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8  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type">
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12 
13  <title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
14
15<body>
16
17
18<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
19parameters</a>, <a href="#particle_parameters">particle parameters</a>, and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
20parameters</a></h3>
21
22
23
24<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
25
26
27
28<br>
29
30
31<br>
32
33
34<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
35
36
37 <tbody>
38
39
40
41    <tr>
42
43
44
45      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
46name</b></font></td>
47
48
49 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
50
51
52
53      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
54     
55     
56      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
57
58
59 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
60
61
62 </td>
63
64
65
66      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
67
68
69
70    </tr>
71
72
73 <tr>
74
75
76 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
77
78
79
80      </td>
81
82
83 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
84
85
86 </td>
87
88
89
90      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
91
92
93 </td>
94
95
96
97      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
98all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br>
99
100
101      <br>
102
103
104This
105parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
106(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
107default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
108interval
109length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
110In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
111&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
112must hold.<br>
113
114
115      <br>
116
117
118If
119an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
120the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
121of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
122parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br>
123
124
125      <br>
126
127
128If
129an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
130will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
131restart runs, averaging intervals do not
132necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br>
133
134
135      <br>
136
137
138Parameters
139      <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
140and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
141can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
142profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
143
144
145 </td>
146
147
148 </tr>
149
150
151
152    <tr>
153
154
155 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
156     
157     
158      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
159
160
161
162      </td>
163
164
165 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
166
167
168 </td>
169
170
171
172      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
173
174
175
176interval</a><br>
177
178
179
180      </span> </td>
181
182
183 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
184     
185     
186      <p>Averaging
187interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
188local
189file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
190      </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
191(in s).&nbsp; </p>
192
193
194 
195     
196     
197      <p>If
198this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
199averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
200data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
201limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
202In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
203      </b>must
204hold.</p>
205
206
207If an interval is defined, then by default the average
208is calculated
209from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
210number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
211parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
212     
213     
214      <p>If
215an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
216be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
217runs, averaging intervals do not
218necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
219
220
221 </td>
222
223
224 </tr>
225
226
227
228    <tr>
229
230
231 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
232
233
234
235substeps</span></td>
236
237
238 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
239
240
241
242      </td>
243
244
245 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
246
247
248 </td>
249
250
251
252      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
253to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
254
255
256 <br>
257
258
259
260In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
261pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
262be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
263timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
264by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
265= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
266In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
267field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
268case and in case
269of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
270= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
271should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
272
273
274
275    </tr>
276
277
278 <tr>
279
280
281 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
282     
283     
284      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
285
286
287
288      </td>
289
290
291 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
292
293
294 </td>
295
296
297
298      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
299     
300     
301      <p><i>0.1,
3020.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
303
304
305 <i>(see right)</i></p>
306
307
308
309      </td>
310
311
312 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
313     
314     
315      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
316
317
318
319     
320     
321      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
322allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
323diffusion-criterion
324dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
325dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
326in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
327the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
328&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
329&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
330
331
332 </span></p>
333
334
335
336     
337     
338      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
339cfl_factor depends on
340the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
341
342
343 </span></p>
344
345
346 
347     
348     
349      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
350is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
351
352
353 </span></p>
354
355
356 
357     
358     
359      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
360restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
361= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
362divergence
363significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
364be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
365appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
366
367
368
369      </span></span></p>
370
371
372 <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
373scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
374= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
375
376
377
378    </tr>
379
380
381    <tr>
382
383
384 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
385     
386     
387      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
388
389
390
391      </td>
392
393
394 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
395
396
397 </td>
398
399
400
401      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
402
403
404 </td>
405
406
407
408      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
409     
410     
411      <p>Switch to
412impose random perturbations to the horizontal
413velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
414
415
416 
417     
418     
419      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
420= <i>.T.,</i> random
421perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
422certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
423etc..<br>
424
425
426 </p>
427
428
429 
430     
431     
432      <p>The temporal interval between
433these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
434the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
435and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
436and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
437In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
438and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
439the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
440and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
441A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
442determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
443distributed random number.
