[3274] | 1 | !> @file basic_constants_and_equations_mod.f90 |
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| 2 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 3 | ! This file is part of the PALM model system. |
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| 4 | ! |
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| 5 | ! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the |
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| 6 | ! terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software |
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| 7 | ! Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later |
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| 8 | ! version. |
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| 9 | ! |
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| 10 | ! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY |
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| 11 | ! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR |
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| 12 | ! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. |
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| 13 | ! |
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| 14 | ! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with |
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| 15 | ! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. |
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| 16 | ! |
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[4360] | 17 | ! Copyright 1997-2020 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover |
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[3274] | 18 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 19 | ! |
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| 20 | ! Current revisions: |
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| 21 | ! ----------------- |
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| 22 | ! |
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| 23 | ! |
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| 24 | ! Former revisions: |
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| 25 | ! ----------------- |
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| 26 | ! $Id: basic_constants_and_equations_mod.f90 4360 2020-01-07 11:25:50Z suehring $ |
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[4182] | 27 | ! Corrected "Former revisions" section |
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| 28 | ! |
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| 29 | ! 4088 2019-07-11 13:57:56Z Giersch |
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[4088] | 30 | ! Comment of barometric formula improved, function for ideal gas law revised |
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| 31 | ! |
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| 32 | ! 4084 2019-07-10 17:09:11Z knoop |
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[4084] | 33 | ! Changed precomputed fractions to be variable based |
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| 34 | ! |
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| 35 | ! 4055 2019-06-27 09:47:29Z suehring |
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[4055] | 36 | ! Added rgas_univ (universal gas constant) (E.C. Chan) |
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| 37 | ! |
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| 38 | ! |
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| 39 | ! 3655 2019-01-07 16:51:22Z knoop |
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[3634] | 40 | ! OpenACC port for SPEC |
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[4182] | 41 | ! 3361 2018-10-16 20:39:37Z knoop |
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| 42 | ! New module (introduced with modularization of bulk cloud physics model) |
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| 43 | ! |
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[3634] | 44 | ! |
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[3274] | 45 | ! |
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[4182] | 46 | ! |
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[3274] | 47 | ! Description: |
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| 48 | ! ------------ |
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| 49 | !> This module contains all basic (physical) constants |
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| 50 | !> and |
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| 51 | !> functions for the calculation of diagnostic quantities. |
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| 52 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 53 | MODULE basic_constants_and_equations_mod |
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| 54 | |
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| 55 | |
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| 56 | USE kinds |
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| 57 | |
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| 58 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 59 | |
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| 60 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: c_p = 1005.0_wp !< heat capacity of dry air (J kg-1 K-1) |
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[3449] | 61 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: degc_to_k = 273.15_wp !< temperature (in K) of 0 deg C (K) |
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[3274] | 62 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: g = 9.81_wp !< gravitational acceleration (m s-2) |
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| 63 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: kappa = 0.4_wp !< von Karman constant |
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| 64 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: l_m = 0.33E+06_wp !< latent heat of water melting (J kg-1) |
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| 65 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: l_v = 2.5E+06_wp !< latent heat of water vaporization (J kg-1) |
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| 66 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: l_s = l_m + l_v !< latent heat of water sublimation (J kg-1) |
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| 67 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: molecular_weight_of_nacl = 0.05844_wp !< mol. m. NaCl (kg mol-1) |
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| 68 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: molecular_weight_of_c3h4o4 = 0.10406_wp !< mol. m. malonic acid (kg mol-1) |
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| 69 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: molecular_weight_of_nh4no3 = 0.08004_wp !< mol. m. ammonium sulfate (kg mol-1) |
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| 70 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: molecular_weight_of_water = 0.01801528_wp !< mol. m. H2O (kg mol-1) |
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[3449] | 71 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: pi = 3.141592654_wp !< PI |
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[3634] | 72 | !$ACC DECLARE COPYIN(pi) |
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[4055] | 73 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rgas_univ = 8.31446261815324_wp !< universal gas constant (J K-1 mol-1) |
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[3274] | 74 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rho_l = 1.0E3_wp !< density of water (kg m-3) |
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| 75 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rho_nacl = 2165.0_wp !< density of NaCl (kg m-3) |
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| 76 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rho_c3h4o4 = 1600.0_wp !< density of malonic acid (kg m-3) |
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| 77 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rho_nh4no3 = 1720.0_wp !< density of ammonium sulfate (kg m-3) |
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| 78 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: r_d = 287.0_wp !< sp. gas const. dry air (J kg-1 K-1) |
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| 79 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: r_v = 461.51_wp !< sp. gas const. water vapor (J kg-1 K-1) |
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[3449] | 80 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: sigma_sb = 5.67037E-08_wp !< Stefan-Boltzmann constant |
