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
1866</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
1867<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
1868for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point
1869index i).&nbsp; </font> </p> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1870vertical yz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
1871this parameter can be used to define the position(s) of the cross
1872section(s). Up to 100 positions of cross sections can be selected by
1873assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal
1874grid point
1875index/indices i of the requested cross section(s). The exact position
1876(in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
1877on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in
1878the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
1879default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
1880no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all
1881positions.<br><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
1882creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along x. In the
1883NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
1884x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
1885<span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
1886</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
1887selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
1888respective data are successively written to file. The output order
1889follows the order given by <b>section_yz</b>.</font></span></td>
1890</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
1891</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1892<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br> </td>
1893<td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before
1894this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
1895parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1896this interval
1897(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By
1898default, this
1899applies for output of instantaneous 3d volume data, cross section data,
1900spectra and vertical profile data as well as for temporally averaged 2d
1901and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1902the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>
1903= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
1904and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
1905= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
1906then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br> </td>
1907</tr> <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally
1908averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
1909parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1910this interval
1911(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1912the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>
1913= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
1914and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
1915= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
1916then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td></tr><tr>
1917<td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
1918</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1919<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
1920</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
1921vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
1922parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1923this interval
1924(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1925the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
1926first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr> <tr>
1927<td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
1928</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1929<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
1930</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
1931instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has
1932passed (in s).<br><br>This
1933parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1934this interval
1935(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1936the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>
1937= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
1938and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
1939= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
1940then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
1941<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
1942</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1943<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
1944</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
1945instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has
1946passed (in s).<br><br>This
1947parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1948this interval
1949(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1950the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
1951= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
1952and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
1953= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
1954then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
1955<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
1956</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1957<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
1958</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
1959instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has
1960passed (in s).<br><br>This
1961parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1962this interval
1963(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1964the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>
1965= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
1966and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
1967= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
1968then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
1969<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
1970</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
1971<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
1972</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
1973instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
1974parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
1975this interval
1976(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If
1977the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
1978first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td> </tr>
1979<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b>
1980<br> <b>_needed</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br> </td>
1981<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>CPU time
1982needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
1983batch mode (in s).<br> </p> <p>If the environment
1984variable <b>write_binary </b>is
1985set <i>true</i> (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
19863.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after
1987each
1988timestep. Time integration must not consume the CPU time completely,
1989since several actions still have to be carried out after time
1990integration has finished (e.g. writing of binary data for the restart
1991run, carrying out output commands, copying of local files to their
1992permanent destinations, etc.) which also takes some time. The maximum
1993possible time needed for these activities plus a reserve is to be given
1994with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among
1995other things,
1996it depends on
1997the number of grid points used. If its value is selected too small,
1998then the
1999respective job will be prematurely aborted by the queuing system, which
2000may result in a data loss and will possibly interrupt the job chain.<br>
2001</p> <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment
2002variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span>
2003is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span>
2004and if moreover the job has
2005been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b>
2006option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>. <i><br>
2007</i> </p> <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
2008On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of
2009PALM
2010have also to be accounted for (e.g. for
2011compilation and copying of input files).</p> </td> </tr>
2012<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
2013<br> <b>_parameters</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
2014<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Additional
2015plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
2016from preceding runs of the
2017job chain.&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies
2018for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2019= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>By
2020default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
2021(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2022only contain profiles of data produced by the model
2023run. If profiles of prior times (i.e. data of preceding jobs of a
2024job chain) shall be plotted additionally (e.g. for comparison
2025purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>.
2026must be
2027set.<br> </p> <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
20284.5.2</a>.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
2029</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2030<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model
2031top)</i></td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2032<p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
2033be
2034plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
2035(in
2036m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
2037&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2038= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
2039affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
2040(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2041when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
2042By default, profiles are plotted up to the top boundary. The height
2043level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller
2044value.
2045Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
2046vertical
2047grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are still output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.</p>
2048<p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
2049has no effect. Instead, <a href="#z_max_do1d_normalized">z_max_do1d_normalized</a>
2050must be used.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b>
2051<br> <b>_normalized</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i>
2052<br> <i>data</i> <br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Normalized height
2053level up to which horizontally averaged
2054profiles are to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
2055</p> <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2056= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It
2057affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
2058(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2059when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>,
2060if a normalization for the vertical axis is selected
2061(see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>).
