source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/indoor_model_mod.f90 @ 3885

Last change on this file since 3885 was 3885, checked in by kanani, 2 years ago

restructure/add location/debug messages

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1!> @file indoor_model_mod.f90
2!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of the PALM model system.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
6! terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
7! Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
8! version.
9!
10! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
11! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
12! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
13!
14! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
15! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
16!
17! Copyright 2018-2019 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
18! Copyright 2018-2019 Hochschule Offenburg
19!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
20!
21! Current revisions:
22! -----------------
23!
24!
25! Former revisions:
26! -----------------
27! $Id: indoor_model_mod.f90 3885 2019-04-11 11:29:34Z kanani $
28! Changes related to global restructuring of location messages and introduction
29! of additional debug messages
30!
31! 3786 2019-03-06 16:58:03Z raasch
32! unused variables removed
33!
34! 3759 2019-02-21 15:53:45Z suehring
35! - Calculation of total building volume
36! - Several bugfixes
37! - Calculation of building height revised
38!
39! 3745 2019-02-15 18:57:56Z suehring
40! - remove building_type from module
41! - initialize parameters for each building individually instead of a bulk
42!   initializaion with  identical building type for all
43! - output revised
44! - add missing _wp
45! - some restructuring of variables in building data structure
46!
47! 3744 2019-02-15 18:38:58Z suehring
48! Some interface calls moved to module_interface + cleanup
49!
50! 3597 2018-12-04 08:40:18Z maronga
51! Renamed t_surf_10cm to pt_10cm
52!
53! 3593 2018-12-03 13:51:13Z kanani
54! Replace degree symbol by degree_C
55!
56! 3524 2018-11-14 13:36:44Z raasch
57! working precision added to make code Fortran 2008 conform
58!
59! 3469 2018-10-30 20:05:07Z kanani
60! Initial revision (tlang, suehring, kanani, srissman)
61!
62!
63!
64! Authors:
65! --------
66! @author Tobias Lang
67! @author Jens Pfafferott
68! @author Farah Kanani-Suehring
69! @author Matthias Suehring
70! @author Sascha Rißmann
71!
72!
73! Description:
74! ------------
75!> <Description of the new module>
76!> Module for Indoor Climate Model (ICM)
77!> The module is based on the DIN EN ISO 13790 with simplified hour-based procedure.
78!> This model is a equivalent circuit diagram of a three-point RC-model (5R1C).
79!> This module differ between indoor-air temperature an average temperature of indoor surfaces which make it prossible to determine thermal comfort
80!> the heat transfer between indoor and outdoor is simplified
81
82!> @todo Replace window_area_per_facade by %frac(1,m) for window
83!> @todo emissivity change for window blinds if solar_protection_on=1
84!> @todo write datas in netcdf file as output data
85!> @todo reduce the building volume with netto ground surface to take respect costruction areas like walls and ceilings. Have effect on factor_a, factor_c, airchange and lambda_at
86!>
87!> @note Do we allow use of integer flags, or only logical flags? (concerns e.g. cooling_on, heating_on)
88!> @note How to write indoor temperature output to pt array?
89!>
90!> @bug  <Enter known bugs here>
91!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
92 MODULE indoor_model_mod
93
94    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
95        ONLY:  debug_output, initializing_actions
96
97    USE kinds
98   
99    USE netcdf_data_input_mod,                                                 &
100        ONLY:  building_id_f, building_type_f
101
102    USE surface_mod,                                                           &
103        ONLY:  surf_usm_h, surf_usm_v
104
105
106    IMPLICIT NONE
107
108!
109!-- Define data structure for buidlings.
110    TYPE build
111
112       INTEGER(iwp) ::  id                                !< building ID
113       INTEGER(iwp) ::  kb_min                            !< lowest vertical index of a building
114       INTEGER(iwp) ::  kb_max                            !< highest vertical index of a building
115       INTEGER(iwp) ::  num_facades_per_building_h = 0    !< total number of horizontal facades elements
116       INTEGER(iwp) ::  num_facades_per_building_h_l = 0  !< number of horizontal facade elements on local subdomain
117       INTEGER(iwp) ::  num_facades_per_building_v = 0    !< total number of vertical facades elements
118       INTEGER(iwp) ::  num_facades_per_building_v_l = 0  !< number of vertical facade elements on local subdomain
119
120       INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  l_v            !< index array linking surface-element orientation index
121                                                                  !< for vertical surfaces with building
122       INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  m_h            !< index array linking surface-element index for
123                                                                  !< horizontal surfaces with building
124       INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  m_v            !< index array linking surface-element index for
125                                                                  !< vertical surfaces with building
126       INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  num_facade_h   !< number of horizontal facade elements per buidling
127                                                                  !< and height level
128       INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  num_facade_v   !< number of vertical facades elements per buidling
129                                                                  !< and height level
130                                                                 
131       INTEGER(iwp) ::  ventilation_int_loads
132
133       LOGICAL ::  on_pe = .FALSE.   !< flag indicating whether a building with certain ID is on local subdomain
134       
135       REAL(wp) ::  building_height   !< building height
136       REAL(wp) ::  lambda_layer3     !< [W/(m*K)] Thermal conductivity of the inner layer 
137       REAL(wp) ::  s_layer3          !< [m] half thickness of the inner layer (layer_3)
138       REAL(wp) ::  f_c_win           !< [-] shading factor
139       REAL(wp) ::  g_value_win       !< [-] SHGC factor
140       REAL(wp) ::  u_value_win       !< [W/(m2*K)] transmittance
141       REAL(wp) ::  air_change_low    !< [1/h] air changes per time_utc_hour
142       REAL(wp) ::  air_change_high   !< [1/h] air changes per time_utc_hour
143       REAL(wp) ::  eta_ve            !< [-] heat recovery efficiency
144       REAL(wp) ::  factor_a          !< [-] Dynamic parameters specific effective surface according to Table 12; 2.5
145                                      !< (very light, light and medium), 3.0 (heavy), 3.5 (very heavy)
146       REAL(wp) ::  factor_c          !< [J/(m2 K)] Dynamic parameters inner heatstorage according to Table 12; 80000
147                                      !< (very light), 110000 (light), 165000 (medium), 260000 (heavy), 370000 (very heavy)
148       REAL(wp) ::  lambda_at         !< [-] ratio internal surface/floor area chap. 7.2.2.2.
149       REAL(wp) ::  theta_int_h_set   !< [degree_C] Max. Setpoint temperature (winter)
150       REAL(wp) ::  theta_int_c_set   !< [degree_C] Max. Setpoint temperature (summer)
151       REAL(wp) ::  phi_h_max         !< [W] Max. Heating capacity (negative)
152       REAL(wp) ::  phi_c_max         !< [W] Max. Cooling capacity (negative)
153       REAL(wp) ::  qint_high         !< [W/m2] internal heat gains, option Database qint_0-23
154       REAL(wp) ::  qint_low          !< [W/m2] internal heat gains, option Database qint_0-23
155       REAL(wp) ::  height_storey     !< [m] storey heigth
156       REAL(wp) ::  height_cei_con    !< [m] ceiling construction heigth
157       REAL(wp) ::  vol_tot           !< total building volume
158
159       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  t_in       !< mean building indoor temperature, height dependent
160       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  t_in_l     !< mean building indoor temperature on local subdomain, height dependent
161       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  volume     !< total building volume, height dependent
162       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  vol_frac   !< fraction of local on total building volume, height dependent
163       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  vpf        !< building volume volume per facade element, height dependent
164       
165    END TYPE build
166
167    TYPE(build), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  buildings   !< building array
168
169    INTEGER(iwp) ::  num_build   !< total number of buildings in domain
170
171!
172!-- Declare all global variables within the module
173    INTEGER(iwp) ::  cooling_on              !< Indoor cooling flag (0=off, 1=on)
174    INTEGER(iwp) ::  heating_on              !< Indoor heating flag (0=off, 1=on)
175    INTEGER(iwp) ::  solar_protection_off    !< Solar protection off
176    INTEGER(iwp) ::  solar_protection_on     !< Solar protection on
177
178    REAL(wp) ::  eff_mass_area               !< [m2] the effective mass-related area
179    REAL(wp) ::  floor_area_per_facade       !< [m2] net floor area (Sum of all floors)
180    REAL(wp) ::  total_area                  !<! [m2] area of all surfaces pointing to zone
181    REAL(wp) ::  window_area_per_facade      !< [m2] window area per facade element
182    REAL(wp) ::  air_change                  !< [1/h] Airflow
183    REAL(wp) ::  facade_element_area         !< [m2_facade] building surface facade
184    REAL(wp) ::  indoor_volume_per_facade    !< [m3] indoor air volume per facade element
185    REAL(wp) ::  c_m                         !< [J/K] internal heat storage capacity
186    REAL(wp) ::  dt_indoor = 3600.0_wp       !< [s] namelist parameter: time interval for indoor-model application
187    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_1                      !<! [W/K] Heat transfer coefficient auxiliary variable 1
188    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_2                      !<! [W/K] Heat transfer coefficient auxiliary variable 2
189    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_3                      !<! [W/K] Heat transfer coefficient auxiliary variable 3
190    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_em                     !<! [W/K] Heat transfer coefficient of the emmision (got with h_tr_ms the thermal mass)
191    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_is                     !<! [W/K] thermal coupling conductance (Thermischer Kopplungsleitwert)
192    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_ms                     !<! [W/K] Heat transfer conductance term (got with h_tr_em the thermal mass)
193    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_op                     !<! [W/K] heat transfer coefficient of opaque components (assumption: got all thermal mass) contains of h_tr_em and h_tr_ms
194    REAL(wp) ::  h_tr_w                      !<! [W/K] heat transfer coefficient of doors, windows, curtain walls and glazed walls (assumption: thermal mass=0)
