source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 1784

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of PALM.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
6! of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation,
7! either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8!
9! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
10! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
11! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
12!
13! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
14! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
15!
16! Copyright 1997-2015 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
17!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
18!
19! Current revisions:
20! ------------------
21!
22!
23! Former revisions:
24! -----------------
25! $Id: time_integration.f90 1784 2016-03-06 19:14:40Z raasch $
26!
27! 1783 2016-03-06 18:36:17Z raasch
28! switch back of netcdf data format for mask output moved to the mask output
29! routine
30!
31! 1781 2016-03-03 15:12:23Z raasch
32! some pmc calls removed at the beginning (before timeloop),
33! pmc initialization moved to the main program
34!
35! 1764 2016-02-28 12:45:19Z raasch
36! PMC_ACTIVE flags removed,
37! bugfix: nest synchronization after first call of timestep
38!
39! 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea
40! Introduction of nested domain feature
41!
42! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
43! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
44!
45! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
46! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
47! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
48!
49! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
50! Code annotations made doxygen readable
51!
52! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
53! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
54! for particles
55!
56! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
57! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
58!
59! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
60! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
61!
62! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
63! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
64!
65! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
66! location messages modified
67!
68! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
69! location messages added
70!
71! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
72! CALL of nudge_ref added
73! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
74!
75! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
76! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
77! +sums_ls_l
78! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
79
80! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
81! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
82!
83! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
84! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
85! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
86! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
87! old module precision_kind is removed,
88! revision history before 2012 removed,
89! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
90! all variable declaration statements
91! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
92! module interfaces removed
93!
94! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
95! +netcdf_data_format_save
96! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
97! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
98!
99! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
100! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
101!
102! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
103! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
104!
105! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
106! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
107! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
108! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
109! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
110! host update of arrays before timestep is called
111!
112! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
113! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
114! small bugfix for background communication
115!
116! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
117! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
118!
119! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
120! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
121! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
122! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
123! remaining points,
124! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
125! here
126!
127! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
128! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
129!
130! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
131! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
132! openACC directives updated
133! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
134!
135! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
136! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
137! openACC directives updated
138!
139! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
140! unused variables removed
141!
142! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
143! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
144!
145! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
146! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
147!
148! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
149! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
150!
151! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
152! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
153!
154! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
155! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
156!
157! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
158! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
159!
160! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
161! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
162!
163! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
164! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
165!
166! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
167! Initial revision
168!
169!
170! Description:
171! ------------
172!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
173!> output
174!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
175 SUBROUTINE time_integration
176 
177
178    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
179        ONLY:  ws_statistics
180
181    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
182        ONLY:  diss, dzu, e, e_p, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, q_init, q,    &
183               ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr_p, q_p, ref_state, rho, sa_p, tend,   &
184               u, u_p, v, vpt, v_p, w, w_p
185
186    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
187        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
188
189    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
190        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, average_count_3d,     &
191               average_count_sp, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
192               averaging_interval_sp, bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val,       &
193               bc_q_t_val, call_psolver_at_all_substeps, cloud_droplets,       &
194               cloud_physics, constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,          &
195               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
196               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
197               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
198               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
199               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
200               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
201               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dosp, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control,     &
202               end_time, first_call_lpm, galilei_transformation, humidity,     &
203               icloud_scheme, intermediate_timestep_count,                     &
204               intermediate_timestep_count_max, large_scale_forcing,           &
205               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks, mid, nest_domain, &
206               neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,                        &
207               ocean, on_device, passive_scalar, precipitation,                &
208               prho_reference, pt_reference, pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, &
209               run_coupled, simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,                &
210               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
211               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
212               skip_time_dosp, skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface,      &
213               stop_dt, terminate_coupled, terminate_run, timestep_scheme,     &
214               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
215               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
216               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
217               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
218               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
219               turbulence,                                                     &
220               turbulent_inflow, use_initial_profile_as_reference,             &
221               use_single_reference_value, u_gtrans, v_gtrans, ws_scheme_mom,  &
222               ws_scheme_sca
223
224    USE cpulog,                                                                &
225        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
226
227    USE indices,                                                               &
228        ONLY:  i_left, i_right, j_north, j_south, nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr,    &
229               nxrg, nyn, nys, nzb, nzt, nzb_u_inner, nzb_v_inner
230
231    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
232        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
233
234    USE kinds
235
236    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
237        ONLY:  land_surface, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,               &
238               skip_time_do_lsm
239
240    USE ls_forcing_mod,                                                        &
241        ONLY:  ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert
242
243    USE nudge_mod,                                                             &
244        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, nudge_ref
245
246    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
247        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
248               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
249
250    USE pegrid
251
252    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
253        ONLY:  client_to_server, nested_run, nesting_mode,                     &
254               pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation, pmci_client_datatrans,      &
255               pmci_client_synchronize, pmci_server_datatrans,                 &
256               pmci_server_synchronize, pmci_update_new, server_to_client
257
258    USE production_e_mod,                                                      &
259        ONLY:  production_e_init
260
261    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
262        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
263
264    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
265        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_acc, prognostic_equations_cache,           &
266               prognostic_equations_vector
267
268    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
269        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation,                   &
270              radiation_clearsky, radiation_rrtmg, radiation_scheme,           &
271              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
272
273    USE statistics,                                                            &
274        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
275
276    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
277        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
278
279    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
280        ONLY:  user_actions
281
282    IMPLICIT NONE
283
284    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string          !<
285
286!
