source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 1762

Last change on this file since 1762 was 1762, checked in by hellstea, 6 years ago

Introduction of nested domain system

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of PALM.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
6! of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation,
7! either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8!
9! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
10! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
11! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
12!
13! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
14! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
15!
16! Copyright 1997-2015 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
17!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
18!
19! Current revisions:
20! ------------------
21! Introduction of nested domain feature
22!
23! Former revisions:
24! -----------------
25! $Id: time_integration.f90 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea $
26!
27! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
28! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
29!
30! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
31! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
32! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
33!
34! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
35! Code annotations made doxygen readable
36!
37! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
38! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
39! for particles
40!
41! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
42! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
43!
44! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
45! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
46!
47! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
48! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
49!
50! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
51! location messages modified
52!
53! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
54! location messages added
55!
56! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
57! CALL of nudge_ref added
58! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
59!
60! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
61! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
62! +sums_ls_l
63! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
64
65! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
66! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
67!
68! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
69! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
70! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
71! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
72! old module precision_kind is removed,
73! revision history before 2012 removed,
74! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
75! all variable declaration statements
76! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
77! module interfaces removed
78!
79! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
80! +netcdf_data_format_save
81! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
82! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
83!
84! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
85! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
86!
87! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
88! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
89!
90! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
91! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
92! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
93! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
94! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
95! host update of arrays before timestep is called
96!
97! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
98! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
99! small bugfix for background communication
100!
101! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
102! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
103!
104! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
105! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
106! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
107! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
108! remaining points,
109! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
110! here
111!
112! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
113! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
114!
115! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
116! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
117! openACC directives updated
118! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
119!
120! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
121! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
122! openACC directives updated
123!
124! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
125! unused variables removed
126!
127! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
128! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
129!
130! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
131! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
132!
133! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
134! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
135!
136! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
137! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
138!
139! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
140! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
141!
142! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
143! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
144!
145! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
146! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
147!
148! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
149! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
150!
151! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
152! Initial revision
153!
154!
155! Description:
156! ------------
157!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
158!> output
159!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
160 SUBROUTINE time_integration
161 
162
163    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
164        ONLY:  ws_statistics
165
166    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
167        ONLY:  diss, dzu, e, e_p, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, q_init, q,    &
168               ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr_p, q_p, ref_state, rho, sa_p, tend,   &
169               u, u_p, v, vpt, v_p, w, w_p
170
171    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
172        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
173
174    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
175        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, average_count_3d,     &
176               average_count_sp, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
177               averaging_interval_sp, bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val,       &
178               bc_q_t_val, call_psolver_at_all_substeps, cloud_droplets,       &
179               cloud_physics, constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,          &
180               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
181               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
182               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
183               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
184               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
185               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
186               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dosp, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control,     &
187               end_time, first_call_lpm, galilei_transformation, humidity,     &
188               icloud_scheme, intermediate_timestep_count,                     &
189               intermediate_timestep_count_max, large_scale_forcing,           &
190               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks, mid, nest_domain, &
191               netcdf_data_format, neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,    &
192               ocean, on_device, passive_scalar, precipitation,                &
193               prho_reference, pt_reference, pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, &
194               run_coupled, simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,                &
195               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
196               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
197               skip_time_dosp, skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface,      &
198               stop_dt, terminate_coupled, terminate_run, timestep_scheme,     &
199               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
200               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
201               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
202               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
203               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
204               turbulence,                                                     &
205               turbulent_inflow, use_initial_profile_as_reference,             &
206               use_single_reference_value, u_gtrans, v_gtrans, ws_scheme_mom,  &
207               ws_scheme_sca
208
209    USE cpulog,                                                                &
210        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
211
212    USE indices,                                                               &
213        ONLY:  i_left, i_right, j_north, j_south, nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr,    &
214               nxrg, nyn, nys, nzb, nzt, nzb_u_inner, nzb_v_inner
215
216    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
217        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
218
219    USE kinds
220
221    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
222        ONLY:  land_surface, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,               &
223               skip_time_do_lsm
224
225    USE ls_forcing_mod,                                                        &
226        ONLY:  ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert
227
228    USE nudge_mod,                                                             &
229        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, nudge_ref
230
231    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
232        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
233               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
234
235    USE pegrid
236
237#if defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
238    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
239        ONLY:  client_to_server, nesting_mode,                                 &
240               pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation, pmci_client_datatrans,      &
241               pmci_client_initialize, pmci_client_synchronize,                &
242               pmci_server_datatrans, pmci_server_initialize,                  &
243               pmci_server_synchronize, pmci_update_new, server_to_client
244#endif
245
246    USE production_e_mod,                                                      &
247        ONLY:  production_e_init
248
249    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
250        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
251
252    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
253        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_acc, prognostic_equations_cache,           &
254               prognostic_equations_vector
255
256    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
257        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation,                   &
258              radiation_clearsky, radiation_rrtmg, radiation_scheme,           &
259              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
260
261    USE statistics,                                                            &
262        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
263
264    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
265        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
266
267    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
268        ONLY:  user_actions
269
270    IMPLICIT NONE
271
272    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string          !<
273
274    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  netcdf_data_format_save !<
275
276!