195    REAL(wp) ::  h_ve                        !<! [W/K] heat transfer of ventilation
196    REAL(wp) ::  initial_indoor_temperature  !< namelist parameter
197    REAL(wp) ::  net_sw_in                   !< net short-wave radiation (in - out; was i_global --> CORRECT?)
198    REAL(wp) ::  phi_hc_nd                   !<! [W] heating demand and/or cooling demand
199    REAL(wp) ::  phi_hc_nd_10                !<! [W] heating demand and/or cooling demand for heating or cooling
200    REAL(wp) ::  phi_hc_nd_ac                !<! [W] actual heating demand and/or cooling demand
201    REAL(wp) ::  phi_hc_nd_un                !<! [W] unlimited heating demand and/or cooling demand which is necessary to reach the demanded required temperature (heating is positive, cooling is negative)
202    REAL(wp) ::  phi_ia                      !< [W] internal air load = internal loads * 0.5, Eq. (C.1)
203    REAL(wp) ::  phi_m                       !<! [W] mass specific thermal load (internal and external)
204    REAL(wp) ::  phi_mtot                    !<! [W] total mass specific thermal load (internal and external)
205    REAL(wp) ::  phi_sol                     !< [W] solar loads
206    REAL(wp) ::  phi_st                      !<! [W] mass specific thermal load implied non thermal mass
207!    REAL(wp) ::  q_emission                  !< emissions, in first version = 0, option for second part of the project
208    REAL(wp) ::  q_wall_win                  !< heat flux from indoor into wall/window
209    REAL(wp) ::  q_waste_heat                !< waste heat, sum of waste heat over the roof to Palm
210!    REAL(wp) ::  q_waste_heat_bldg           !< [W/building] waste heat of the complete building, in Palm sum of all indoor_model-calculations
211    REAL(wp) ::  schedule_d                  !< activation for internal loads (low or high + low)
212    REAL(wp) ::  skip_time_do_indoor = 0.0_wp  !< [s] Indoor model is not called before this time
213    REAL(wp) ::  theta_air                   !<! [degree_C] air temperature of the RC-node
214    REAL(wp) ::  theta_air_0                 !<! [degree_C] air temperature of the RC-node in equilibrium
215    REAL(wp) ::  theta_air_10                !<! [degree_C] air temperature of the RC-node from a heating capacity of 10 W/m2
216    REAL(wp) ::  theta_air_ac                !< [degree_C] actual room temperature after heating/cooling
217    REAL(wp) ::  theta_air_set               !< [degree_C] Setpoint_temperature for the room
218    REAL(wp) ::  theta_m                     !<! [degree_C} inner temperature of the RC-node
219    REAL(wp) ::  theta_m_t                   !<! [degree_C] (Fictive) component temperature timestep
220    REAL(wp) ::  theta_m_t_prev              !< [degree_C] (Fictive) component temperature previous timestep (do not change)
221    REAL(wp) ::  theta_op                    !< [degree_C] operative temperature
222    REAL(wp) ::  theta_s                     !<! [degree_C] surface temperature of the RC-node
223    REAL(wp) ::  time_indoor = 0.0_wp        !< [s] time since last call of indoor model
224!    REAL(wp) ::  time_utc_hour               !< Time in hours per day (UTC)
225   
226    REAL(wp) ::  f_sr                        !< [-] factor surface reduction
227    REAL(wp) ::  f_cei                       !< [-] ceiling reduction factor
228    REAL(wp) ::  ngs                         !< [m2] netto ground surface
229   
230    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_f_f               = 0.3_wp      !< [-] frame ratio chap. 8.3.2.1.1 for buildings with mostly cooling 2.0_wp
231    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_f_w               = 0.9_wp      !< [-] correction factor (fuer nicht senkrechten Stahlungseinfall DIN 4108-2 chap.8, (hier konstant, keine WinkelabhÀngigkeit)
232    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_f_win             = 0.5_wp      !< [-] proportion of window area, Database A_win aus Datenbank 27 window_area_per_facade_percent
233    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_solar_protection  = 300.0_wp    !< [W/m2] chap. G.5.3.1 sun protection closed, if the radiation on facade exceeds this value
234    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_waste_heat_c      = 4.0_wp      !< [-] anthropogenic heat outputs for cooling e.g. 4 for KKM with COP = 3
235    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  params_waste_heat_h      = 1.111_wp    !< [-] anthropogenic heat outputs for heating e.g. 1 / 0.9 = 1.111111 for combustion with eta = 0.9 or -3 for WP with COP = 4
236    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  h_is                     = 3.45_wp     !< [W/(m^2 K)]  h_is = 3.45 between surface and air (chap. 7.2.2.2)
237    REAL(wp), PARAMETER ::  h_ms                     = 9.1_wp      !< [W/K] h_ms = 9.10 W / (m2 K) between component and surface (chap. 12.2.2)
238
239   
240   
241    SAVE
242
243
244    PRIVATE
245   
246!
247!-- Add INTERFACES that must be available to other modules
248    PUBLIC im_init, im_main_heatcool, im_parin, im_define_netcdf_grid,          &
249           im_check_data_output, im_data_output_3d, im_check_parameters
250   
251
252!
253!-- Add VARIABLES that must be available to other modules
254    PUBLIC dt_indoor, skip_time_do_indoor, time_indoor
255
256!
257!-- PALM interfaces:
258!-- Data output checks for 2D/3D data to be done in check_parameters
259     INTERFACE im_check_data_output
260        MODULE PROCEDURE im_check_data_output
261     END INTERFACE im_check_data_output
262!
263!-- Input parameter checks to be done in check_parameters
264     INTERFACE im_check_parameters
265        MODULE PROCEDURE im_check_parameters
266     END INTERFACE im_check_parameters
267!
268!-- Data output of 3D data
269     INTERFACE im_data_output_3d
270        MODULE PROCEDURE im_data_output_3d
271     END INTERFACE im_data_output_3d
272
273!
274!-- Definition of data output quantities
275     INTERFACE im_define_netcdf_grid
276        MODULE PROCEDURE im_define_netcdf_grid
277     END INTERFACE im_define_netcdf_grid
278!
279! !
280! !-- Output of information to the header file
281!     INTERFACE im_header
282!        MODULE PROCEDURE im_header
283!     END INTERFACE im_header
284!
285!-- Calculations for indoor temperatures 
286    INTERFACE im_calc_temperatures
287       MODULE PROCEDURE im_calc_temperatures
288    END INTERFACE im_calc_temperatures
289!
290!-- Initialization actions 
291    INTERFACE im_init
292       MODULE PROCEDURE im_init
293    END INTERFACE im_init
294!
295!-- Main part of indoor model 
296    INTERFACE im_main_heatcool
297       MODULE PROCEDURE im_main_heatcool
298    END INTERFACE im_main_heatcool
299!
300!-- Reading of NAMELIST parameters
301    INTERFACE im_parin
302       MODULE PROCEDURE im_parin
303    END INTERFACE im_parin
304
305 CONTAINS
306
307!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
308! Description:
309! ------------
310!< Calculation of the air temperatures and mean radiation temperature
311!< This is basis for the operative temperature
312!< Based on a Crank-Nicholson scheme with a timestep of a hour
313!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
314 SUBROUTINE im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature,    &
315                                   near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd_dummy )
316 
317    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
318        ONLY:  pt
319   
320   
321    IMPLICIT NONE
322   
323   
324    INTEGER(iwp) ::  i
325    INTEGER(iwp) ::  j
326    INTEGER(iwp) ::  k
327   
328    REAL(wp) ::  indoor_wall_window_temperature  !< weighted temperature of innermost wall/window layer
329    REAL(wp) ::  near_facade_temperature
330    REAL(wp) ::  phi_hc_nd_dummy
331   
332
333    !< Calculation of total mass specific thermal load (internal and external)
334    phi_mtot = ( phi_m + h_tr_em * indoor_wall_window_temperature              &
335                       + h_tr_3  * ( phi_st + h_tr_w * pt(k,j,i)               &
336                                            + h_tr_1 *                         &
337                                               ( ( ( phi_ia + phi_hc_nd_dummy ) / h_ve )  &
338                                                 + near_facade_temperature )   &
339                                   ) / h_tr_2                                  &
340               )                                                                !< [degree_C] Eq. (C.5)
341   
342    !< Calculation of component temperature at factual timestep
343    theta_m_t = ( ( theta_m_t_prev                                               &
344                    * ( ( c_m / 3600.0_wp ) - 0.5_wp * ( h_tr_3 + h_tr_em ) ) + phi_mtot &
345                  )                                                              &
346                  /   ( ( c_m / 3600.0_wp ) + 0.5_wp * ( h_tr_3 + h_tr_em ) )            &
347                )                                                               !< [degree_C] Eq. (C.4)
348
349    !< Calculation of mean inner temperature for the RC-node in actual timestep
350    theta_m = ( theta_m_t + theta_m_t_prev ) * 0.5_wp                              !< [degree_C] Eq. (C.9)
351   
352    !< Calculation of mean surface temperature of the RC-node in actual timestep
353    theta_s = ( (   h_tr_ms * theta_m + phi_st + h_tr_w * pt(k,j,i)                         &
354                  + h_tr_1  * ( near_facade_temperature + ( phi_ia + phi_hc_nd_dummy ) / h_ve ) &
355                )                                                                           &
356                / ( h_tr_ms + h_tr_w + h_tr_1 )                                             &
357              )                                                                 !< [degree_C] Eq. (C.10)
358   
359    !< Calculation of the air temperature of the RC-node
360    theta_air = ( h_tr_is * theta_s + h_ve * near_facade_temperature         &
361                                    + phi_ia + phi_hc_nd_dummy ) / ( h_tr_is + h_ve ) !< [degree_C] Eq. (C.11)
362
363 END SUBROUTINE im_calc_temperatures
364
365!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
366! Description:
367! ------------
368!> Initialization of the indoor model.
369!> Static information are calculated here, e.g. building parameters and
370!> geometrical information, everything that doesn't change in time.
371!