444After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
445Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
446solver.<br>
447
448
449 </p>
450
451
452 
453     
454     
455      <p>The random number generator to
456be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
457
458
459
460      </p>
461
462
463 
464     
465     
466      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
467developed
468(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
469perturbations
470is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
471lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
472an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
473energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
474using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
475As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
476more random perturbations are assigned<br>
477
478
479
480.&nbsp; <br>
481
482
483
484Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
485the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
486by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
487velocities. </p>
488
489
490 </td>
491
492
493 </tr>
494
495
496 <tr>
497
498
499 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
500     
501     
502      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
503
504
505
506      </td>
507
508
509 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
510      <br>
511
512
513&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
514
515
516 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
517
518
519
520      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
521     
522     
523      <p>Type of
524normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
525profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
526
527
528
529     
530     
531      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
532= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
533
534
535     
536     
537      <p>If
538vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
539local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
540parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
541the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
542certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
543a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
544profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
545are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
546temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
547then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
548accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
549then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
550is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
551
552
553 </p>
554
555
556
557     
558     
559      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
560horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
561used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
562Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
563subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
564(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
565domain).&nbsp; </p>
566
567
568 
569     
570     
571      <p>The user can choose between
572the following normalization
573quantities: <br>
574
575
576 </p>
577
578
579 
580     
581     
582      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
583
584
585 <tbody>
586
587
588 <tr>
589
590
591 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
592
593
594
595            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
596respect
597to the total surface sensible heat
598flux (k=0 ).</td>
599
600
601 </tr>
602
603
604 <tr>
605
606
607 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
608
609
610
611            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
612respect
613to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
614(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
615
616
617
618          </tr>
619
620
621 <tr>
622
623
624 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
625
626
627
628            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
629respect
630to the square of the characteristic
631temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
632as ratio of
633the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
634
635
636 </tr>
637
638
639
640          <tr>
641
642
643 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
644
645
646
647            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
648respect
649to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
650
651
652 </tr>
653
654
655
656          <tr>
657
658
659 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
660
661
662
663            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
664respect
665to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
666(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
667
668
669
670          </tr>
671
672
673 <tr>
674
675
676 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
677
678
679
680            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
681respect
682to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
683(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
684
685
686
687          </tr>
688
689
690 
691       
692       
693        </tbody> 
694     
695     
696      </table>
697
698
699 
700     
701     
702      <p>For each
703coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
704an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
705      <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
706then the
707x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
708and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
709Data
710of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
711normalized.&nbsp; </p>
712
713
714 
715     
716     
717      <p>Using a normalization
718leaves all vertical profile data on
719local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
720unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
721normalization is steered
722by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
723which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
724(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
725
726
727
728&nbsp;<br>
729
730
731
732The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
733respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
734
735
736
737      </td>
738
739
740 </tr>
741
742
743 <tr>
744
745
746 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
747     
748     
749      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
750
751
752
753      </td>
754
755
756 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
757      <br>
758
759
760&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
761
762
763 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
764
765
766
767      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
768     
769     
770      <p>Type of
771normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
772profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
773
774
775
776     
777     
778      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
779= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
780
781
782     
783     
784      <p>If
785vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
786local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
787parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
788the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
789certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
790the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
791comparability. </p>
792
793
794 
795     
796     
797      <p>The user can choose between the
798following normalization
799quantities: <br>
800
801
802 </p>
803
804
805 
806     
807     
808      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
809
810
811 <tbody>
812
813
814 <tr>
815
816
817 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
818
819
820
821            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
822respect
823to the boundary layer height
824(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
825value).</td>
826
827
828 </tr>
829
830
831 
832       
833       
834        </tbody> 
835     
836     
837      </table>
838
839
840 
841     
842     
843      <p>For
844further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
845
846
847
848      </td>
849
850
851 </tr>
852
853
854 <tr>
855
856
857 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
858     
859     
860      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
861
862
863
864      </td>
865
866
867 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
868      <br>
869
870
871&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
872
873
874 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
875
876
877 </td>
878
879
880
881      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
882     
883     
884      <p>Determines
885which vertical profiles are to be presented in
886which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
887&nbsp; </p>
888
889
890 
891     
892     
893      <p>This parameter only applies for
894&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
895= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
896
897
898     
899     
900      <p>The
901default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
902
903
904 
905     
906     
907      <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
908=&nbsp; </p>
909
910
911 
912     
913     
914      <ul>
915
916
917 
918       
919       
920        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
921u v ',</span><br>
922
923
924 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
925',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
926
927
928 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
929w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
930
931
932 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
933w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
934
935
936 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
937kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
938
939
940 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
941,</span><br>
942
943
944
94514 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
946'</span></p>
947
948
949 
950     
951     
952      </ul>