2062If e.g. the boundary layer height is used for normalization, then <b>z_max_do1d_normalized</b>
2063= <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height
2064level of z =
20651.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p> </td> </tr>
2066<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
2067</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
2068<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br> </td>
2069<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Height level
2070up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
2071with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2072(in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter only applies for
2073&nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2074= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p><p>It
2075affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
2076sections (<a href="#data_output">data_output</a>)
2077when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.
2078By
2079default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d
2080</b>the
2081visualization within
2082the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z
2083&lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
2084Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
2085grid points
2086of the complete cross section are still output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>
2087or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
2088The level up to which the section is visualized can later be changed by
2089manually editing the
2090file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>
2091or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>
2092(the respective <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>-parameter
2093is <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html#YRIGHT">yright</a>).</p>
2094</td> </tr> </tbody></table><br>
2095<br><h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Paketparameter"></a>Package
2096parameters: </h3>
2097Package (<span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2098option -p): <span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="particles_package"></a>particles</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
2099NAMELIST group name: <span style="font-weight: bold;">particles_par<br>
2100</span><table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"> <tbody><tr>
2101<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
2102name</b></font></td>
2103<td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
2104<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br> <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p> </td>
2105<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
2106</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
2107</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2108<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
2109<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
2110interval at
2111which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from
2112a particle
2113source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp;
2114</font> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
2115particles are released only at the beginning of a simulation
2116(t_init=0). The time of the first release (t_init) can be changed with
2117package parameter </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><font><a href="#particle_advection_start"><font face="Thorndale, serif">particle_advection_start</font></a>.
2118</font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be
2119set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>.
2120If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>
2121has been set, additional
2122releases will be at t = t_init+<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
2123t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
2124t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
2125etc.. Actual release times
2126may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see
2127e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
2128<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
2129of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source </font></span>as
2130well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
2131within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package
2132parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
2133<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
2134</font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By
2135default, one particle is released at all points defined by these
2136parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a>
2137can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
2138</font></span></p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
2139different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)
2140where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
2141to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other
2142particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
2143identical for all groups of particles.</font></span></p>Subgrid
2144scale velocities can (optionally) be included for calculating the
2145particle advection, using the method of Weil et al. (2004, JAS, 61,
21462877-2887). This method is switched on by the package
2147parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>.
2148This also forces the Euler/upstream method to be used for time
2149advancement of the TKE (see initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#use_upstream_for_tke">use_upstream_for_tke</a>).
2150The minimum timestep during the sub-timesteps is controlled by package
2151parameter <a href="#dt_min_part">dt_min_part</a>. <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By
2152default, particles are weightless and transported passively with the
2153resolved scale flow. Particles can be given a mass and thus an inertia
2154by assigning the
2155package parameter </font></span><a href="#density_ratio"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">density_ratio</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> a
2156non-zero value (it
2157defines the ratio of the density of the fluid and the density of the
2158particles). In these cases their </font></span><a href="#radius"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">radius</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">
2159must also be defined, which affects their flow resistance. </font></span><a href="#diameter"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span> </p>
2160<p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Boundary
2161conditions for the particle transport can be defined with package
2162parameters </font></span><a href="#bc_par_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_t</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#bc_par_lr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_lr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="bc_par_ns"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_ns</font></span></a>
2163<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
2164</font></span><a href="#bc_par_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_b</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Timeseries
2165of particle quantities in NetCDF format can be output to local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a>
2166by using package parameter <a href="#dt_dopts">dt_dopts</a>.<br></font></span><p>For
2167analysis, additional output of
2168particle
2169information in equidistant temporal intervals can be carried out using <a href="#dt_write_particle_data">dt_write_particle_data</a>
2170(file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>).<br>
2171</p> <p><span style="font-family: thorndale,serif;">Statistical
2172informations</span> (e.g. the total number of particles used, the
2173number of particles exchanged between the PEs, etc.) are output to the
2174local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_INFOS</a>,
2175if switched on by the parameter <a href="#write_particle_statistics">write_particle_statistics</a>.
2176<br> </p> <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">If a job
2177chain is to be carried out, particle
2178informations </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">for the restart run (e.g. current
2179location of
2180all
2181particles at the end of the
2182run) is output to
2183the local file</font></span> <font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a><font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font>,
2184<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">which
2185must be saved at the
2186end of the run <tt><span lang="en-GB"></span></tt>and
2187given as an
2188input file to the restart run
2189under local file name</font></span> <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>
2190u<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">sing
2191respective file
2192connection statements in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2193configuration file. </font></span> <span lang="en-GB"></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The output of
2194particles for visualization with the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> is steered by
2195the package
2196parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dvrp</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.