372!-- Input values
373!-- Input datas from Palm, M4
374!     i_global             -->  net_sw_in                         !global radiation [W/m2]
375!     theta_e              -->  pt(k,j,i)                         !undisturbed outside temperature, 1. PALM volume, for windows
376!     theta_sup = theta_f  -->  surf_usm_h%pt_10cm(m)
377!                               surf_usm_v(l)%pt_10cm(m)   !Air temperature, facade near (10cm) air temperature from 1. Palm volume
378!     theta_node           -->  t_wall_h(nzt_wall,m)
379!                               t_wall_v(l)%t(nzt_wall,m)         !Temperature of innermost wall layer, for opaque wall
380!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
381 SUBROUTINE im_init
382 
383    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
384        ONLY:  dzw
385
386    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
387        ONLY:  message_string
388
389    USE indices,                                                               &
390        ONLY:  nxl, nxr, nyn, nys, nzb, nzt, wall_flags_0
391
392    USE grid_variables,                                                        &
393        ONLY:  dx, dy
394
395    USE pegrid
396
397    USE surface_mod,                                                           &
398        ONLY:  surf_usm_h, surf_usm_v
399       
400    USE urban_surface_mod,                                                     &
401        ONLY:  building_pars, building_type
402
403    IMPLICIT NONE
404
405    INTEGER(iwp) ::  bt   !< local building type
406    INTEGER(iwp) ::  i    !< running index along x-direction
407    INTEGER(iwp) ::  j    !< running index along y-direction
408    INTEGER(iwp) ::  k    !< running index along z-direction
409    INTEGER(iwp) ::  l    !< running index for surface-element orientation
410    INTEGER(iwp) ::  m    !< running index surface elements
411    INTEGER(iwp) ::  n    !< building index
412    INTEGER(iwp) ::  nb   !< building index
413
414    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  build_ids           !< building IDs on entire model domain
415    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  build_ids_final     !< building IDs on entire model domain,
416                                                                    !< multiple occurences are sorted out
417    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  build_ids_final_tmp !< temporary array used for resizing
418    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  build_ids_l         !< building IDs on local subdomain
419    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  build_ids_l_tmp     !< temporary array used to resize array of building IDs
420    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  displace_dum        !< displacements of start addresses, used for MPI_ALLGATHERV
421    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  k_max_l             !< highest vertical index of a building on subdomain
422    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  k_min_l             !< lowest vertical index of a building on subdomain
423    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  n_fa                !< counting array
424    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  num_facades_h       !< dummy array used for summing-up total number of
425                                                                    !< horizontal facade elements
426    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  num_facades_v       !< dummy array used for summing-up total number of
427                                                                    !< vertical facade elements
428    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  receive_dum_h       !< dummy array used for MPI_ALLREDUCE 
429    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  receive_dum_v       !< dummy array used for MPI_ALLREDUCE 
430
431    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(0:numprocs-1) ::  num_buildings         !< number of buildings with different ID on entire model domain
432    INTEGER(iwp), DIMENSION(0:numprocs-1) ::  num_buildings_l       !< number of buildings with different ID on local subdomain
433   
434    REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  volume         !< total building volume at each discrete height level
435    REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  volume_l       !< total building volume at each discrete height level,
436                                                           !< on local subdomain
437
438    IF ( debug_output )  CALL debug_message( 'im_init', 'start' )
439
440!
441!-- Initializing of indoor model is only possible if buildings can be
442!-- distinguished by their IDs.
443    IF ( .NOT. building_id_f%from_file )  THEN
444       message_string = 'Indoor model requires information about building_id'
445       CALL message( 'im_init', 'PA0999', 1, 2, 0, 6, 0  )
446    ENDIF
447!
448!-- Determine number of different building IDs on local subdomain.
449    num_buildings_l = 0
450    num_buildings   = 0
451    ALLOCATE( build_ids_l(1) )
452    DO  i = nxl, nxr
453       DO  j = nys, nyn
454          IF ( building_id_f%var(j,i) /= building_id_f%fill )  THEN
455             IF ( num_buildings_l(myid) > 0 )  THEN
456                IF ( ANY( building_id_f%var(j,i) .EQ.  build_ids_l ) )  THEN
457                   CYCLE
458                ELSE
459                   num_buildings_l(myid) = num_buildings_l(myid) + 1
460!
461!--                Resize array with different local building ids
462                   ALLOCATE( build_ids_l_tmp(1:SIZE(build_ids_l)) )
463                   build_ids_l_tmp = build_ids_l
464                   DEALLOCATE( build_ids_l )
465                   ALLOCATE( build_ids_l(1:num_buildings_l(myid)) )
466                   build_ids_l(1:num_buildings_l(myid)-1) =                 &
467                               build_ids_l_tmp(1:num_buildings_l(myid)-1)
468                   build_ids_l(num_buildings_l(myid)) = building_id_f%var(j,i)
469                   DEALLOCATE( build_ids_l_tmp )
470                ENDIF
471!
472!--          First occuring building id on PE
473             ELSE
474                num_buildings_l(myid) = num_buildings_l(myid) + 1
475                build_ids_l(1) = building_id_f%var(j,i)
476             ENDIF
477          ENDIF
478       ENDDO
479    ENDDO
480!
481!-- Determine number of building IDs for the entire domain. (Note, building IDs
482!-- can appear multiple times as buildings might be distributed over several
483!-- PEs.)
484#if defined( __parallel )
485    CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( num_buildings_l, num_buildings, numprocs,              &
486                        MPI_INTEGER, MPI_SUM, comm2d, ierr ) 
487#else
488    num_buildings = num_buildings_l
489#endif
490    ALLOCATE( build_ids(1:SUM(num_buildings)) )
491!
492!-- Gather building IDs. Therefore, first, determine displacements used
493!-- required for MPI_GATHERV call.
494    ALLOCATE( displace_dum(0:numprocs-1) )
495    displace_dum(0) = 0
496    DO i = 1, numprocs-1
497       displace_dum(i) = displace_dum(i-1) + num_buildings(i-1)
498    ENDDO
499
500#if defined( __parallel )
501    CALL MPI_ALLGATHERV( build_ids_l(1:num_buildings_l(myid)),                 &
502                         num_buildings(myid),                                  &
503                         MPI_INTEGER,                                          &
504                         build_ids,                                            &
505                         num_buildings,                                        &
506                         displace_dum,                                         & 
507                         MPI_INTEGER,                                          &
508                         comm2d, ierr )   
509
510    DEALLOCATE( displace_dum )
511
512#else
513    build_ids = build_ids_l
514#endif
515!
516!-- Note: in parallel mode, building IDs can occur mutliple times, as
517!-- each PE has send its own ids. Therefore, sort out building IDs which
518!-- appear multiple times.
519    num_build = 0
520    DO  n = 1, SIZE(build_ids)
521
522       IF ( ALLOCATED(build_ids_final) )  THEN
523          IF ( ANY( build_ids(n) .EQ. build_ids_final ) )  THEN    !FK: Warum ANY?, Warum .EQ.? --> s.o
524             CYCLE
525          ELSE
526             num_build = num_build + 1
527!
528!--          Resize
529             ALLOCATE( build_ids_final_tmp(1:num_build) )
530             build_ids_final_tmp(1:num_build-1) = build_ids_final(1:num_build-1)
531             DEALLOCATE( build_ids_final )
532             ALLOCATE( build_ids_final(1:num_build) )
533             build_ids_final(1:num_build-1) = build_ids_final_tmp(1:num_build-1)
534             build_ids_final(num_build) = build_ids(n)
535             DEALLOCATE( build_ids_final_tmp )
536          ENDIF             
537       ELSE
538          num_build = num_build + 1
539          ALLOCATE( build_ids_final(1:num_build) )
540          build_ids_final(num_build) = build_ids(n)
541       ENDIF
542    ENDDO
543
544!
545!-- Allocate building-data structure array. Note, this is a global array
546!-- and all building IDs on domain are known by each PE. Further attributes,
547!-- e.g. height-dependent arrays, however, are only allocated on PEs where
548!-- the respective building is present (in order to reduce memory demands).
549    ALLOCATE( buildings(1:num_build) )
550
551!
552!-- Store building IDs and check if building with certain ID is present on
553!-- subdomain.
554    DO  nb = 1, num_build
555       buildings(nb)%id = build_ids_final(nb)
556
557       IF ( ANY( building_id_f%var(nys:nyn,nxl:nxr) == buildings(nb)%id ) )    &
558          buildings(nb)%on_pe = .TRUE.
559    ENDDO
560!
561!-- Determine the maximum vertical dimension occupied by each building.
562    ALLOCATE( k_min_l(1:num_build) )
563    ALLOCATE( k_max_l(1:num_build) )
564    k_min_l = nzt + 1
565    k_max_l = 0   
566
567    DO  i = nxl, nxr
568       DO  j = nys, nyn
569          IF ( building_id_f%var(j,i) /= building_id_f%fill )  THEN
570             nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ),    &
571                         DIM = 1 )
572             DO  k = nzb+1, nzt+1
573!
574!--             Check if grid point belongs to a building.
575                IF ( BTEST( wall_flags_0(k,j,i), 6 ) )  THEN
576                   k_min_l(nb) = MIN( k_min_l(nb), k )
577                   k_max_l(nb) = MAX( k_max_l(nb), k )
578                ENDIF
579
580             ENDDO
581          ENDIF
582       ENDDO
583    ENDDO
584
585    DO nb = 1, num_build
586#if defined( __parallel )
587       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( k_min_l(nb), buildings(nb)%kb_min, 1, MPI_INTEGER,  &
588                           MPI_MIN, comm2d, ierr )
589       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( k_max_l(nb), buildings(nb)%kb_max, 1, MPI_INTEGER,  &
590                           MPI_MAX, comm2d, ierr )
591#else
592       buildings(nb)%kb_min = k_min_l(nb)
593       buildings(nb)%kb_max = k_max_l(nb)
594#endif
595
596    ENDDO
597
598    DEALLOCATE( k_min_l )
599    DEALLOCATE( k_max_l )
600!
601!-- Calculate building height.
602    DO  nb = 1, num_build
603       buildings(nb)%building_height = 0.0_wp
604       DO  k = buildings(nb)%kb_min, buildings(nb)%kb_max
605          buildings(nb)%building_height = buildings(nb)%building_height        &
606                                        + dzw(k)
607       ENDDO
608    ENDDO
609!
610!-- Calculate building volume
611    DO  nb = 1, num_build
612!
613!--    Allocate temporary array for summing-up building volume
614       ALLOCATE( volume(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max)   )
615       ALLOCATE( volume_l(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
616       volume   = 0.0_wp
617       volume_l = 0.0_wp
618!
619!--    Calculate building volume per height level on each PE where
620!--    these building is present.
621       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
622          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%volume(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max)   )
623          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%vol_frac(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
624          buildings(nb)%volume   = 0.0_wp
625          buildings(nb)%vol_frac = 0.0_wp
626         
627          IF ( ANY( building_id_f%var(nys:nyn,nxl:nxr) == buildings(nb)%id ) ) &
628          THEN
629             DO  i = nxl, nxr
630                DO  j = nys, nyn
631                   DO  k = buildings(nb)%kb_min, buildings(nb)%kb_max
632                      IF ( building_id_f%var(j,i) /= building_id_f%fill )      &
633                         volume_l(k) = volume_l(k) + dx * dy * dzw(k)
634                   ENDDO
635                ENDDO
636             ENDDO
637          ENDIF
638       ENDIF
639!
640!--    Sum-up building volume from all subdomains
641#if defined( __parallel )
642       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( volume_l, volume, SIZE(volume), MPI_REAL, MPI_SUM,  &
643                           comm2d, ierr )
644#else
645       volume = volume_l
646#endif
647!
648!--    Save total building volume as well as local fraction on volume on
649!--    building data structure.
650       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%volume ) )  buildings(nb)%volume = volume
651!
652!--    Determine fraction of local on total building volume
653       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  buildings(nb)%vol_frac = volume_l / volume
654!