953
954
955 
956     
957     
958      <p>If plot output of
959vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
960the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
961Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
962which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
963program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
964The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
965determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
966which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
967expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
968coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
969drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
970names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
971The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
972must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
973string.&nbsp; </p>
974
975
976 
977     
978     
979      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
980
981
982 
983     
984     
985      <ul>
986
987
988
989       
990       
991        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
992' pt '</span></p>
993
994
995 
996     
997     
998      </ul>
999
1000
1001 
1002     
1003     
1004      <p>In this case the
1005plot consists of two coordinate systems
1006(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
1007velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
1008and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
1009of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
1010and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
1011(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
1012
1013
1014
1015      </p>
1016
1017
1018 
1019     
1020     
1021      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
1022depends on
1023whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
1024(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1025For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
1026then
1027the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
1028temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
1029to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
1030then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
1031but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
1032
1033
1034 </p>
1035
1036
1037
1038The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
1039with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
1040and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1041Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
1042distributed on several pages).</td>
1043
1044
1045 </tr>
1046
1047
1048 <tr>
1049
1050
1051 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1052     
1053     
1054      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
1055
1056
1057
1058      </td>
1059
1060
1061 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
1062      <br>
1063
1064
1065&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1066
1067
1068 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1069
1070
1071 </td>
1072
1073
1074
1075      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1076     
1077     
1078      <p>x-axis labels
1079of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
1080plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1081      </p>
1082
1083
1084 
1085     
1086     
1087      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1088= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1089
1090
1091     
1092     
1093      <p>The
1094default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1095
1096
1097 
1098     
1099     
1100      <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
1101=&nbsp; </p>
1102
1103
1104 
1105     
1106     
1107      <ul>
1108
1109
1110 
1111       
1112       
1113        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
1114ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1115
1116
1117 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
1118K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1119
1120
1121
1122        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
1123ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1124
1125
1126 <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
1127m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1128
1129
1130 <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
1131m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1132
1133
1134 <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
1135        <br>
1136
1137
113814 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
1139
1140
1141
1142     
1143     
1144      </ul>
1145
1146
1147 
1148     
1149     
1150      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
1151labels to vertical
1152profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
1153of vertical
1154profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
1155
1156
1157
1158The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
1159      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
1160according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
1161and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
1162
1163
1164 
1165     
1166     
1167      <p>Umlauts
1168are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
1169well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
1170each
1171character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
1172plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
1173
1174
1175
1176      </td>
1177
1178
1179 </tr>
1180
1181
1182 <tr>
1183
1184
1185 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1186     
1187     
1188      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
1189
1190
1191
1192      </td>
1193
1194
1195 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
1196
1197
1198
1199      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
1200
1201
1202
1203      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1204     
1205     
1206      <p>Type of cycle
1207to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
1208
1209
1210 
1211     
1212     
1213      <p>This
1214parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
1215the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1216perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1217It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
1218grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
1219may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
1220The
1221computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
1222however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
1223
1224
1225 </td>
1226
1227
1228
1229    </tr>
1230
1231
1232 <tr>
1233
1234
1235 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1236     
1237     
1238      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
1239
1240
1241
1242      </td>
1243
1244
1245 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
1246
1247
1248
1249      </td>
1250
1251
1252 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
1253
1254
1255
1256      </td>
1257
1258
1259 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
1260for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br>
1261
1262
1263      <br>
1264
1265
1266PALM
1267allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
1268averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
1269parameter (see below).<br>
1270
1271
1272      <br>
1273
1274
1275By default, cross section
1276data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
1277below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
1278      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
1279and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
1280Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
1281If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
1282these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1283      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1284      <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1285and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1286respectively.<br>
1287
1288
1289      <br>
1290
1291
1292The
1293filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
1294Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
1295dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
1296format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
1297"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
1298the PALM NetCDF data.<br>
1299
1300
1301      <br>
1302
1303
1304The following quantities are
1305available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br>
1306
1307
1308      <br>
1309
1310
1311     
1312     
1313      <table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1314
1315
1316        <tbody>
1317
1318
1319          <tr>
1320
1321
1322            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
1323name</span></td>
1324
1325
1326            <td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td>
1327
1328
1329            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td>
1330
1331
1332            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td>
1333
1334
1335          </tr>
1336
1337
1338          <tr>
1339
1340
1341            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td>
1342
1343
1344            <td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td>
1345
1346
1347            <td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td>
1348
1349
1350            <td></td>
1351
1352
1353          </tr>
1354
1355
1356          <tr>
1357
1358
1359            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td>
1360
1361
1362            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td>
1363
1364
1365            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1366
1367
1368            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1369is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1370= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1371
1372
1373          </tr>
1374
1375
1376          <tr>
1377
1378
1379            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td>
1380
1381
1382            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
1383pressure</td>
1384
1385
1386            <td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
1387Pa</td>
1388
1389
1390            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1391