277!-- At the beginning of a simulation determine the time step as well as
278!-- determine and print out the run control parameters
279    IF ( simulated_time == 0.0_wp )  CALL timestep
280
281    CALL run_control
282
283
284!
285!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
286!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
287    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
288!
289!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
290!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
291       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
292          CALL surface_coupler
293          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
294       ENDDO
295       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp .AND. time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling)&
296       THEN
297          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
298       ENDIF
299    ENDIF
300
301#if defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
302!
303!-- TO_DO: try to give more meaningful comments here
304!-- Domain nesting: From server to client commmunication
305!-- ( direction=SERVER_TO_CLIENT )
306!-- Nest initial conditions
307!
308!-- Send initial condition data from server to client
309    CALL pmci_server_initialize
310!
311!-- Receive and interpolate initial data on client
312    CALL pmci_client_initialize
313!
314!-- TO_DO, maybe removed
315!-- Obs. Nesting may be unnecessary at this point.
316!
317!-- Nest boundary conditions
318    CALL pmci_server_datatrans( server_to_client )
319    CALL pmci_client_datatrans( server_to_client )
320
321    IF ( nesting_mode == 'two-way' )  THEN
322       CALL pmci_server_datatrans( client_to_server )
323       CALL pmci_client_datatrans( client_to_server )
324!
325!--    Exchange_horiz is needed for all server-domains after the anterpolation
326       CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
327       CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
328       CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
329       CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
330       IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
331       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
332       CALL pres
333    ENDIF
334!
335!-- Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
336!-- Copy the interpolated/anterpolated boundary values to the _p
337!-- arrays, too, to make sure the interpolated/anterpolated boundary
338!-- values are carried over from one RK inner step to another.
339!-- These actions must not be done for the root domain.
340    IF ( nest_domain )  THEN
341       CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
342       CALL pmci_update_new
343    ENDIF
344#endif
345
346#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
347!
348!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
349    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
350#endif
351
352    CALL location_message( 'start with time-stepping', .TRUE. )
353!
354!-- Start of the time loop
355    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
356                .NOT. terminate_run )
357
358       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
359
360!
361!--    Determine size of next time step
362       IF ( simulated_time /= 0.0_wp )  THEN
363          CALL timestep
364
365#if defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
366!
367!--       TO_DO: try to give more detailed and meaningful comments here
368!--       Server side must be called first
369          CALL pmci_server_synchronize
370          CALL pmci_client_synchronize
371#endif
372       ENDIF
373
374
375!
376!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
377!--    LSF_DATA
378       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
379           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
380           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
381       ENDIF
382
383!
384!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
385!--    NUDGING_DATA
386       IF ( nudging )  THEN
387           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
388!
389!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
390!--        boundary condition
391           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
392           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
393       ENDIF
394
395!
396!--    Execute the user-defined actions
397       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
398
399!
400!--    Start of intermediate step loop
401       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
402       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
403                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
404
405          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
406
407!
408!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
409!--       on the timestep scheme
410          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
411
412!
413!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
414!--       global communication
415          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
416               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
417!