655!--    Calculate total building volume
656       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%volume ) )                                &
657          buildings(nb)%vol_tot = SUM( buildings(nb)%volume )
658       
659       DEALLOCATE( volume   )
660       DEALLOCATE( volume_l )
661
662    ENDDO
663
664!
665!-- Allocate arrays for indoor temperature. 
666    DO  nb = 1, num_build
667       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
668          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%t_in(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max)   )
669          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%t_in_l(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
670          buildings(nb)%t_in   = 0.0_wp
671          buildings(nb)%t_in_l = 0.0_wp
672       ENDIF
673    ENDDO
674!
675!-- Allocate arrays for number of facades per height level. Distinguish between
676!-- horizontal and vertical facades.
677    DO  nb = 1, num_build
678       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
679          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%num_facade_h(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
680          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%num_facade_v(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
681
682          buildings(nb)%num_facade_h = 0
683          buildings(nb)%num_facade_v = 0
684       ENDIF
685    ENDDO
686!
687!-- Determine number of facade elements per building on local subdomain.
688!-- Distinguish between horizontal and vertical facade elements.
689!
690!-- Horizontal facades
691    buildings(:)%num_facades_per_building_h_l = 0
692    DO  m = 1, surf_usm_h%ns
693!
694!--    For the current facade element determine corresponding building index.
695!--    First, obtain j,j,k indices of the building. Please note the
696!--    offset between facade/surface element and building location (for
697!--    horizontal surface elements the horizontal offsets are zero).
698       i = surf_usm_h%i(m) + surf_usm_h%ioff
699       j = surf_usm_h%j(m) + surf_usm_h%joff
700       k = surf_usm_h%k(m) + surf_usm_h%koff
701!
702!--    Determine building index and check whether building is on PE
703       nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ), DIM = 1 )
704       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
705!
706!--       Count number of facade elements at each height level.
707          buildings(nb)%num_facade_h(k) = buildings(nb)%num_facade_h(k) + 1 
708!
709!--       Moreover, sum up number of local facade elements per building.
710          buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_h_l =                         &
711                                buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_h_l + 1
712       ENDIF
713    ENDDO
714!
715!-- Vertical facades
716    buildings(:)%num_facades_per_building_v_l = 0
717    DO  l = 0, 3
718       DO  m = 1, surf_usm_v(l)%ns
719!
720!--       For the current facade element determine corresponding building index.
721!--       First, obtain j,j,k indices of the building. Please note the
722!--       offset between facade/surface element and building location (for
723!--       vertical surface elements the vertical offsets are zero).
724          i = surf_usm_v(l)%i(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%ioff
725          j = surf_usm_v(l)%j(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%joff
726          k = surf_usm_v(l)%k(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%koff
727
728          nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ),        &
729                       DIM = 1 )
730          IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
731             buildings(nb)%num_facade_v(k) = buildings(nb)%num_facade_v(k) + 1 
732             buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l =                      &
733                                buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l + 1
734          ENDIF
735       ENDDO
736    ENDDO
737
738!
739!-- Determine total number of facade elements per building and assign number to
740!-- building data type.
741    DO  nb = 1, num_build
742!
743!--    Allocate dummy array used for summing-up facade elements.
744!--    Please note, dummy arguments are necessary as building-date type
745!--    arrays are not necessarily allocated on all PEs.
746       ALLOCATE( num_facades_h(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
747       ALLOCATE( num_facades_v(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
748       ALLOCATE( receive_dum_h(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
749       ALLOCATE( receive_dum_v(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
750       num_facades_h = 0
751       num_facades_v = 0
752       receive_dum_h = 0
753       receive_dum_v = 0
754
755       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
756          num_facades_h = buildings(nb)%num_facade_h
757          num_facades_v = buildings(nb)%num_facade_v
758       ENDIF
759
760#if defined( __parallel )
761       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( num_facades_h,                                      &
762                           receive_dum_h,                                      &
763                           buildings(nb)%kb_max - buildings(nb)%kb_min + 1,    &
764                           MPI_INTEGER,                                        &
765                           MPI_SUM,                                            &
766                           comm2d,                                             &
767                           ierr )
768
769       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( num_facades_v,                                      &
770                           receive_dum_v,                                      &
771                           buildings(nb)%kb_max - buildings(nb)%kb_min + 1,    &
772                           MPI_INTEGER,                                        &
773                           MPI_SUM,                                            &
774                           comm2d,                                             &
775                           ierr )
776       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%num_facade_h ) )                          &  !FK: Was wenn not allocated? --> s.o.
777           buildings(nb)%num_facade_h = receive_dum_h
778       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%num_facade_v ) )                          &
779           buildings(nb)%num_facade_v = receive_dum_v
780#else
781       buildings(nb)%num_facade_h = num_facades_h
782       buildings(nb)%num_facade_v = num_facades_v
783#endif
784!
785!--    Deallocate dummy arrays
786       DEALLOCATE( num_facades_h )
787       DEALLOCATE( num_facades_v )
788       DEALLOCATE( receive_dum_h )
789       DEALLOCATE( receive_dum_v )
790!
791!--    Allocate index arrays which link facade elements with surface-data type.
792!--    Please note, no height levels are considered here (information is stored
793!--    in surface-data type itself).
794       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
795!
796!--       Determine number of facade elements per building.
797          buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_h = SUM( buildings(nb)%num_facade_h )
798          buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v = SUM( buildings(nb)%num_facade_v )
799!
800!--       Allocate arrays which link the building with the horizontal and vertical
801!--       urban-type surfaces. Please note, linking arrays are allocated over all
802!--       facade elements, which is required in case a building is located at the
803!--       subdomain boundaries, where the building and the corresponding surface
804!--       elements are located on different subdomains.
805          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%m_h(1:buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_h_l) )
806
807          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%l_v(1:buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l) )
808          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%m_v(1:buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l) )
809       ENDIF
810!
811!--    Determine volume per facade element (vpf)
812       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
813          ALLOCATE( buildings(nb)%vpf(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
814         
815          DO  k = buildings(nb)%kb_min, buildings(nb)%kb_max
816             buildings(nb)%vpf(k) = buildings(nb)%volume(k) /                  &
817                                    ( buildings(nb)%num_facade_h(k) +          &
818                                      buildings(nb)%num_facade_v(k) )
819          ENDDO
820       ENDIF
821    ENDDO
822!
823!-- Link facade elements with surface data type.
824!-- Allocate array for counting.
825    ALLOCATE( n_fa(1:num_build) )
826    n_fa = 1
827
828    DO  m = 1, surf_usm_h%ns
829       i = surf_usm_h%i(m) + surf_usm_h%ioff
830       j = surf_usm_h%j(m) + surf_usm_h%joff
831
832       nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ), DIM = 1 )
833
834       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
835          buildings(nb)%m_h(n_fa(nb)) = m
836          n_fa(nb) = n_fa(nb) + 1 
837       ENDIF
838    ENDDO
839
840    n_fa = 1
841    DO  l = 0, 3
842       DO  m = 1, surf_usm_v(l)%ns
843          i = surf_usm_v(l)%i(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%ioff
844          j = surf_usm_v(l)%j(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%joff
845
846          nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ), DIM = 1 )
847
848          IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
849             buildings(nb)%l_v(n_fa(nb)) = l
850             buildings(nb)%m_v(n_fa(nb)) = m
851             n_fa(nb) = n_fa(nb) + 1   
852          ENDIF
853       ENDDO
854    ENDDO
855    DEALLOCATE( n_fa )
856
857!
858!-- Initialize building parameters, first by mean building type. Note,
859!-- in this case all buildings have the same type.
860!-- In a second step initialize with building tpyes from static input file,
861!-- where building types can be individual for each building.
862    buildings(:)%lambda_layer3    = building_pars(63,building_type)
863    buildings(:)%s_layer3         = building_pars(57,building_type)
864    buildings(:)%f_c_win          = building_pars(119,building_type)
865    buildings(:)%g_value_win      = building_pars(120,building_type)   
866    buildings(:)%u_value_win      = building_pars(121,building_type)   
867    buildings(:)%air_change_low   = building_pars(122,building_type)   
868    buildings(:)%air_change_high  = building_pars(123,building_type)   
869    buildings(:)%eta_ve           = building_pars(124,building_type)   
870    buildings(:)%factor_a         = building_pars(125,building_type)   
871    buildings(:)%factor_c         = building_pars(126,building_type)
872    buildings(:)%lambda_at        = building_pars(127,building_type)   
873    buildings(:)%theta_int_h_set  = building_pars(118,building_type)   
874    buildings(:)%theta_int_c_set  = building_pars(117,building_type)
875    buildings(:)%phi_h_max        = building_pars(128,building_type)   
876    buildings(:)%phi_c_max        = building_pars(129,building_type)         
877    buildings(:)%qint_high        = building_pars(130,building_type)
878    buildings(:)%qint_low         = building_pars(131,building_type)
879    buildings(:)%height_storey    = building_pars(132,building_type)
880    buildings(:)%height_cei_con   = building_pars(133,building_type)
881!
882!-- Initialize ventilaation load. Please note, building types > 7 are actually
883!-- not allowed (check already in urban_surface_mod and netcdf_data_input_mod.
884!-- However, the building data base may be later extended.
885    IF ( building_type ==  1  .OR.  building_type ==  2  .OR.                  &
886         building_type ==  3  .OR.  building_type == 10  .OR.                  &
887         building_type == 11  .OR.  building_type == 12 )  THEN
888       buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 1
889!
890!-- Office, building with large windows
891    ELSEIF ( building_type ==  4  .OR.  building_type ==  5  .OR.              &
892             building_type ==  6  .OR.  building_type ==  7  .OR.              &
893             building_type ==  8  .OR.  building_type ==  9)  THEN
894       buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 2
895!
896!-- Industry, hospitals
897    ELSEIF ( building_type == 13  .OR.  building_type == 14  .OR.              &
898             building_type == 15  .OR.  building_type == 16  .OR.              &
899             building_type == 17  .OR.  building_type == 18 )  THEN
900       buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 3
901    ENDIF
902!