2197For visualization
2198purposes particles can be given a
2199diameter by the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dvrp_psize">dvrp_psize</a>
2200(this diameter only affects the visualization). All particles have the
2201same size. Alternatively, particles can be given an individual size and
2202a </span>color <span lang="en-GB">by modifying the
2203user-interface (subroutine</span></font> <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>)<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
2204Particles can pull a
2205&ldquo;tail&rdquo; behind themselves to improve their
2206visualization.
2207This is steered via the parameter&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#use_particle_tails">use_particle_tails</a>.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#maximum_number_of_tailpoints"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></p> <span lang="en-GB"></span><p><b>So far, the
2208particle transport realized in PALM does only
2209work
2210duly in case of a constant vertical grid spacing!</b></p> </td>
2211</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="bc_par_b"></a><b>bc_par_b</b></p>
2212</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2213<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i></td>
2214<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Bottom
2215boundary condition for particle transport. </p> <p>By
2216default, particles are reflected at the bottom boundary.
2217Alternatively, a particle absorption can set by <b>bc_par_b</b>
2218= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>.</p> </td>
2219</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="bc_par_lr"></a><b>bc_par_lr</b></p>
2220</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2221<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
2222<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Lateral
2223boundary condition (x-direction) for particle
2224transport. </p> <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
2225are used along x.
2226Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
2227= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
2228= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
2229can be set. <br> </p> <p>This lateral boundary
2230conditions should correspond to the
2231lateral boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).</p> </td>
2232</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="bc_par_ns"></a><b>bc_par_ns</b></p>
2233</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2234<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
2235<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Lateral
2236boundary condition (y-direction) for particle
2237transport. </p> <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
2238are used along y.
2239Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
2240= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
2241= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
2242can be set.<br> </p>
2243This lateral boundary conditions should correspond to the lateral
2244boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</td> </tr>
2245<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="bc_par_t"></a><b>bc_par_t</b></p>
2246</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2247<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i></td>
2248<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Top boundary
2249condition for particle transport. </p> <p>By default,
2250particles are absorbed at the top boundary.
2251Alternatively, a reflection condition can be set by <b>bc_par_t</b>
2252= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>.</p> </td>
2253</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="density_ratio"></a><b>density_ratio</b></p>
2254</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
2255<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><i>0.0, 9</i>
2256*<br> <i>9999999.9</i></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Ratio of the density
2257of the fluid and the density of the
2258particles. </p> <p>With the default value<i> </i>the
2259particles are weightless and transported passively with the resolved
2260scale flow.
2261In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">density_ratio</span>
2262/=
22630.0 particles have a mass and hence inertia so that their velocity
2264deviates more or less from the velocity of the surrounding flow.
2265Particle velocity is calculated analytically and depends on (besides
2266the density ratio and the current velocity difference between particles
2267and surrounding fluid) the
2268particle radius which is determined via <a href="#radius">radius</a>
2269as well as on the molecular viscosity (assumed as 1.461E-5 m<sup>2</sup>/s).
2270</p> <p>If <b>density_ratio</b> = <i>1.0</i>,
2271the particle density
2272corresponds to the density of the surrounding fluid and the particles
2273do not feel any buoyancy. Otherwise, particles will be accelerated
2274upwards (<b>density_ratio</b> &gt; <i>1.0</i>)
2275or downwards (<b>density_ratio</b> &lt; <i>1.0</i>).<br>
2276</p> <p>With several groups of particles (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups">number_of_particle_groups</a>),
2277each group can be assigned a different value. If the number of values
2278given for <span style="font-weight: bold;">density_ratio</span>
2279is less than the number of
2280groups defined by <span style="font-weight: bold;">number_of_particle_groups</span>,
2281then the last assigned value is used for all remaining groups. This
2282means that by default the particle density ratio for all groups will be
2283<span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span>.</p>
2284</td> </tr> <tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="dt_dopts"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopts</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td><td align="left" valign="top"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
2285interval</font> at which time series data of particle quantities
2286shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
2287<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
2288particle advection is switched on (see</font></span><font><span style="font-family: thorndale;"> <a href="#dt_prel">dt_prel</a>)
2289this parameter can be used to assign
2290th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
2291interval at which time series of particle quantities shall be output.