287!-- At the beginning of a simulation determine the time step as well as
288!-- determine and print out the run control parameters
289    IF ( simulated_time == 0.0_wp )  CALL timestep
290
291!
292!-- Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
293!-- The server side must be called first
294    IF ( nested_run )  THEN
295       CALL pmci_server_synchronize
296       CALL pmci_client_synchronize
297    ENDIF
298
299    CALL run_control
300
301!
302!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
303!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
304    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
305!
306!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
307!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
308       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
309          CALL surface_coupler
310          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
311       ENDDO
312       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp .AND. time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling)&
313       THEN
314          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
315       ENDIF
316    ENDIF
317
318#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
319!
320!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
321    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
322#endif
323
324    CALL location_message( 'start with time-stepping', .TRUE. )
325!
326!-- Start of the time loop
327    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
328                .NOT. terminate_run )
329
330       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
331
332!
333!--    Determine size of next time step
334       IF ( simulated_time /= 0.0_wp )  THEN
335          CALL timestep
336
337          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
338!
339!--          TO_DO: try to give more detailed and meaningful comments here
340!--          Server side must be called first
341             CALL pmci_server_synchronize
342             CALL pmci_client_synchronize
343          ENDIF
344       ENDIF
345
346
347!
348!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
349!--    LSF_DATA
350       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
351           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
352           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
353       ENDIF
354
355!
356!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
357!--    NUDGING_DATA
358       IF ( nudging )  THEN
359           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
360!
361!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
362!--        boundary condition
363           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
364           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
365       ENDIF
366
367!
368!--    Execute the user-defined actions
369       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
370
371!
372!--    Start of intermediate step loop
373       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
374       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
375                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
376
377          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
378
379!
380!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
381!--       on the timestep scheme
382          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
383
384!
385!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
386!--       global communication
387          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
388               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
389!
390!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
391!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
392!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
393             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
394                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
395                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
396             ENDIF
397             IF ( ocean )  THEN
398                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho, 64 )
399                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
400             ENDIF
401             IF ( humidity )  THEN
402                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
403                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
404             ENDIF
405
406          ENDIF
407
408          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
409          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
410               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
411!
412!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
413!--       means of u, v, pt and q
414          IF ( nudging )  THEN
415             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
416             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
417             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
418             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
419             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
420          ENDIF
421
422!
423!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
424!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
425!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
426!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
427!--       inlining problems.
428          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
429             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
430          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
431             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
432          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'acc' )  THEN
433             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxr
434             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
435             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
436
437!             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxl+nbgp-1
438!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
439!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
440!             i_left  = nxr-nbgp+1;  i_right = nxr
441!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
442!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
443
444!
445!--          Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
446             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
447
448                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
449               
450                send_receive = 'lr'
451                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
452                req          = 0
453                req_count    = 0
454
455                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
456                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
457                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
458                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
459                ENDIF
460
461                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
462                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
463                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
464                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
465                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
466                IF ( ocean )  THEN
467                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
468                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
469                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
470                ENDIF
471                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
472                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
473                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
474                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
475                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
476                   ENDIF
477                ENDIF
478                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
479                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
480                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
481                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
482                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
483                ENDIF
484                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
485                THEN
486                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
487                ENDIF
488
489                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
490                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
491                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
492                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
493                ENDIF
494
495                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
496
497                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'pause' )
498
499             ENDIF
500
501!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
502!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nys+nbgp-1
503!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
504!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
505!             j_south = nyn-nbgp+1;  j_north = nyn
506!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
507
508             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
509                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'start' )
510#if defined( __parallel )
511                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
512#endif
513                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'pause' )
514
515                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'continue' )
516
517                send_receive = 'ns'
518                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
519                req          = 0
520                req_count    = 0
521
522                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
523                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
524                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
525                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
526                ENDIF
527
528                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
529                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
530                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
531                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
532                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
533                IF ( ocean )  THEN
534                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
535                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
536                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
537                ENDIF
538                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
539                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
540                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
541                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
542                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
543                   ENDIF
544                ENDIF
545                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
546                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
547                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
548                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
549                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
550                ENDIF
551                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
552                THEN
553                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
554                ENDIF
555
556                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
557                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
558                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
559                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
560                ENDIF
561
562                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
563
564                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
565
566             ENDIF
567
568!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
569!             j_south = nys+nbgp;    j_north = nyn-nbgp
570!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
571
572             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
573                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'continue' )
574#if defined( __parallel )
575                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
576#endif
577                send_receive = 'al'
578                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'stop' )
579             ENDIF
580
581          ENDIF
582
583!