903!-- Initialization of building parameters - level 2
904    IF ( building_type_f%from_file )  THEN
905       DO  i = nxl, nxr
906          DO  j = nys, nyn
907              IF ( building_id_f%var(j,i) /= building_id_f%fill )  THEN
908                 nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ),    &
909                              DIM = 1 )
910                 bt = building_type_f%var(j,i)
911                 
912                 buildings(nb)%lambda_layer3    = building_pars(63,bt)
913                 buildings(nb)%s_layer3         = building_pars(57,bt)
914                 buildings(nb)%f_c_win          = building_pars(119,bt)
915                 buildings(nb)%g_value_win      = building_pars(120,bt)   
916                 buildings(nb)%u_value_win      = building_pars(121,bt)   
917                 buildings(nb)%air_change_low   = building_pars(122,bt)   
918                 buildings(nb)%air_change_high  = building_pars(123,bt)   
919                 buildings(nb)%eta_ve           = building_pars(124,bt)   
920                 buildings(nb)%factor_a         = building_pars(125,bt)   
921                 buildings(nb)%factor_c         = building_pars(126,bt)
922                 buildings(nb)%lambda_at        = building_pars(127,bt)   
923                 buildings(nb)%theta_int_h_set  = building_pars(118,bt)   
924                 buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set  = building_pars(117,bt)
925                 buildings(nb)%phi_h_max        = building_pars(128,bt)   
926                 buildings(nb)%phi_c_max        = building_pars(129,bt)         
927                 buildings(nb)%qint_high        = building_pars(130,bt)
928                 buildings(nb)%qint_low         = building_pars(131,bt)
929                 buildings(nb)%height_storey    = building_pars(132,bt)
930                 buildings(nb)%height_cei_con   = building_pars(133,bt)                 
931!
932!--              Initialize ventilaation load. Please note, building types > 7
933!--              are actually not allowed (check already in urban_surface_mod 
934!--              and netcdf_data_input_mod. However, the building data base may
935!--              be later extended.
936                 IF ( bt ==  1  .OR.  bt ==  2  .OR.                           &
937                      bt ==  3  .OR.  bt == 10  .OR.                           &
938                      bt == 11  .OR.  bt == 12 )  THEN
939                    buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 1
940!                   
941!--              Office, building with large windows
942                 ELSEIF ( bt ==  4  .OR.  bt ==  5  .OR.                       &
943                          bt ==  6  .OR.  bt ==  7  .OR.                       &
944                          bt ==  8  .OR.  bt ==  9)  THEN
945                    buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 2
946!
947!--              Industry, hospitals
948                 ELSEIF ( bt == 13  .OR.  bt == 14  .OR.                       &
949                          bt == 15  .OR.  bt == 16  .OR.                       &
950                          bt == 17  .OR.  bt == 18 )  THEN
951                    buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads = 3
952                 ENDIF
953              ENDIF
954           ENDDO
955        ENDDO
956    ENDIF
957!
958!-- Initial room temperature [K]
959!-- (after first loop, use theta_m_t as theta_m_t_prev)
960    theta_m_t_prev = initial_indoor_temperature
961!
962!-- Initialize indoor temperature. Actually only for output at initial state.
963    DO  nb = 1, num_build
964       buildings(nb)%t_in(:) = initial_indoor_temperature
965    ENDDO
966
967    IF ( debug_output )  CALL debug_message( 'im_init', 'end' )
968
969 END SUBROUTINE im_init
970
971
972!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
973! Description:
974! ------------
975!> Main part of the indoor model.
976!> Calculation of .... (kanani: Please describe)
977!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
978 SUBROUTINE im_main_heatcool
979
980    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
981        ONLY:  ddzw, dzw
982
983    USE date_and_time_mod,                                                     &
984        ONLY:  time_utc
985
986    USE grid_variables,                                                        &
987        ONLY:  dx, dy
988
989    USE pegrid
990   
991    USE surface_mod,                                                           &
992        ONLY:  ind_veg_wall, ind_wat_win, surf_usm_h, surf_usm_v
993
994    USE urban_surface_mod,                                                     &
995        ONLY:  nzt_wall, t_wall_h, t_wall_v, t_window_h, t_window_v,           &
996               building_type
997
998
999    IMPLICIT NONE
1000
1001    INTEGER(iwp) ::  i    !< index of facade-adjacent atmosphere grid point in x-direction
1002    INTEGER(iwp) ::  j    !< index of facade-adjacent atmosphere grid point in y-direction
1003    INTEGER(iwp) ::  k    !< index of facade-adjacent atmosphere grid point in z-direction
1004    INTEGER(iwp) ::  kk   !< vertical index of indoor grid point adjacent to facade
1005    INTEGER(iwp) ::  l    !< running index for surface-element orientation
1006    INTEGER(iwp) ::  m    !< running index surface elements
1007    INTEGER(iwp) ::  nb   !< running index for buildings
1008    INTEGER(iwp) ::  fa   !< running index for facade elements of each building
1009
1010    REAL(wp) ::  indoor_wall_window_temperature   !< weighted temperature of innermost wall/window layer
1011    REAL(wp) ::  near_facade_temperature          !< outside air temperature 10cm away from facade
1012    REAL(wp) ::  time_utc_hour                    !< time of day (hour UTC)
1013
1014    REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  t_in_l_send   !< dummy send buffer used for summing-up indoor temperature per kk-level
1015    REAL(wp), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE ::  t_in_recv     !< dummy recv buffer used for summing-up indoor temperature per kk-level
1016!
1017!-- Determine time of day in hours.
1018    time_utc_hour = time_utc / 3600.0_wp
1019!
1020!-- Following calculations must be done for each facade element.
1021    DO  nb = 1, num_build
1022!
1023!--    First, check whether building is present on local subdomain.
1024       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
1025!
1026!--       Determine daily schedule. 08:00-18:00 = 1, other hours = 0.
1027!--       Residental Building, panel WBS 70   
1028          IF ( buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads == 1 )  THEN
1029             IF ( time_utc_hour >= 6.0_wp  .AND.  time_utc_hour <= 8.0_wp )  THEN
1030                schedule_d = 1
1031             ELSEIF ( time_utc_hour >= 18.0_wp  .AND.  time_utc_hour <= 23.0_wp )  THEN
1032                schedule_d = 1
1033             ELSE
1034                schedule_d = 0
1035             ENDIF
1036          ENDIF
1037!
1038!--       Office, building with large windows
1039          IF ( buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads == 2 )  THEN
1040             IF ( time_utc_hour >= 8.0_wp  .AND.  time_utc_hour <= 18.0_wp )  THEN
1041                schedule_d = 1
1042             ELSE
1043                schedule_d = 0
1044             ENDIF
1045          ENDIF
1046!       
1047!--       Industry, hospitals
1048          IF ( buildings(nb)%ventilation_int_loads == 3 )  THEN
1049             IF ( time_utc_hour >= 6.0_wp  .AND.  time_utc_hour <= 22.0_wp )  THEN
1050                schedule_d = 1
1051             ELSE
1052                schedule_d = 0
1053             ENDIF
1054          ENDIF
1055!
1056!--       Initialize/reset indoor temperature
1057          buildings(nb)%t_in_l = 0.0_wp 
1058!
1059!--       Horizontal surfaces
1060          DO  fa = 1, buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_h_l
1061!
1062!--          Determine index where corresponding surface-type information
1063!--          is stored.
1064             m = buildings(nb)%m_h(fa)
1065!
1066!--          Determine building height level index.
1067             kk = surf_usm_h%k(m) + surf_usm_h%koff
1068!           
1069!--          Building geometries --> not time-dependent
1070             facade_element_area      = dx * dy                             !< [m2] surface area per facade element   
1071             floor_area_per_facade    = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk) * ddzw(kk)    !< [m2] net floor area per facade element       
1072             indoor_volume_per_facade = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk)               !< [m3] indoor air volume per facade element           
1073             window_area_per_facade   = surf_usm_h%frac(ind_wat_win,m)  * facade_element_area  !< [m2] window area per facade element
1074             
1075! print*, "building_height", building_height
1076! print*, "num_facades_v_l", buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l
1077! print*, "num_facades_v", buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v
1078! print*, "kb_min_max", buildings(nb)%kb_min, buildings(nb)%kb_max
1079! print*, "dzw kk", dzw(kk), kk
1080
1081             f_cei                    = buildings(nb)%building_height /        &
1082                                       (buildings(nb)%height_storey-buildings(nb)%height_cei_con) !< [-] factor for ceiling redcution
1083             ngs                      = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk)/f_cei                    !< [m2] calculation of netto ground surface
1084             f_sr                     = ngs/floor_area_per_facade                      !< [-] factor for surface reduction
1085             eff_mass_area            = buildings(nb)%factor_a * ngs    !< [m2] standard values according to Table 12 section 12.3.1.2  (calculate over Eq. (65) according to section 12.3.1.2)
1086             c_m                      = buildings(nb)%factor_c * ngs    !< [J/K] standard values according to table 12 section 12.3.1.2 (calculate over Eq. (66) according to section 12.3.1.2)
1087             total_area               = buildings(nb)%lambda_at * floor_area_per_facade   !< [m2] area of all surfaces pointing to zone  Eq. (9) according to section 7.2.2.2
1088
1089!--          Calculation of heat transfer coefficient for transmission --> not time-dependent
1090             h_tr_w   = window_area_per_facade * buildings(nb)%u_value_win   !< [W/K] only for windows
1091             h_tr_is  = total_area * h_is                      !< [W/K] with h_is = 3.45 W / (m2 K) between surface and air, Eq. (9)
1092             h_tr_ms  = eff_mass_area * h_ms                    !< [W/K] with h_ms = 9.10 W / (m2 K) between component and surface, Eq. (64)
1093             h_tr_op  = 1.0_wp / ( 1.0_wp / ( ( facade_element_area - window_area_per_facade ) &
1094                                    * buildings(nb)%lambda_layer3 / buildings(nb)%s_layer3 * 0.5_wp ) + 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms )
1095             h_tr_em  = 1.0_wp / ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_op - 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms )      !< [W/K] Eq. (63), Section 12.2.2
1096!
1097!--          internal air loads dependent on the occupacy of the room
1098!--          basical internal heat gains (qint_low) with additional internal heat gains by occupancy (qint_high) (0,5*phi_int)
1099             phi_ia = 0.5_wp * ( ( buildings(nb)%qint_high * schedule_d + buildings(nb)%qint_low )            &
1100                              * ngs )         !< [W] Eq. (C.1)
1101!
1102!--          Airflow dependent on the occupacy of the room
1103!--          basical airflow (air_change_low) with additional airflow gains by occupancy (air_change_high)
1104             air_change = ( buildings(nb)%air_change_high * schedule_d + buildings(nb)%air_change_low )  !< [1/h]?
1105!