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[3274] | 81 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: solar_constant = 1368.0_wp !< solar constant at top of atmosphere |
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| 82 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: vanthoff_nacl = 2.0_wp !< van't Hoff factor for NaCl |
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| 83 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: vanthoff_c3h4o4 = 1.37_wp !< van't Hoff factor for malonic acid |
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| 84 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: vanthoff_nh4no3 = 2.31_wp !< van't Hoff factor for ammonium sulfate |
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| 85 | |
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| 86 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: p_0 = 100000.0_wp !< standard pressure reference state |
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| 87 | |
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| 88 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: g_d_cp = g / c_p !< precomputed g / c_p |
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| 89 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: lv_d_cp = l_v / c_p !< precomputed l_v / c_p |
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| 90 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: lv_d_rd = l_v / r_d !< precomputed l_v / r_d |
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[4084] | 91 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rd_d_rv = r_d / r_v !< precomputed r_d / r_v |
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| 92 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: rd_d_cp = r_d / c_p !< precomputed r_d / c_p |
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| 93 | REAL(wp), PARAMETER :: cp_d_rd = c_p / r_d !< precomputed c_p / r_d |
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[3274] | 94 | |
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| 95 | REAL(wp) :: molecular_weight_of_solute = molecular_weight_of_nacl !< mol. m. NaCl (kg mol-1) |
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| 96 | REAL(wp) :: rho_s = rho_nacl !< density of NaCl (kg m-3) |
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| 97 | REAL(wp) :: vanthoff = vanthoff_nacl !< van't Hoff factor for NaCl |
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| 98 | |
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| 99 | |
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| 100 | SAVE |
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| 101 | |
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| 102 | PRIVATE magnus_0d, & |
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| 103 | magnus_1d, & |
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| 104 | ideal_gas_law_rho_0d, & |
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| 105 | ideal_gas_law_rho_1d, & |
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| 106 | ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d, & |
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| 107 | ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d, & |
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| 108 | exner_function_0d, & |
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| 109 | exner_function_1d, & |
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| 110 | exner_function_invers_0d, & |
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| 111 | exner_function_invers_1d, & |
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| 112 | barometric_formula_0d, & |
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| 113 | barometric_formula_1d |
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| 114 | |
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| 115 | INTERFACE magnus |
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| 116 | MODULE PROCEDURE magnus_0d |
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| 117 | MODULE PROCEDURE magnus_1d |
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| 118 | END INTERFACE magnus |
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| 119 | |
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| 120 | INTERFACE ideal_gas_law_rho |
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| 121 | MODULE PROCEDURE ideal_gas_law_rho_0d |
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| 122 | MODULE PROCEDURE ideal_gas_law_rho_1d |
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| 123 | END INTERFACE ideal_gas_law_rho |
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| 124 | |
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| 125 | INTERFACE ideal_gas_law_rho_pt |
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| 126 | MODULE PROCEDURE ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d |
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| 127 | MODULE PROCEDURE ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d |
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| 128 | END INTERFACE ideal_gas_law_rho_pt |
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| 129 | |
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| 130 | INTERFACE exner_function |
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| 131 | MODULE PROCEDURE exner_function_0d |
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| 132 | MODULE PROCEDURE exner_function_1d |
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| 133 | END INTERFACE exner_function |
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| 134 | |
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| 135 | INTERFACE exner_function_invers |
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| 136 | MODULE PROCEDURE exner_function_invers_0d |
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| 137 | MODULE PROCEDURE exner_function_invers_1d |
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| 138 | END INTERFACE exner_function_invers |
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| 139 | |
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| 140 | INTERFACE barometric_formula |
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| 141 | MODULE PROCEDURE barometric_formula_0d |
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| 142 | MODULE PROCEDURE barometric_formula_1d |
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| 143 | END INTERFACE barometric_formula |
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| 144 | |
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| 145 | CONTAINS |
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| 146 | |
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| 147 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 148 | ! Description: |
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| 149 | ! ------------ |
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| 150 | !> This function computes the magnus formula (Press et al., 1992). |
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| 151 | !> The magnus formula is needed to calculate the saturation vapor pressure |
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| 152 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 153 | FUNCTION magnus_0d( t ) |
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| 154 | |
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| 155 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 156 | |
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| 157 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 158 | |
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| 159 | REAL(wp) :: magnus_0d |
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| 160 | ! |
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| 161 | !-- Saturation vapor pressure for a specific temperature: |
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[3449] | 162 | magnus_0d = 611.2_wp * EXP( 17.62_wp * ( t - degc_to_k ) / & |
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[3274] | 163 | ( t - 29.65_wp ) ) |
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| 164 | |
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| 165 | END FUNCTION magnus_0d |
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| 166 | |
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| 167 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 168 | ! Description: |
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| 169 | ! ------------ |
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| 170 | !> This function computes the magnus formula (Press et al., 1992). |
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| 171 | !> The magnus formula is needed to calculate the saturation vapor pressure |