1392
1393          </tr>
1394
1395
1396          <tr>
1397
1398
1399            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td>
1400
1401
1402            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
1403concentration</td>
1404
1405
1406            <td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td>
1407
1408
1409            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
1410advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
1411"-p particles"</td>
1412
1413
1414          </tr>
1415
1416
1417          <tr>
1418
1419
1420            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td>
1421
1422
1423            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
1424particle/droplet radius </td>
1425
1426
1427            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1428
1429
1430            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
1431advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
1432"-p particles"</td>
1433
1434
1435          </tr>
1436
1437
1438          <tr>
1439
1440
1441            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td>
1442
1443
1444            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td>
1445
1446
1447            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td>
1448
1449
1450            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1451is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
1452= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td>
1453
1454
1455          </tr>
1456
1457
1458          <tr>
1459
1460
1461            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td>
1462
1463
1464            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td>
1465
1466
1467            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td>
1468
1469
1470            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1471is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
1472= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1473
1474
1475          </tr>
1476
1477
1478          <tr>
1479
1480
1481            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td>
1482
1483
1484            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
1485temperature<br>
1486
1487
1488            </td>
1489
1490
1491            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1492
1493
1494            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1495
1496
1497          </tr>
1498
1499
1500          <tr>
1501
1502
1503            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td>
1504
1505
1506            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
1507(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td>
1508
1509
1510            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1511
1512
1513            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1514
1515
1516          </tr>
1517
1518
1519          <tr>
1520
1521
1522            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td>
1523
1524
1525            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
1526content</td>
1527
1528
1529            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1530
1531
1532            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1533= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
1534or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1535= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1536
1537
1538          </tr>
1539
1540
1541          <tr>
1542
1543
1544            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td>
1545
1546
1547            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
1548water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td>
1549
1550
1551            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1552
1553
1554            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1555= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1556
1557
1558          </tr>
1559
1560
1561          <tr>
1562
1563
1564            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td>
1565
1566
1567            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
1568water</td>
1569
1570
1571            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td>
1572
1573
1574            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1575= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1576
1577
1578          </tr>
1579
1580
1581          <tr>
1582
1583
1584            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td>
1585
1586
1587            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td>
1588
1589
1590            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1591
1592
1593            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1594= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1595
1596
1597          </tr>
1598
1599
1600          <tr>
1601
1602
1603            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td>
1604
1605
1606            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
1607content (specific humidity)</td>
1608
1609
1610            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1611
1612
1613            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1614= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1615
1616
1617          </tr>
1618
1619
1620          <tr>
1621
1622
1623            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td>
1624
1625
1626            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td>
1627
1628
1629            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td>
1630
1631
1632            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
1633= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1634
1635
1636          </tr>
1637
1638
1639          <tr>
1640
1641
1642            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td>
1643
1644
1645            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
1646the scalar</td>
1647
1648
1649            <td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td>
1650
1651
1652            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
1653= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1654
1655
1656          </tr>
1657
1658
1659          <tr>
1660
1661
1662            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td>
1663
1664
1665            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td>
1666
1667
1668            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td>
1669
1670
1671            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
1672= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1673
1674
1675          </tr>
1676
1677
1678          <tr>
1679
1680
1681            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td>
1682
1683
1684            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
1685characteristic temperature</td>
1686
1687
1688            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1689
1690
1691            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1692is allowed</td>
1693
1694
1695          </tr>
1696
1697
1698          <tr>
1699
1700
1701            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td>
1702
1703
1704            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
1705the velocity</td>
1706
1707
1708            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1709
1710
1711            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1712
1713
1714          </tr>
1715
1716
1717          <tr>
1718
1719
1720            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td>
1721
1722
1723            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
1724friction velocity</td>
1725
1726
1727            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1728
1729
1730            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1731is allowed</td>
1732
1733
1734          </tr>
1735
1736
1737          <tr>
1738
1739
1740            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td>
1741
1742
1743            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
1744the velocity</td>
1745
1746
1747            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1748
1749
1750            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1751
1752
1753          </tr>
1754
1755
1756          <tr>
1757
1758
1759            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td>
1760
1761
1762            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
1763temperature</td>
1764
1765
1766            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1767
1768
1769            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1770
1771
1772          </tr>
1773
1774
1775          <tr>
1776
1777
1778            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td>
1779
1780
1781            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
1782the velocity</td>
1783
1784
1785            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1786
1787
1788            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1789
1790
1791          </tr>
1792
1793
1794          <tr>
1795
1796
1797            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td>
1798
1799
1800            <td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td>
1801
1802
1803            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1804
1805
1806            <td></td>
1807
1808
1809          </tr>
1810
1811
1812       
1813       
1814        </tbody>
1815     
1816     
1817      </table>
1818
1819
1820      <br>
1821
1822
1823Multiple
1824quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
1825= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br>
1826
1827
1828      <br>
1829
1830
1831By
1832assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
1833output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
1834respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
1835appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
1836      </span>(for
1837cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
1838section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
1839along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
1840Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
1841order:<br>
1842
1843
1844      <br>
1845
1846
1847Example:<br>
1848
1849
1850      <br>