584!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
585!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
586!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
587!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
588          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
589               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
590               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
591             CALL lpm
592             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
593          ENDIF
594
595!
596!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and specific humidity.
597!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
598!--       advec_particles.
599          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
600               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
601          THEN
602             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
603          ENDIF
604
605!
606!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
607          IF ( .NOT. background_communication )  THEN
608
609             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
610
611             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
612                on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
613             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
614                !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
615             ENDIF
616
617             CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
618             CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
619             CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
620             CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
621             IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
622             IF ( ocean )  THEN
623                CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
624                CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
625                CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
626             ENDIF
627             IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
628                CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
629                IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0  .AND.  &
630                     precipitation )  THEN
631                   CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
632                   CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
633                ENDIF
634             ENDIF
635             IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
636                CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
637                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
638                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
639                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
640             ENDIF
641             IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
642             THEN
643                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
644             ENDIF
645
646             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
647                on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
648             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
649                !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
650             ENDIF
651
652             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
653
654          ENDIF
655
656!
657!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
658!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
659          CALL boundary_conds
660
661!
662!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
663          CALL swap_timelevel
664
665          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
666!
667!--          TO_DO: try to give more meaningful comments here
668!--          Domain nesting
669!--          Note that the nesting operations are omitted intentionally on the
670!--          first two RK-substeps.
671             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
672!
673!--          From server to client commmunication ( direction=SERVER_TO_CLIENT )
674             CALL pmci_server_datatrans( server_to_client )
675             CALL pmci_client_datatrans( server_to_client )
676
677             IF ( nesting_mode == 'two-way' )  THEN
678!
679!--             From client to server commmunication ( direction=CLIENT_TO_SERVER )
680                CALL pmci_server_datatrans( client_to_server )
681                CALL pmci_client_datatrans( client_to_server )
682!
683!--             Exchange_horiz is needed for all server-domains after the
684!--             anterpolation
685                CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
686                CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
687                CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
688                CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
689                IF ( humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar )  THEN
690                   CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
691                ENDIF
692                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
693             ENDIF
694!
695!--          Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
696!--          This action must never be done for the root domain.
697             IF ( nest_domain )  THEN
698                CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
699!
700!--             pmc_update_new is not necessary if nesting is made at each
701!--             substep
702                CALL pmci_update_new
703             ENDIF
704
705             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
706
707          ENDIF
708
709!
710!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
711!--       when a sloping surface is used
712          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
713             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
714                                                    pt_slope_offset
715             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
716                                                    pt_slope_offset
717          ENDIF
718
719!
720!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
721          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
722
723!
724!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
725          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
726               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
727               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
728          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
729               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
730          THEN
731             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
732             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
733                !$acc update host( u, v )
734                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .FALSE.  ! workaround, remove later
735                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
736                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
737                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
738                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
739                ELSEIF ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )  THEN
740!
741!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
742!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
743                   dist_range = 1
744                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
745                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
746                   dist_range = 0
747                ENDIF
748                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .TRUE.  ! workaround, remove later
749                !$acc update device( u, v )
750                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
751             ENDIF
752          ENDIF
753
754!
755!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
756!--       pressure.
757          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
758                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
759             CALL pres
760          ENDIF
761
762!
763!--       If required, compute liquid water content
764          IF ( cloud_physics )  THEN
765             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
766             !$acc update device( ql )
767          ENDIF
768!
769!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
770          IF ( humidity )  THEN
771             CALL compute_vpt
772             !$acc update device( vpt )
773          ENDIF
774
775!
776!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
777          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
778
779!
780!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
781!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
782!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
783             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
784                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
785             THEN
786                CALL ls_forcing_surf ( simulated_time )
787             ENDIF
788
789!
790!--          First the vertical fluxes in the surface (constant flux) layer are computed
791             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
792                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
793                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
794                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
795             ENDIF
796
797!
798!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
799!--          model
800             IF ( land_surface .AND. simulated_time > skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
801
802                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
803                CALL lsm_energy_balance
804                CALL lsm_soil_model
805                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
806             ENDIF
807!