418!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
419!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
420!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
421             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
422                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
423                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
424             ENDIF
425             IF ( ocean )  THEN
426                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho, 64 )
427                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
428             ENDIF
429             IF ( humidity )  THEN
430                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
431                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
432             ENDIF
433
434          ENDIF
435
436          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
437          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
438               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
439!
440!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
441!--       means of u, v, pt and q
442          IF ( nudging )  THEN
443             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
444             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
445             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
446             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
447             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
448          ENDIF
449
450!
451!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
452!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
453!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
454!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
455!--       inlining problems.
456          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
457             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
458          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
459             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
460          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'acc' )  THEN
461             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxr
462             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
463             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
464
465!             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxl+nbgp-1
466!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
467!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
468!             i_left  = nxr-nbgp+1;  i_right = nxr
469!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
470!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
471
472!
473!--          Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
474             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
475
476                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
477               
478                send_receive = 'lr'
479                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
480                req          = 0
481                req_count    = 0
482
483                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
484                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
485                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
486                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
487                ENDIF
488
489                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
490                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
491                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
492                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
493                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
494                IF ( ocean )  THEN
495                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
496                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
497                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
498                ENDIF
499                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
500                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
501                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
502                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
503                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
504                   ENDIF
505                ENDIF
506                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
507                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
508                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
509                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
510                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
511                ENDIF
512                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
513                THEN
514                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
515                ENDIF
516
517                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
518                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
519                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
520                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
521                ENDIF
522
523                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
524
525                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'pause' )
526
527             ENDIF
528
529!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
530!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nys+nbgp-1
531!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
532!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
533!             j_south = nyn-nbgp+1;  j_north = nyn
534!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
535
536             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
537                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'start' )
538#if defined( __parallel )
539                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
540#endif
541                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'pause' )
542
543                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'continue' )
544
545                send_receive = 'ns'
546                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
547                req          = 0
548                req_count    = 0
549
550                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
551                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
552                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
553                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
554                ENDIF
555
556                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
557                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
558                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
559                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
560                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
561                IF ( ocean )  THEN
562                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
563                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
564                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
565                ENDIF
566                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
567                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
568                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
569                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
570                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
571                   ENDIF
572                ENDIF
573                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
574                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
575                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
576                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
577                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
578                ENDIF
579                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
580                THEN
581                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
582                ENDIF
583
584                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
585                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
586                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
587                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
588                ENDIF
589
590                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
591
592                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
593
594             ENDIF
595
596!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
597!             j_south = nys+nbgp;    j_north = nyn-nbgp
598!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
599
600             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
601                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'continue' )
602#if defined( __parallel )
603                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
604#endif
605                send_receive = 'al'
606                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'stop' )
607             ENDIF
608
609          ENDIF
610
611!
612!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
613!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
614!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
615!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
616          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
617               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
618               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
619             CALL lpm
620             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
621          ENDIF
622
623!
624!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and specific humidity.
625!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
626!--       advec_particles.
627          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
628               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
629          THEN
630             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
631          ENDIF
632
633!
634!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
635          IF ( .NOT. background_communication )  THEN
636
637             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
638
639             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
640                on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
641             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
642                !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
643             ENDIF
644
645             CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
646             CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
647             CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
648             CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
649             IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
650             IF ( ocean )  THEN
651                CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
652                CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
653                CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
654             ENDIF
655             IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
656                CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
657                IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0  .AND.  &
658                     precipitation )  THEN
659                   CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
660                   CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
661                ENDIF
662             ENDIF
663             IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
664                CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
665                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
666                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
667                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
668             ENDIF
669             IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
670             THEN
671                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
672             ENDIF
673
674             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
675                on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
676             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
677                !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
678             ENDIF
679
680             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
681
682          ENDIF
683
684!
685!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
686!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
687          CALL boundary_conds
688
689!
690!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
691          CALL swap_timelevel
692
693#if defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
694!
695!--       TO_DO: try to give more meaningful comments here
696!--       Domain nesting
697!--       Note that the nesting operations are omitted intentionally on the
698!--       first two RK-substeps.
699          CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
700!