1106!--          Heat transfer of ventilation
1107!--          not less than 0.01 W/K to provide division by 0 in further calculations
1108!--          with heat capacity of air 0.33 Wh/m2K
1109             h_ve   = MAX( 0.01_wp , ( air_change * indoor_volume_per_facade *      &
1110                                    0.33_wp * (1.0_wp - buildings(nb)%eta_ve ) ) )    !< [W/K] from ISO 13789 Eq.(10)
1111
1112!--          Heat transfer coefficient auxiliary variables
1113             h_tr_1 = 1.0_wp / ( ( 1.0_wp / h_ve )   + ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_is ) )  !< [W/K] Eq. (C.6)
1114             h_tr_2 = h_tr_1 + h_tr_w                           !< [W/K] Eq. (C.7)
1115             h_tr_3 = 1.0_wp / ( ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_2 ) + ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms ) )  !< [W/K] Eq. (C.8)
1116!
1117!--          Net short-wave radiation through window area (was i_global)
1118             net_sw_in = surf_usm_h%rad_sw_in(m) - surf_usm_h%rad_sw_out(m)
1119!
1120!--          Quantities needed for im_calc_temperatures
1121             i = surf_usm_h%i(m)
1122             j = surf_usm_h%j(m)
1123             k = surf_usm_h%k(m)
1124             near_facade_temperature = surf_usm_h%pt_10cm(m)
1125             indoor_wall_window_temperature =                                  &
1126                  surf_usm_h%frac(ind_veg_wall,m) * t_wall_h(nzt_wall,m)       &
1127                + surf_usm_h%frac(ind_wat_win,m)  * t_window_h(nzt_wall,m)
1128!
1129!--          Solar thermal gains. If net_sw_in larger than sun-protection
1130!--          threshold parameter (params_solar_protection), sun protection will
1131!--          be activated
1132             IF ( net_sw_in <= params_solar_protection )  THEN
1133                solar_protection_off = 1
1134                solar_protection_on  = 0 
1135             ELSE
1136                solar_protection_off = 0
1137                solar_protection_on  = 1 
1138             ENDIF
1139!
1140!--          Calculation of total heat gains from net_sw_in through windows [W] in respect on automatic sun protection
1141!--          DIN 4108 - 2 chap.8
1142             phi_sol = (   window_area_per_facade * net_sw_in * solar_protection_off               &
1143                         + window_area_per_facade * net_sw_in * buildings(nb)%f_c_win * solar_protection_on )    &
1144                       * buildings(nb)%g_value_win * ( 1.0_wp - params_f_f ) * params_f_w              !< [W]
1145!
1146!--          Calculation of the mass specific thermal load for internal and external heatsources of the inner node
1147             phi_m   = (eff_mass_area / total_area) * ( phi_ia + phi_sol )          !< [W] Eq. (C.2) with phi_ia=0,5*phi_int
1148!
1149!--          Calculation mass specific thermal load implied non thermal mass
1150             phi_st  =   ( 1.0_wp - ( eff_mass_area / total_area ) - ( h_tr_w / ( 9.1_wp * total_area ) ) ) &
1151                       * ( phi_ia + phi_sol )                                       !< [W] Eq. (C.3) with phi_ia=0,5*phi_int
1152!
1153!--          Calculations for deriving indoor temperature and heat flux into the wall
1154!--          Step 1: Indoor temperature without heating and cooling
1155!--          section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 3)
1156             phi_hc_nd = 0.0_wp
1157             
1158             CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1159                                         near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1160!
1161!--          If air temperature between border temperatures of heating and cooling, assign output variable, then ready   
1162             IF ( buildings(nb)%theta_int_h_set <= theta_air  .AND.  theta_air <= buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set )  THEN
1163                phi_hc_nd_ac = 0.0_wp
1164                phi_hc_nd    = phi_hc_nd_ac
1165                theta_air_ac = theta_air
1166!
1167!--          Step 2: Else, apply 10 W/m2 heating/cooling power and calculate indoor temperature
1168!--          again.
1169             ELSE
1170!
1171!--             Temperature not correct, calculation method according to section C4.2
1172                theta_air_0 = theta_air !< Note temperature without heating/cooling
1173
1174!--             Heating or cooling?
1175                IF ( theta_air > buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set )  THEN
1176                   theta_air_set = buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set
1177                ELSE
1178                   theta_air_set = buildings(nb)%theta_int_h_set
1179                ENDIF
1180
1181!--             Calculate the temperature with phi_hc_nd_10
1182                phi_hc_nd_10 = 10.0_wp * floor_area_per_facade
1183                phi_hc_nd    = phi_hc_nd_10
1184       
1185                CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1186                                            near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1187
1188                theta_air_10 = theta_air !< Note the temperature with 10 W/m2 of heating
1189!
1190   
1191                phi_hc_nd_un = phi_hc_nd_10 * (theta_air_set - theta_air_0)                        &
1192                                            / (theta_air_10  - theta_air_0)            !< Eq. (C.13)
1193                                           
1194!--             Step 3: With temperature ratio to determine the heating or cooling capacity   
1195!--             If necessary, limit the power to maximum power
1196!--             section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 2) and 4)
1197                IF ( buildings(nb)%phi_c_max < phi_hc_nd_un  .AND.  phi_hc_nd_un < buildings(nb)%phi_h_max )  THEN
1198                   phi_hc_nd_ac = phi_hc_nd_un
1199                   phi_hc_nd = phi_hc_nd_un   
1200                ELSE
1201!--             Step 4: Inner temperature with maximum heating (phi_hc_nd_un positive) or cooling (phi_hc_nd_un negative)
1202!--             section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 1) and 5)
1203                   IF ( phi_hc_nd_un > 0.0_wp )  THEN
1204                      phi_hc_nd_ac = buildings(nb)%phi_h_max                                         !< Limit heating
1205                   ELSE
1206                      phi_hc_nd_ac = buildings(nb)%phi_c_max                                         !< Limit cooling
1207                   ENDIF
1208                ENDIF
1209       
1210                phi_hc_nd = phi_hc_nd_ac   
1211!
1212!--             Calculate the temperature with phi_hc_nd_ac (new)
1213                CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1214                                            near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1215
1216                theta_air_ac = theta_air
1217       
1218             ENDIF
1219!
1220!--          Update theta_m_t_prev
1221             theta_m_t_prev = theta_m_t
1222!
1223!--          Calculate the operating temperature with weighted mean temperature of air and mean solar temperature
1224!--          Will be used for thermal comfort calculations
1225             theta_op     = 0.3_wp * theta_air_ac + 0.7_wp * theta_s          !< [degree_C] operative Temperature Eq. (C.12)
1226!
1227!--          Heat flux into the wall. Value needed in urban_surface_mod to
1228!--          calculate heat transfer through wall layers towards the facade
1229!--          (use c_p * rho_surface to convert [W/m2] into [K m/s])
1230             q_wall_win = h_tr_ms * ( theta_s - theta_m )                    &
1231                                    / (   facade_element_area                  &
1232                                        - window_area_per_facade )
1233!
1234!--          Transfer q_wall_win back to USM (innermost wall/window layer)
1235             surf_usm_h%iwghf_eb(m)        = q_wall_win
1236             surf_usm_h%iwghf_eb_window(m) = q_wall_win
1237!
1238!--          Sum up operational indoor temperature per kk-level. Further below,
1239!--          this temperature is reduced by MPI to one temperature per kk-level
1240!--          and building (processor overlapping)
1241             buildings(nb)%t_in_l(kk) = buildings(nb)%t_in_l(kk) + theta_op
1242!
1243!--          Calculation of waste heat
1244!--          Anthropogenic heat output
1245             IF ( phi_hc_nd_ac > 0.0_wp )  THEN
1246                heating_on = 1
1247                cooling_on = 0
1248             ELSE
1249                heating_on = 0
1250                cooling_on = 1
1251             ENDIF
1252
1253             q_waste_heat = (phi_hc_nd * (params_waste_heat_h * heating_on + params_waste_heat_c * cooling_on))!< [W/GebÀudemodell] , observe the directional convention in PALM!
1254             surf_usm_h%waste_heat(m) = q_waste_heat
1255             
1256          ENDDO !< Horizontal surfaces loop
1257!
1258!--       Vertical surfaces
1259          DO  fa = 1, buildings(nb)%num_facades_per_building_v_l
1260!
1261!--          Determine indices where corresponding surface-type information
1262!--          is stored.
1263             l = buildings(nb)%l_v(fa)
1264             m = buildings(nb)%m_v(fa)
1265!
1266!--          Determine building height level index.
1267             kk = surf_usm_v(l)%k(m) + surf_usm_v(l)%koff
1268!
1269!--          (SOME OF THE FOLLOWING (not time-dependent COULD PROBABLY GO INTO A FUNCTION
1270!--          EXCEPT facade_element_area, EVERYTHING IS CALCULATED EQUALLY)
1271!--          Building geometries  --> not time-dependent
1272             IF ( l == 0  .OR. l == 1 ) facade_element_area = dx * dzw(kk)  !< [m2] surface area per facade element
1273             IF ( l == 2  .OR. l == 3 ) facade_element_area = dy * dzw(kk)  !< [m2] surface area per facade element
1274             floor_area_per_facade    = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk) * ddzw(kk)    !< [m2] net floor area per facade element       
1275             indoor_volume_per_facade = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk)               !< [m3] indoor air volume per facade element           
1276             window_area_per_facade   = surf_usm_v(l)%frac(ind_wat_win,m)  * facade_element_area  !< [m2] window area per facade element
1277
1278             f_cei                    = buildings(nb)%building_height /        &
1279                                        (buildings(nb)%height_storey-buildings(nb)%height_cei_con) !< [-] factor for ceiling redcution
1280             ngs                      = buildings(nb)%vpf(kk)/f_cei                    !< [m2] calculation of netto ground surface
1281             f_sr                     = ngs/floor_area_per_facade                      !< [-] factor for surface reduction
1282             eff_mass_area            = buildings(nb)%factor_a * ngs    !< [m2] standard values according to Table 12 section 12.3.1.2  (calculate over Eq. (65) according to section 12.3.1.2)
1283             c_m                      = buildings(nb)%factor_c * ngs    !< [J/K] standard values according to table 12 section 12.3.1.2 (calculate over Eq. (66) according to section 12.3.1.2)
1284             total_area               = buildings(nb)%lambda_at * floor_area_per_facade   !< [m2] area of all surfaces pointing to zone  Eq. (9) according to section 7.2.2.2
1285!