808!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
809             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
810             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
811                IF ( ocean )  THEN
812                   CALL diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
813                ELSE
814                   CALL diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
815                ENDIF
816             ELSE
817                CALL diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
818             ENDIF
819             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
820
821          ENDIF
822
823!
824!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
825          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
826               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. simulated_time >    &
827               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
828
829               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
830
831             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
832             THEN
833
834                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
835
836                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
837                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
838                ELSE
839                   WRITE(9,*) "Unscheduled radiation call at ", simulated_time
840                   CALL LOCAL_FLUSH ( 9 )
841                ENDIF
842
843                IF ( radiation_scheme == 'clear-sky' )  THEN
844                   CALL radiation_clearsky
845                ELSEIF ( radiation_scheme == 'rrtmg' )  THEN
846                   CALL radiation_rrtmg
847                ENDIF
848
849                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
850             ENDIF
851          ENDIF
852
853       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
854
855!
856!--    Increase simulation time and output times
857       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
858       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
859       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
860       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( simulated_time )
861       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
862
863       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
864          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
865       ENDIF
866       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
867          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
868       ENDIF
869       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
870          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
871       ENDIF
872       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
873          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
874       ENDIF
875       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
876          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
877       ENDIF
878       DO  mid = 1, masks
879          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
880             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
881          ENDIF
882       ENDDO
883       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
884       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
885          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
886       ENDIF
887       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
888       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
889          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
890       ENDIF
891       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
892          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
893       ENDIF
894       time_dopr_listing          = time_dopr_listing        + dt_3d
895       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
896
897!
898!--    Data exchange between coupled models
899       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
900          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
901
902!
903!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
904!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
905!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
906!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
907!--       next restart run.
908          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
909             CALL surface_coupler
910             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
911          ENDDO
912       ENDIF
913
914!
915!--    Execute user-defined actions
916       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
917
918!
919!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
920!--    model has moved so far
921       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
922          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
923          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
924       ENDIF
925
926!
927!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
928!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
929!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
930       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
931
932!
933!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
934!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
935!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
936!--    interval in case of restart runs
937
938!
939!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
940!--    for this time step
941       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
942
943!
944!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
945       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
946            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
947            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
948          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
949          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
950             do_sum = .TRUE.
951             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
952                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
953          ENDIF
954       ENDIF
955       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
956
957!
958!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
959       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
960            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
961            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
962       THEN
963          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
964          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
965             CALL sum_up_3d_data
966             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
967             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
968          ENDIF
969       ENDIF
970
971!
972!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
973       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
974            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
975            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
976          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
977          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
978             CALL calc_spectra
979             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
980                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
981          ENDIF
982       ENDIF
983
984!
985!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
986!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
987       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
988            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
989       THEN
990          CALL run_control
991          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
992             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
993                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d ) )
994          ENDIF
995       ENDIF
996
997!
998!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
999       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1000          CALL print_1d
1001          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1002                                                           dt_3d ) )
1003       ENDIF
1004
1005!
1006!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1007       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1008          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1009          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1010          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1011       ENDIF
1012
1013!
1014!--    Graphic output for time series
1015       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1016          CALL data_output_tseries
1017          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1018       ENDIF
1019
1020!
1021!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1022!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1023       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1024          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1025          CALL data_output_spectra
1026          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1027       ENDIF
1028
1029!
1030!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1031       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1032          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1033          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1034       ENDIF
1035       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1036          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1037          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1038       ENDIF
1039       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1040          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1041          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1042       ENDIF
1043
1044!
1045!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1046       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1047          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1048          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1049       ENDIF
1050
1051!
1052!--    Masked data output
1053       DO  mid = 1, masks
1054          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1055             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1056             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1057                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1058          ENDIF
1059       ENDDO
1060
1061!
1062!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1063       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1064          CALL average_3d_data
1065          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1066          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1067          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1068          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1069          DO  mid = 1, masks
1070             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1071          ENDDO
1072          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1073       ENDIF
1074
1075!
1076!--    Output of particle time series
1077       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1078          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1079               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1080                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1081             CALL data_output_ptseries
1082             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1083          ENDIF
1084       ENDIF
1085
1086!
1087!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1088#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1089       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1090#endif
1091       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1092          CALL data_output_dvrp
1093          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1094       ENDIF
1095#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1096       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1097#endif
1098
1099!
1100!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1101       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  CALL disturb_heatflux
1102
1103!
1104!--    Execute user-defined actions
1105       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1106
1107!
1108!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1109       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1110
1111       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1112
1113
1114    ENDDO   ! time loop
1115
1116    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1117
1118#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1119    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1120#endif
1121
1122    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1123
1124 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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