701!--       From server to client commmunication ( direction=SERVER_TO_CLIENT )
702          CALL pmci_server_datatrans( server_to_client )
703          CALL pmci_client_datatrans( server_to_client )
704
705          IF ( nesting_mode == 'two-way' )  THEN
706!
707!--          From client to server commmunication ( direction=CLIENT_TO_SERVER )
708             CALL pmci_server_datatrans( client_to_server )
709             CALL pmci_client_datatrans( client_to_server )
710!
711!--          Exchange_horiz is needed for all server-domains after the
712!--          anterpolation
713             CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
714             CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
715             CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
716             CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
717             IF ( humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar )  THEN
718                CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
719             ENDIF
720             IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
721          ENDIF
722!
723!--       Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
724!--       This action must never be done for the root domain.
725          IF ( nest_domain )  THEN
726             CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
727!
728!--          pmc_update_new is not necessary if nesting is made at each substep.
729             CALL pmci_update_new
730          ENDIF
731
732          CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
733#endif
734
735!
736!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
737!--       when a sloping surface is used
738          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
739             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
740                                                    pt_slope_offset
741             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
742                                                    pt_slope_offset
743          ENDIF
744
745!
746!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
747          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
748
749!
750!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
751          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
752               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
753               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
754          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
755               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
756          THEN
757             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
758             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
759                !$acc update host( u, v )
760                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .FALSE.  ! workaround, remove later
761                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
762                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
763                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
764                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
765                ELSEIF ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )  THEN
766!
767!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
768!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
769                   dist_range = 1
770                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
771                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
772                   dist_range = 0
773                ENDIF
774                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .TRUE.  ! workaround, remove later
775                !$acc update device( u, v )
776                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
777             ENDIF
778          ENDIF
779
780!
781!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
782!--       pressure.
783          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
784                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
785             CALL pres
786          ENDIF
787
788!
789!--       If required, compute liquid water content
790          IF ( cloud_physics )  THEN
791             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
792             !$acc update device( ql )
793          ENDIF
794!
795!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
796          IF ( humidity )  THEN
797             CALL compute_vpt
798             !$acc update device( vpt )
799          ENDIF
800
801!
802!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
803          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
804
805!
806!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
807!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
808!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
809             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
810                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
811             THEN
812                CALL ls_forcing_surf ( simulated_time )
813             ENDIF
814
815!
816!--          First the vertical fluxes in the surface (constant flux) layer are computed
817             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
818                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
819                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
820                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
821             ENDIF
822
823!
824!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
825!--          model
826             IF ( land_surface .AND. simulated_time > skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
827
828                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
829                CALL lsm_energy_balance
830                CALL lsm_soil_model
831                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
832             ENDIF
833!
834!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
835             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
836             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
837                IF ( ocean )  THEN
838                   CALL diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
839                ELSE
840                   CALL diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
841                ENDIF
842             ELSE
843                CALL diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
844             ENDIF
845             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
846
847          ENDIF
848
849!
850!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
851          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
852               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. simulated_time >    &
853               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
854
855               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
856
857             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
858             THEN
859
860                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
861
862                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
863                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
864                ELSE
865                   WRITE(9,*) "Unscheduled radiation call at ", simulated_time
866                   CALL LOCAL_FLUSH ( 9 )
867                ENDIF
868
869                IF ( radiation_scheme == 'clear-sky' )  THEN
870                   CALL radiation_clearsky
871                ELSEIF ( radiation_scheme == 'rrtmg' )  THEN
872                   CALL radiation_rrtmg
873                ENDIF
874
875                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
876             ENDIF
877          ENDIF
878
879       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
880
881!
882!--    Increase simulation time and output times
883       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
884       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
885       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
886       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( simulated_time )
887       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
888
889       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
890          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
891       ENDIF
892       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
893          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
894       ENDIF
895       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
896          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
897       ENDIF
898       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
899          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
900       ENDIF
901       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
902          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
903       ENDIF
904       DO  mid = 1, masks
905          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
906             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
907          ENDIF
908       ENDDO
909       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
910       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
911          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
912       ENDIF
913       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
914       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
915          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
916       ENDIF
917       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
918          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
919       ENDIF
920       time_dopr_listing          = time_dopr_listing        + dt_3d
921       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
922
923!