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| 172 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 173 | FUNCTION magnus_1d( t ) |
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| 174 | |
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| 175 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 176 | |
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| 177 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 178 | |
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| 179 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(t)) :: magnus_1d |
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| 180 | ! |
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| 181 | !-- Saturation vapor pressure for a specific temperature: |
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[3449] | 182 | magnus_1d = 611.2_wp * EXP( 17.62_wp * ( t - degc_to_k ) / & |
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[3274] | 183 | ( t - 29.65_wp ) ) |
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| 184 | |
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| 185 | END FUNCTION magnus_1d |
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| 186 | |
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| 187 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 188 | ! Description: |
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| 189 | ! ------------ |
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| 190 | !> Compute the ideal gas law for scalar arguments. |
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| 191 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 192 | FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_0d( p, t ) |
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| 193 | |
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| 194 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 195 | |
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| 196 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 197 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 198 | |
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| 199 | REAL(wp) :: ideal_gas_law_rho_0d |
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| 200 | ! |
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| 201 | !-- compute density according to ideal gas law: |
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| 202 | ideal_gas_law_rho_0d = p / (r_d * t) |
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| 203 | |
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| 204 | END FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_0d |
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| 205 | |
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| 206 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 207 | ! Description: |
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| 208 | ! ------------ |
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| 209 | !> Compute the ideal gas law for 1-D array arguments. |
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| 210 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 211 | FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_1d( p, t ) |
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| 212 | |
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| 213 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 214 | |
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| 215 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 216 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 217 | |
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| 218 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(p)) :: ideal_gas_law_rho_1d |
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| 219 | ! |
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| 220 | !-- compute density according to ideal gas law: |
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| 221 | ideal_gas_law_rho_1d = p / (r_d * t) |
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| 222 | |
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| 223 | END FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_1d |
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| 224 | |
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| 225 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 226 | ! Description: |
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| 227 | ! ------------ |
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| 228 | !> Compute the ideal gas law for scalar arguments. |
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| 229 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 230 | FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d( p, t ) |
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| 231 | |
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| 232 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 233 | |
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| 234 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 235 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 236 | |
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| 237 | REAL(wp) :: ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d |
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| 238 | ! |
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| 239 | !-- compute density according to ideal gas law: |
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[4088] | 240 | ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d = p / (r_d * exner_function(p) * t) |
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[3274] | 241 | |
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| 242 | END FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_0d |
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| 243 | |
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| 244 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 245 | ! Description: |
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| 246 | ! ------------ |
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| 247 | !> Compute the ideal gas law for 1-D array arguments. |
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| 248 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 249 | FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d( p, t ) |
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| 250 | |
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| 251 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 252 | |
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| 253 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 254 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: t !< temperature (K) |
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| 255 | |
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| 256 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(p)) :: ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d |
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| 257 | ! |
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| 258 | !-- compute density according to ideal gas law: |
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[4088] | 259 | ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d = p / (r_d * exner_function(p) * t) |
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[3274] | 260 | |
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| 261 | END FUNCTION ideal_gas_law_rho_pt_1d |
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| 262 | |
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| 263 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 264 | ! Description: |
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| 265 | ! ------------ |
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| 266 | !> Compute the exner function for scalar arguments. |
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| 267 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 268 | FUNCTION exner_function_0d( p ) |
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| 269 | |
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| 270 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 271 | |
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| 272 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 273 | |
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| 274 | REAL(wp) :: exner_function_0d |
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| 275 | ! |
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| 276 | !-- compute exner function: |
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| 277 | exner_function_0d = ( p / p_0 )**( rd_d_cp ) |
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| 278 | |
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| 279 | END FUNCTION exner_function_0d |