1286!--          Calculation of heat transfer coefficient for transmission --> not time-dependent
1287             h_tr_w   = window_area_per_facade * buildings(nb)%u_value_win   !< [W/K] only for windows
1288             h_tr_is  = total_area * h_is                      !< [W/K] with h_is = 3.45 W / (m2 K) between surface and air, Eq. (9)
1289             h_tr_ms  = eff_mass_area * h_ms                   !< [W/K] with h_ms = 9.10 W / (m2 K) between component and surface, Eq. (64)
1290             h_tr_op  = 1.0_wp / ( 1.0_wp / ( ( facade_element_area - window_area_per_facade ) &
1291                                    * buildings(nb)%lambda_layer3 / buildings(nb)%s_layer3 * 0.5_wp ) + 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms )
1292             h_tr_em  = 1.0_wp / ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_op - 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms )      !< [W/K] Eq. (63), Section 12.2.2
1293!
1294!--          internal air loads dependent on the occupacy of the room
1295!--          basical internal heat gains (qint_low) with additional internal heat gains by occupancy (qint_high) (0,5*phi_int)
1296             phi_ia = 0.5_wp * ( ( buildings(nb)%qint_high * schedule_d + buildings(nb)%qint_low )            &
1297                              * ngs )                      !< [W] Eq. (C.1)
1298!
1299!--          Airflow dependent on the occupacy of the room
1300!--          basical airflow (air_change_low) with additional airflow gains by occupancy (air_change_high)
1301             air_change = ( buildings(nb)%air_change_high * schedule_d + buildings(nb)%air_change_low ) 
1302!
1303!--          Heat transfer of ventilation
1304!--          not less than 0.01 W/K to provide division by 0 in further calculations
1305!--          with heat capacity of air 0.33 Wh/m2K
1306             h_ve   = MAX( 0.01_wp , ( air_change * indoor_volume_per_facade *      &
1307                                    0.33_wp * (1 - buildings(nb)%eta_ve ) ) )                    !< [W/K] from ISO 13789 Eq.(10)
1308                                   
1309!--          Heat transfer coefficient auxiliary variables
1310             h_tr_1 = 1.0_wp / ( ( 1.0_wp / h_ve )   + ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_is ) )                  !< [W/K] Eq. (C.6)
1311             h_tr_2 = h_tr_1 + h_tr_w                                           !< [W/K] Eq. (C.7)
1312             h_tr_3 = 1.0_wp / ( ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_2 ) + ( 1.0_wp / h_tr_ms ) )                  !< [W/K] Eq. (C.8)
1313!
1314!--          Net short-wave radiation through window area (was i_global)
1315             net_sw_in = surf_usm_v(l)%rad_sw_in(m) - surf_usm_v(l)%rad_sw_out(m)
1316!
1317!--          Quantities needed for im_calc_temperatures
1318             i = surf_usm_v(l)%i(m)
1319             j = surf_usm_v(l)%j(m)
1320             k = surf_usm_v(l)%k(m)
1321             near_facade_temperature = surf_usm_v(l)%pt_10cm(m)
1322             indoor_wall_window_temperature =                                    &
1323                  surf_usm_v(l)%frac(ind_veg_wall,m) * t_wall_v(l)%t(nzt_wall,m) &
1324                + surf_usm_v(l)%frac(ind_wat_win,m)  * t_window_v(l)%t(nzt_wall,m)
1325!
1326!--          Solar thermal gains. If net_sw_in larger than sun-protection
1327!--          threshold parameter (params_solar_protection), sun protection will
1328!--          be activated
1329             IF ( net_sw_in <= params_solar_protection )  THEN
1330                solar_protection_off = 1
1331                solar_protection_on  = 0 
1332             ELSE
1333                solar_protection_off = 0
1334                solar_protection_on  = 1 
1335             ENDIF
1336!
1337!--          Calculation of total heat gains from net_sw_in through windows [W] in respect on automatic sun protection
1338!--          DIN 4108 - 2 chap.8
1339             phi_sol = (   window_area_per_facade * net_sw_in * solar_protection_off               &
1340                         + window_area_per_facade * net_sw_in * buildings(nb)%f_c_win * solar_protection_on )    &
1341                       * buildings(nb)%g_value_win * ( 1.0_wp - params_f_f ) * params_f_w
1342!
1343!--          Calculation of the mass specific thermal load for internal and external heatsources
1344             phi_m   = (eff_mass_area / total_area) * ( phi_ia + phi_sol )          !< [W] Eq. (C.2) with phi_ia=0,5*phi_int
1345!
1346!--          Calculation mass specific thermal load implied non thermal mass
1347             phi_st  =   ( 1.0_wp - ( eff_mass_area / total_area ) - ( h_tr_w / ( 9.1_wp * total_area ) ) ) &
1348                       * ( phi_ia + phi_sol )                                       !< [W] Eq. (C.3) with phi_ia=0,5*phi_int
1349!
1350!--          Calculations for deriving indoor temperature and heat flux into the wall
1351!--          Step 1: Indoor temperature without heating and cooling
1352!--          section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 3)
1353             phi_hc_nd = 0.0_wp
1354             CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1355                                         near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1356!
1357!--          If air temperature between border temperatures of heating and cooling, assign output variable, then ready 
1358             IF ( buildings(nb)%theta_int_h_set <= theta_air  .AND.  theta_air <= buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set )  THEN
1359                phi_hc_nd_ac = 0.0_wp
1360                phi_hc_nd    = phi_hc_nd_ac
1361                theta_air_ac = theta_air
1362!
1363!--          Step 2: Else, apply 10 W/m2 heating/cooling power and calculate indoor temperature
1364!--          again.
1365             ELSE
1366!
1367!--             Temperature not correct, calculation method according to section C4.2
1368                theta_air_0 = theta_air !< Note temperature without heating/cooling
1369
1370!--             Heating or cooling?
1371                IF ( theta_air > buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set )  THEN
1372                   theta_air_set = buildings(nb)%theta_int_c_set
1373                ELSE
1374                   theta_air_set = buildings(nb)%theta_int_h_set
1375                ENDIF
1376
1377!--             Calculate the temperature with phi_hc_nd_10
1378                phi_hc_nd_10 = 10.0_wp * floor_area_per_facade
1379                phi_hc_nd    = phi_hc_nd_10
1380       
1381                CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1382                                            near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1383
1384                theta_air_10 = theta_air !< Note the temperature with 10 W/m2 of heating
1385
1386               
1387                phi_hc_nd_un = phi_hc_nd_10 * (theta_air_set - theta_air_0)                        &
1388                                            / (theta_air_10  - theta_air_0)            !< Eq. (C.13)
1389!     
1390!--             Step 3: With temperature ratio to determine the heating or cooling capacity   
1391!--             If necessary, limit the power to maximum power
1392!--             section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 2) and 4)
1393                IF ( buildings(nb)%phi_c_max < phi_hc_nd_un  .AND.  phi_hc_nd_un < buildings(nb)%phi_h_max )  THEN
1394                   phi_hc_nd_ac = phi_hc_nd_un
1395                   phi_hc_nd = phi_hc_nd_un
1396                ELSE
1397!--             Step 4: Inner temperature with maximum heating (phi_hc_nd_un positive) or cooling (phi_hc_nd_un negative)
1398!--             section C.4.1 Picture C.2 zone 1) and 5)
1399                   IF ( phi_hc_nd_un > 0.0_wp )  THEN
1400                      phi_hc_nd_ac = buildings(nb)%phi_h_max                                         !< Limit heating
1401                   ELSE
1402                      phi_hc_nd_ac = buildings(nb)%phi_c_max                                         !< Limit cooling
1403                   ENDIF
1404                ENDIF
1405       
1406                phi_hc_nd = phi_hc_nd_ac   
1407!
1408!--             Calculate the temperature with phi_hc_nd_ac (new)
1409                CALL im_calc_temperatures ( i, j, k, indoor_wall_window_temperature, &
1410                                            near_facade_temperature, phi_hc_nd )
1411
1412                theta_air_ac = theta_air
1413       
1414             ENDIF
1415!
1416!--          Update theta_m_t_prev
1417             theta_m_t_prev = theta_m_t
1418!
1419!--          Calculate the operating temperature with weighted mean of temperature of air and mean
1420!--          Will be used for thermal comfort calculations
1421             theta_op     = 0.3_wp * theta_air_ac + 0.7_wp * theta_s
1422!
1423!--          Heat flux into the wall. Value needed in urban_surface_mod to
1424!--          calculate heat transfer through wall layers towards the facade
1425             q_wall_win = h_tr_ms * ( theta_s - theta_m )                    &
1426                                    / (   facade_element_area                  &
1427                                        - window_area_per_facade )
1428!
1429!--          Transfer q_wall_win back to USM (innermost wall/window layer)
1430             surf_usm_v(l)%iwghf_eb(m)        = q_wall_win
1431             surf_usm_v(l)%iwghf_eb_window(m) = q_wall_win
1432!
1433!--          Sum up operational indoor temperature per kk-level. Further below,
1434!--          this temperature is reduced by MPI to one temperature per kk-level
1435!--          and building (processor overlapping)
1436             buildings(nb)%t_in_l(kk) = buildings(nb)%t_in_l(kk) + theta_op
1437
1438!
1439!--          Calculation of waste heat
1440!--          Anthropogenic heat output
1441             IF ( phi_hc_nd_ac > 0.0_wp )  THEN
1442                heating_on = 1
1443                cooling_on = 0
1444             ELSE
1445                heating_on = 0
1446                cooling_on = 1
1447             ENDIF
1448
1449             q_waste_heat = (phi_hc_nd * (params_waste_heat_h * heating_on + params_waste_heat_c * cooling_on))!< [W/GebÀudemodell] , observe the directional convention in PALM!
1450             surf_usm_v(l)%waste_heat(m) = q_waste_heat
1451
1452          ENDDO !< Vertical surfaces loop
1453
1454       ENDIF !< buildings(nb)%on_pe
1455    ENDDO !< buildings loop
1456
1457!
1458!-- Determine the mean building temperature.
1459    DO  nb = 1, num_build
1460!
1461!--    Allocate dummy array used for summing-up facade elements.
1462!--    Please note, dummy arguments are necessary as building-date type
1463!--    arrays are not necessarily allocated on all PEs.
1464       ALLOCATE( t_in_l_send(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
1465       ALLOCATE( t_in_recv(buildings(nb)%kb_min:buildings(nb)%kb_max) )
1466       t_in_l_send = 0.0_wp
1467       t_in_recv   = 0.0_wp
1468
1469       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
1470          t_in_l_send = buildings(nb)%t_in_l
1471       ENDIF
1472
1473#if defined( __parallel )
1474       CALL MPI_ALLREDUCE( t_in_l_send,                                        &
1475                           t_in_recv,                                          &
1476                           buildings(nb)%kb_max - buildings(nb)%kb_min + 1,    &
1477                           MPI_REAL,                                           &
1478                           MPI_SUM,                                            &
1479                           comm2d,                                             &
1480                           ierr )
1481
1482       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%t_in ) )                                  &
1483           buildings(nb)%t_in = t_in_recv
1484#else
1485       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%t_in ) )                                  &
1486          buildings(nb)%t_in = buildings(nb)%t_in_l
1487#endif
1488       IF ( ALLOCATED( buildings(nb)%t_in ) )                                  &
1489          buildings(nb)%t_in =   buildings(nb)%t_in /                          &
1490                               ( buildings(nb)%num_facade_h +                  &
1491                                 buildings(nb)%num_facade_v )
1492!