2292Output is written in NetCDF format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a>.<br><br>The
2293following list gives a short description of the&nbsp;quantities
2294available. Most quantities are averages over all particles. The
2295quantity name given in the first column is identical to the respective
2296name of the variable on the NetCDF file (see section <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> for a general
2297description of the NetCDF files).<br><br>In case of using
2298more than one particle group (see <a href="#number_of_particle_groups">number_of_particle_groups</a>),
2299seperate time series are output for each of the groups. The long names
2300of the variables in the NetCDF file containing the respective
2301timeseries all end with the string</font><span style="font-style: italic; font-family: monospace;">' PG ##'</span><font face="Thorndale">, where ## is the number of the particle
2302group (<span style="font-style: italic;">01</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">02</span>, etc.). <br>&nbsp;</font></span><table style="text-align: left; width: 631px; height: 652px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">tnpt</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">total number of
2303particles</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle
2304x-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle
2305y-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle
2306z-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_abs</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">absolute
2307particle z-coordinate (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">u particle
2308velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v particle
2309velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w particle
2310velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale u
2311particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale v
2312particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale w
2313particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_up</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">total number of
2314upward moving particles</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w_up</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">vertical
2315velocity of the upward moving particles (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w_down</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">vertical
2316velocity of the downward moving particles (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_max</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">maximum number
2317of particles in a subdomain (=tnpt for non-parallel runs)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_min</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">minimum number
2318of particles in a subdomain (=tnpt for non-parallel runs)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2319particle x-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x_ </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2320particle y-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y_</span> (in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2321particle z-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_</span> (in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2322u particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2323v particle velocity component with respect to&nbsp;<span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2324w particle velocity component with respect to&nbsp;<span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">u"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2325subgrid-scale u particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2326subgrid-scale v particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2327subgrid-scale w particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">npt*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the
2328number of particles with respect to the average number of particles per
2329subdomain</td></tr></tbody></table><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></td></tr><tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="dt_min_part"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_min_part</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0002</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">Minimum value for the
2330particle timestep when SGS velocities are used (in s).<br><br>For
2331a further explanation see package parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>.</td></tr><tr>
2332<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dt_write_particle_data"></a><b>dt_write_particle_</b>
2333<b>data</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
2334<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Temporal
2335interval for output of particle data (in s). </p> <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
2336parameter can be used to
2337assign the temporal interval at which particle data shall be output.</font></span>
2338Data are output to
2339the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>.
2340<span style="font-family: mon;">See the file description
2341for more
2342details about its format</span>. </p> <p>By
2343default, no particle data are output.</p> </td> </tr>
2344<tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="dvrp_psize"></a><b>dvrp_psize</b></p>
2345</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td>
2346<td style="vertical-align: top;">0.2 * dx<br> </td>
2347<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Diameter that
2348the particles is given in visualizations with
2349the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>
2350software (in
2351m).&nbsp; </p> <p>In case that particles are
2352visualized with the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>
2353software (see <a href="chapter_4.5.7.html">chapter
23544.5.7</a>), their size can be set by parameter <b>dvrp_psize</b>.
2355All
2356particles are displayed with this same size.<br> </p> <p>Alternatively,
2357the particle diameters can be set with the
2358user-interface in routine <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>
2359(at the beginning of the simulation) and/or can be redefined after each
2360timestep in routine <tt>user<font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">_particle_attributes</font></tt>
2361(both routines can be found in file <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">user_interface.f90</font></tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">)</font>.&nbsp;</p>
2362<p><b>Note:</b> This parameter determines exclusively
2363the size
2364under which particles appear in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>
2365visualization. The flow relevant particle radius is determined via the
2366particle package parameter <a href="#radius">radius</a>!</p>
2367</td> </tr> <tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="end_time_prel"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time_prel</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">Time of the last release of
2368particles (in s).<br><br>See also <a href="#particle_advection_start">particle_advection_start</a>.</td></tr><tr>
2369<td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="initial_weighting_factor"></a>initial_weighting_factor</span></td>
2370<td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span><br> </td>
2371<td style="vertical-align: top;">Factor to define the real
2372number of initial droplets in a grid box.<br> <br>
2373In case of explicitly simulating cloud droplets (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>),
2374the real number of initial droplets in a grid box is equal to the
2375initial number of droplets in this box (defined by the particle source
2376parameters <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
2377<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
2378</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span>)
2379times the <span style="font-weight: bold;">initial_weighting_factor</span>.</td>
2380</tr><tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="maximum_number_of_particles"></a><b>maximum_number_of_</b>
2381<br> <b>particles</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1000</i></td>
2382<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Maximum number
2383of particles (on a PE).&nbsp; </p> <p>This parameter
2384allows to set the number of particles for which
2385memory must be allocated at the beginning of the run.