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| 280 | |
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| 281 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 282 | ! Description: |
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| 283 | ! ------------ |
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| 284 | !> Compute the exner function for 1-D array arguments. |
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| 285 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 286 | FUNCTION exner_function_1d( p ) |
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| 287 | |
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| 288 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 289 | |
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| 290 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 291 | |
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| 292 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(p)) :: exner_function_1d |
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| 293 | ! |
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| 294 | !-- compute exner function: |
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| 295 | exner_function_1d = ( p / p_0 )**( rd_d_cp ) |
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| 296 | |
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| 297 | END FUNCTION exner_function_1d |
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| 298 | |
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| 299 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 300 | ! Description: |
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| 301 | ! ------------ |
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| 302 | !> Compute the exner function for scalar arguments. |
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| 303 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 304 | FUNCTION exner_function_invers_0d( p ) |
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| 305 | |
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| 306 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 307 | |
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| 308 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 309 | |
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| 310 | REAL(wp) :: exner_function_invers_0d |
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| 311 | ! |
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| 312 | !-- compute exner function: |
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| 313 | exner_function_invers_0d = ( p_0 / p )**( rd_d_cp ) |
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| 314 | |
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| 315 | END FUNCTION exner_function_invers_0d |
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| 316 | |
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| 317 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 318 | ! Description: |
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| 319 | ! ------------ |
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| 320 | !> Compute the exner function for 1-D array arguments. |
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| 321 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 322 | FUNCTION exner_function_invers_1d( p ) |
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| 323 | |
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| 324 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 325 | |
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| 326 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: p !< pressure (Pa) |
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| 327 | |
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| 328 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(p)) :: exner_function_invers_1d |
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| 329 | ! |
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| 330 | !-- compute exner function: |
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| 331 | exner_function_invers_1d = ( p_0 / p )**( rd_d_cp ) |
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| 332 | |
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| 333 | END FUNCTION exner_function_invers_1d |
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| 334 | |
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| 335 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 336 | ! Description: |
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| 337 | ! ------------ |
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[4088] | 338 | !> Compute the barometric formula for scalar arguments. The calculation is |
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| 339 | !> based on the assumption of a polytropic atmosphere and neutral |
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| 340 | !> stratification, where the temperature lapse rate is g/cp. |
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[3274] | 341 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 342 | FUNCTION barometric_formula_0d( z, t_0, p_0) |
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| 343 | |
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| 344 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 345 | |
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| 346 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: z !< height (m) |
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| 347 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: t_0 !< temperature reference state (K) |
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| 348 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p_0 !< surface pressure (Pa) |
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| 349 | |
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| 350 | REAL(wp) :: barometric_formula_0d |
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| 351 | ! |
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| 352 | !-- compute barometric formula: |
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| 353 | barometric_formula_0d = p_0 * ( (t_0 - g_d_cp * z) / t_0 )**( cp_d_rd ) |
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| 354 | |
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| 355 | END FUNCTION barometric_formula_0d |
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| 356 | |
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| 357 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 358 | ! Description: |
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| 359 | ! ------------ |
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[4088] | 360 | !> Compute the barometric formula for 1-D array arguments. The calculation is |
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| 361 | !> based on the assumption of a polytropic atmosphere and neutral |
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| 362 | !> stratification, where the temperature lapse rate is g/cp. |
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[3274] | 363 | !------------------------------------------------------------------------------! |
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| 364 | FUNCTION barometric_formula_1d( z, t_0, p_0) |
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| 365 | |
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| 366 | IMPLICIT NONE |
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| 367 | |
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| 368 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(:) :: z !< height (m) |
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| 369 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: t_0 !< temperature reference state (K) |
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| 370 | REAL(wp), INTENT(IN) :: p_0 !< surface pressure (Pa) |
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| 371 | |
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| 372 | REAL(wp), DIMENSION(size(z)) :: barometric_formula_1d |
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| 373 | ! |
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| 374 | !-- compute barometric formula: |
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| 375 | barometric_formula_1d = p_0 * ( (t_0 - g_d_cp * z) / t_0 )**( cp_d_rd ) |
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| 376 | |
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| 377 | END FUNCTION barometric_formula_1d |
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| 378 | |
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| 379 | END MODULE basic_constants_and_equations_mod |
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