1493!--    Deallocate dummy arrays
1494       DEALLOCATE( t_in_l_send )
1495       DEALLOCATE( t_in_recv )
1496
1497    ENDDO
1498
1499
1500 END SUBROUTINE im_main_heatcool
1501
1502!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1503! Description:
1504!-------------
1505!> Check data output for plant canopy model
1506!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1507 SUBROUTINE im_check_data_output( var, unit )
1508       
1509    IMPLICIT NONE
1510   
1511    CHARACTER (LEN=*) ::  unit   !<
1512    CHARACTER (LEN=*) ::  var    !<
1513       
1514    SELECT CASE ( TRIM( var ) )
1515   
1516   
1517        CASE ( 'im_hf_roof')
1518           unit = 'W m-2'
1519       
1520        CASE ( 'im_hf_wall_win' )
1521           unit = 'W m-2'
1522           
1523        CASE ( 'im_hf_wall_win_waste' )
1524           unit = 'W m-2'
1525           
1526        CASE ( 'im_hf_roof_waste' )
1527           unit = 'W m-2'
1528       
1529        CASE ( 'im_t_indoor' )
1530           unit = 'K'
1531       
1532        CASE DEFAULT
1533           unit = 'illegal'
1534           
1535    END SELECT
1536   
1537 END SUBROUTINE
1538
1539
1540!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1541! Description:
1542!-------------
1543!> Check parameters routine for plant canopy model
1544!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1545 SUBROUTINE im_check_parameters
1546
1547!!!!   USE control_parameters,
1548!!!!       ONLY: message_string
1549       
1550   IMPLICIT NONE
1551   
1552 END SUBROUTINE im_check_parameters
1553
1554!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1555! Description:
1556!-------------
1557!> Subroutine defining appropriate grid for netcdf variables.
1558!> It is called from subroutine netcdf.
1559!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1560 SUBROUTINE im_define_netcdf_grid( var, found, grid_x, grid_y, grid_z )
1561
1562   IMPLICIT NONE
1563   
1564   CHARACTER (LEN=*), INTENT(IN)  ::  var
1565   LOGICAL, INTENT(OUT)           ::  found
1566   CHARACTER (LEN=*), INTENT(OUT) ::  grid_x
1567   CHARACTER (LEN=*), INTENT(OUT) ::  grid_y
1568   CHARACTER (LEN=*), INTENT(OUT) ::  grid_z
1569   
1570   found   = .TRUE.
1571   
1572!
1573!-- Check for the grid
1574    SELECT CASE ( TRIM( var ) )
1575
1576       CASE ( 'im_hf_roof', 'im_hf_roof_waste' )
1577          grid_x = 'x'
1578          grid_y = 'y'
1579          grid_z = 'zw'
1580!
1581!--    Heat fluxes at vertical walls are actually defined on stagged grid, i.e. xu, yv.
1582       CASE ( 'im_hf_wall_win', 'im_hf_wall_win_waste' )
1583          grid_x = 'x'
1584          grid_y = 'y'
1585          grid_z = 'zu'
1586         
1587       CASE ( 'im_t_indoor' )
1588          grid_x = 'x'
1589          grid_y = 'y'
1590          grid_z = 'zw'
1591         
1592       CASE DEFAULT
1593          found  = .FALSE.
1594          grid_x = 'none'
1595          grid_y = 'none'
1596          grid_z = 'none'
1597    END SELECT
1598   
1599 END SUBROUTINE im_define_netcdf_grid
1600
1601!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1602! Description:
1603! ------------
1604!> Subroutine defining 3D output variables
1605!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1606 SUBROUTINE im_data_output_3d( av, variable, found, local_pf, fill_value,      &
1607                               nzb_do, nzt_do )
1608
1609   USE indices
1610   
1611   USE kinds
1612         
1613   IMPLICIT NONE
1614   
1615    CHARACTER (LEN=*) ::  variable !<
1616
1617    INTEGER(iwp) ::  av    !<
1618    INTEGER(iwp) ::  i     !<
1619    INTEGER(iwp) ::  j     !<
1620    INTEGER(iwp) ::  k     !<
1621    INTEGER(iwp) ::  l     !<
1622    INTEGER(iwp) ::  m     !<
1623    INTEGER(iwp) ::  nb    !< index of the building in the building data structure
1624    INTEGER(iwp) ::  nzb_do !< lower limit of the data output (usually 0)
1625    INTEGER(iwp) ::  nzt_do !< vertical upper limit of the data output (usually nz_do3d)
1626
1627   
1628    LOGICAL      ::  found !<
1629
1630    REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) ::  fill_value !< value for the _FillValue attribute
1631
1632    REAL(sp), DIMENSION(nxl:nxr,nys:nyn,nzb_do:nzt_do) ::  local_pf !<
1633   
1634    local_pf = fill_value
1635   
1636    found = .TRUE.
1637   
1638    SELECT CASE ( TRIM( variable ) )
1639!
1640!--     Output of indoor temperature. All grid points within the building are
1641!--     filled with values, while atmospheric grid points are set to _FillValues.
1642        CASE ( 'im_t_indoor' )
1643           IF ( av == 0 ) THEN
1644              DO  i = nxl, nxr
1645                 DO  j = nys, nyn
1646                    IF ( building_id_f%var(j,i) /= building_id_f%fill )  THEN
1647!
1648!--                    Determine index of the building within the building data structure.
1649                       nb = MINLOC( ABS( buildings(:)%id - building_id_f%var(j,i) ),   &
1650                                    DIM = 1 )
1651                       IF ( buildings(nb)%on_pe )  THEN
1652!
1653!--                       Write mean building temperature onto output array. Please note,
1654!--                       in contrast to many other loops in the output, the vertical
1655!--                       bounds are determined by the lowest and hightest vertical index
1656!--                       occupied by the building.
1657                          DO  k = buildings(nb)%kb_min, buildings(nb)%kb_max
1658                             local_pf(i,j,k) = buildings(nb)%t_in(k)
1659                          ENDDO
1660                       ENDIF
1661                    ENDIF
1662                 ENDDO
1663              ENDDO
1664           ENDIF 
1665
1666        CASE ( 'im_hf_roof' )
1667           IF ( av == 0 ) THEN
1668              DO  m = 1, surf_usm_h%ns
1669                  i = surf_usm_h%i(m) !+ surf_usm_h%ioff
1670                  j = surf_usm_h%j(m) !+ surf_usm_h%joff
1671                  k = surf_usm_h%k(m) !+ surf_usm_h%koff
1672                  local_pf(i,j,k) = surf_usm_h%iwghf_eb(m)
1673              ENDDO
1674           ENDIF
1675   
1676        CASE ( 'im_hf_roof_waste' )
1677           IF ( av == 0 ) THEN
1678              DO m = 1, surf_usm_h%ns
1679                 i = surf_usm_h%i(m) !+ surf_usm_h%ioff
1680                 j = surf_usm_h%j(m) !+ surf_usm_h%joff
1681                 k = surf_usm_h%k(m) !+ surf_usm_h%koff
1682                 local_pf(i,j,k) = surf_usm_h%waste_heat(m)
1683              ENDDO
1684           ENDIF                     
1685       
1686       CASE ( 'im_hf_wall_win' )
1687           IF ( av == 0 ) THEN
1688              DO l = 0, 3
1689                 DO m = 1, surf_usm_v(l)%ns
1690                    i = surf_usm_v(l)%i(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%ioff
1691                    j = surf_usm_v(l)%j(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%joff
1692                    k = surf_usm_v(l)%k(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%koff
1693                    local_pf(i,j,k) = surf_usm_v(l)%iwghf_eb(m)
1694                 ENDDO
1695              ENDDO
1696           ENDIF
1697           
1698        CASE ( 'im_hf_wall_win_waste' )
1699           IF ( av == 0 ) THEN
1700              DO l = 0, 3
1701                 DO m = 1, surf_usm_v(l)%ns
1702                    i = surf_usm_v(l)%i(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%ioff
1703                    j = surf_usm_v(l)%j(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%joff
1704                    k = surf_usm_v(l)%k(m) !+ surf_usm_v(l)%koff
1705                    local_pf(i,j,k) =  surf_usm_v(l)%waste_heat(m) 
1706                 ENDDO
1707              ENDDO
1708           ENDIF     
1709   
1710        CASE DEFAULT
1711           found = .FALSE.
1712           
1713    END SELECT   
1714
1715 END SUBROUTINE im_data_output_3d         
1716!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1717! Description:
1718! ------------
1719!> Parin for &indoor_parameters for indoor model
1720!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
1721 SUBROUTINE im_parin
1722   
1723    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
1724        ONLY:  indoor_model
1725   
1726    IMPLICIT NONE
1727
1728    CHARACTER (LEN=80) ::  line  !< string containing current line of file PARIN
1729
1730    NAMELIST /indoor_parameters/  dt_indoor, initial_indoor_temperature
1731
1732!
1733!-- Try to find indoor model package
1734    REWIND ( 11 )
1735    line = ' '
1736    DO   WHILE ( INDEX( line, '&indoor_parameters' ) == 0 )
1737       READ ( 11, '(A)', END=10 )  line
1738    ENDDO
1739    BACKSPACE ( 11 )
1740
1741!
1742!-- Read user-defined namelist
1743    READ ( 11, indoor_parameters )
1744!
1745!-- Set flag that indicates that the indoor model is switched on
1746    indoor_model = .TRUE.
1747
1748!
1749!--    Activate spinup (maybe later
1750!        IF ( spinup_time > 0.0_wp )  THEN
1751!           coupling_start_time = spinup_time
1752!           end_time = end_time + spinup_time
1753!           IF ( spinup_pt_mean == 9999999.9_wp )  THEN
1754!              spinup_pt_mean = pt_surface
1755!           ENDIF
1756!           spinup = .TRUE.
1757!        ENDIF
1758
1759 10 CONTINUE
1760   
1761 END SUBROUTINE im_parin
1762
1763
1764END MODULE indoor_model_mod
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