924!--    Data exchange between coupled models
925       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
926          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
927
928!
929!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
930!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
931!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
932!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
933!--       next restart run.
934          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
935             CALL surface_coupler
936             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
937          ENDDO
938       ENDIF
939
940!
941!--    Execute user-defined actions
942       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
943
944!
945!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
946!--    model has moved so far
947       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
948          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
949          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
950       ENDIF
951
952!
953!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
954!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
955!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
956       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
957
958!
959!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
960!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
961!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
962!--    interval in case of restart runs
963
964!
965!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
966!--    for this time step
967       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
968
969!
970!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
971       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
972            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
973            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
974          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
975          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
976             do_sum = .TRUE.
977             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
978                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
979          ENDIF
980       ENDIF
981       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
982
983!
984!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
985       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
986            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
987            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
988       THEN
989          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
990          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
991             CALL sum_up_3d_data
992             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
993             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
994          ENDIF
995       ENDIF
996
997!
998!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
999       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
1000            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
1001            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
1002          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
1003          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
1004             CALL calc_spectra
1005             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
1006                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
1007          ENDIF
1008       ENDIF
1009
1010!
1011!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
1012!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
1013       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
1014            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
1015       THEN
1016          CALL run_control
1017          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
1018             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
1019                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d ) )
1020          ENDIF
1021       ENDIF
1022
1023!
1024!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
1025       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1026          CALL print_1d
1027          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1028                                                           dt_3d ) )
1029       ENDIF
1030
1031!
1032!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1033       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1034          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1035          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1036          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1037       ENDIF
1038
1039!
1040!--    Graphic output for time series
1041       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1042          CALL data_output_tseries
1043          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1044       ENDIF
1045
1046!
1047!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1048!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1049       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1050          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1051          CALL data_output_spectra
1052          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1053       ENDIF
1054
1055!
1056!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1057       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1058          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1059          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1060       ENDIF
1061       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1062          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1063          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1064       ENDIF
1065       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1066          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1067          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1068       ENDIF
1069
1070!
1071!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1072       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1073          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1074          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1075       ENDIF
1076
1077!
1078!--    masked data output
1079!--    Parallel netcdf output is not tested so far for masked data, hence
1080!--    netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
1081       netcdf_data_format_save = netcdf_data_format
1082       IF ( netcdf_data_format == 5 ) netcdf_data_format = 3
1083       IF ( netcdf_data_format == 6 ) netcdf_data_format = 4
1084       DO  mid = 1, masks
1085          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1086             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1087             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1088                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1089          ENDIF
1090       ENDDO
1091       netcdf_data_format = netcdf_data_format_save
1092
1093!
1094!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1095       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1096          CALL average_3d_data
1097          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1098          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1099          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1100          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1101!--       Parallel netcdf output is not tested so far for masked data, hence
1102!--       netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
1103          netcdf_data_format_save = netcdf_data_format
1104          IF ( netcdf_data_format == 5 ) netcdf_data_format = 3
1105          IF ( netcdf_data_format == 6 ) netcdf_data_format = 4
1106          DO  mid = 1, masks
1107             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1108          ENDDO
1109          netcdf_data_format = netcdf_data_format_save
1110          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1111       ENDIF
1112
1113!
1114!--    Output of particle time series
1115       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1116          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1117               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1118                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1119             CALL data_output_ptseries
1120             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1121          ENDIF
1122       ENDIF
1123
1124!
1125!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1126#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1127       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1128#endif
1129       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1130          CALL data_output_dvrp
1131          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1132       ENDIF
1133#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1134       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1135#endif
1136
1137!
1138!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1139       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  CALL disturb_heatflux
1140
1141!
1142!--    Execute user-defined actions
1143       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1144
1145!
1146!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1147!--    TO_DO: should be done by root domain later
1148#if ! defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
1149       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1150#endif
1151
1152       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1153
1154
1155    ENDDO   ! time loop
1156
1157!-- TO_DO: should be done by root domain later
1158#if ! defined( PMC_ACTIVE )
1159    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1160#endif
1161
1162#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1163    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1164#endif
1165
1166    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1167
1168 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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