2386If this memory becomes insufficient during the run, due to the
2387release of further particles (see <a href="#dt_prel">dt_prel</a>),
2388then more memory is automatically allocated.<br> </p>
2389For runs on several processors, <span style="font-weight: bold;">maximum_number_of_particles</span>
2390defines
2391the maximum number on each PE. This number must be larger than the
2392maximum number of particles initially released in a subdomain.</td>
2393</tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p><a name="maximum_number_of_tailpoints"></a><b>maximum_number_of_</b>
2394<br> <b>tailpoints</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100</i></td>
2395<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Maximum number
2396of tailpoints that a particle tail can
2397have.&nbsp; </p> <p>&nbsp;<b>maximum_number_of_tailpoints</b>
2398sets the number of descrete points the tail consists of. A new point is
2399added to the particle tails after each time step. If the maximum number
2400of tail
2401points is reached after the corresponding number of timesteps, the
2402oldest respective tail points is deleted within the following
2403timestep.&nbsp; </p> <p>All particle tails have the
2404same number of points. The maximum
2405length of
2406these
2407tails is determined by the value of <b>maximum_number_of_tailpoints</b>
2408and by the minimum distance between each of the adjoining
2409tailpoints,&nbsp; which can be set by <a href="#minimum_tailpoint_distance">minimum_tailpoint_distance</a>.
2410Additionally, it can be determined that the temporal displacement
2411between the current position of the particle and the oldest point of
2412the tail may become not larger than a value to be assigned by <a href="#maximum_tailpoint_age">maximum_tailpoint_age</a>.</p>
2413</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="maximum_tailpoint_age"></a><b>maximum_tailpoint_</b>
2414<br> <b>age</b></p> </td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">100000.0</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Maximum age that the
2415end point of a particle tail is allowed to have (in s).&nbsp; </p>
2416<p>If the temporal displacement between the oldest point of a
2417particle tail and the current position of the particle becomes larger
2418than the value given by <b>maximum_tailpoint_age</b>, this
2419oldest
2420point (which defines the end of the tail) is
2421removed. If this time is so small that the number of points defining
2422the particle tail do not exceed the value given by <b>maximum_number_of_tailpoints</b>,
2423then the length the particle tails is a measure for the distance the
2424particle travelled along during the time interval defined via <b>maximum_tailpoint_age</b>,
2425i.e. for the
2426particle velocity. Fast particles will have long tails, slow particles
2427shorter ones (note: this will not neccessarily hold if <a href="#minimum_tailpoint_distance">minimum_tailpoint_distance</a>
2428= <i>0.0</i>).</p> </td> </tr> <tr>
2429<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p><a name="minimum_tailpoint_distance"></a><b>minimum_tailpoint_distance</b></p>
2430</td> <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2431<td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
2432<td style="vertical-align: top;"> <p>Minimum
2433distance allowed between two adjacent points of a
2434particle tail (in m).&nbsp; </p> <p>In case of <b>minimum_tailpoint_distance</b>
2435&gt; <i>0.0 </i>the
2436particle tail is extended by a new point only if the distance between
2437its current position and the most recent tail point exceed the
2438distance given via <b>minimum_tailpoint_distance</b>.<br>
2439</p> <p>If the length of the particle tails shall be
2440proportional to
2441the respective particle velocity, the parameter <a href="#maximum_tailpoint_age">maximum_tailpoint_age</a>
2442must also be set appropriately. </p> <b>Note:</b><br>
2443A suitable choice of <b>minimum_tailpoint_distance</b>
2444&gt; <i>0.0</i> is recommended, because then the tail
2445coordinates of
2446slowly moving particles require less memory and can also be drawn
2447faster. The upper limit of <b>minimum_tailpoint_distance</b>
2448should be chosen in a way that the visualized particle
2449tails still appear as smooth lines. Example: with a model domain of
24501000 m and a