1851
1852
1853     
1854     
1855      <div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br>
1856
1857
1858      </div>
1859
1860
1861      <br>
1862
1863
1864This
1865example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
1866of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
1867averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
1868DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
1869w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
1870temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
1871temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br>
1872
1873
1874      <br>
1875
1876
1877The
1878user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
1879own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br>
1880
1881
1882      <br>
1883
1884
1885The
1886time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
1887This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
1888time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
1889be
1890declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br>
1891
1892
1893      <br>
1894
1895
1896Also,
1897an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
1898be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
1899This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
1900the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br>
1901
1902
1903      <br>
1904
1905
1906The
1907parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
1908can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
1909Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
1910      <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
1911
1912
1913     
1914     
1915      <p>With
1916the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
1917the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
1918grid point.<br>
1919
1920
1921 </p>
1922
1923
1924 Cross sections extend through the
1925total model
1926domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
1927&lt;= i
1928&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
1929&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
1930the
1931complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
1932sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
1933      <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
1934causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
1935normal to the respective section.<br>
1936
1937
1938      <br>
1939
1940
1941      <br>
1942
1943
1944      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br>
1945
1946
1947      <br>
1948
1949
1950Beside
1951the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
1952other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
1953user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
1954They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
1955for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
1956Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
1957selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
1958listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
1959quantities.<br>
1960
1961
1962      <br>
1963
1964
1965     
1966     
1967      <p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
1968on parallel machines:</p>
1969
1970
1971     
1972     
1973      <p>
1974By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
1975of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
1976are
1977constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
1978&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
1979After PALM has
1980finished, the contents of these individual
1981files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
1982using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
1983(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
1984configuration file).</p>
1985
1986
1987 
1988     
1989     
1990      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
1991collect all grid points of a
1992cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
1993one&nbsp;
1994output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
1995does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
1996gridpoints, sufficient
1997memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
1998assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
1999= <i>.F.</i>.</p>
2000
2001
2002     
2003     
2004      <p>3d volume data output is
2005always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
2006has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p>
2007
2008
2009     
2010     
2011      <p><br>
2012
2013
2014      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
2015
2016
2017
2018     
2019     
2020      <p>Beside
2021the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
2022can
2023also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
2024using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p>
2025
2026
2027     
2028     
2029      <p>By
2030assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
2031      </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
2032the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
2033Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
2034the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
2035The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
2036for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
2037= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
2038means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
2039v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
2040averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
2041creates
2042a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
2043with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
2044As third and
2045fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
2046and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
2047which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
2048and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
2049one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
2050the file
2051PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2052configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
2053PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;)
2054after PALM has
2055finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
2056can be done
2057in
2058compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
2059Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
2060      <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
20614.5.5</a>.</p>
2062
2063
2064By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
2065      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
2066the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
2067Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
2068the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
2069The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
2070for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
2071= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
2072means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
2073with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
2074temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
2075instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
2076file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
2077creates NAMELIST parameter files
2078(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
2079      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
2080      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
2081      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
2082      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
2083      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
2084which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
2085That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
2086respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
2087suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2088configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
2089PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;)
2090after PALM has
2091finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
2092respective data and
2093parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
2094file.
2095The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2096parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
2097(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
2098All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
2099file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
2100in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
21014.5.4</a>.<br>
2102
2103
2104      <br>
2105
2106
2107      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
2108
2109
2110There
2111is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
2112PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td>
2113
2114
2115 </tr>
2116
2117
2118 <tr>
2119
2120
2121 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
2122
2123
2124
2125      </td>
2126
2127
2128 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
2129
2130
2131
2132      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
2133
2134
2135
2136      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br>
2137
2138
2139      <br>
2140
2141
2142By
2143default, all data (profiles, time
2144series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
2145in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
2146Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
2147      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
2148are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br>
2149
2150
2151      <br>
2152
2153
2154The
2155numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br>
2156
2157
2158      <br>
2159
2160
2161The
2162maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the
2163parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
2164if larger files have to be created.<br>
2165
2166
2167      <br>
2168
2169
2170For historical
2171reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
2172may be assigned the following values:<br>
2173
2174
2175      <br>
2176
2177
2178     
2179     
2180      <table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2181
2182
2183        <tbody>
2184
2185
2186          <tr>
2187
2188
2189            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td>
2190
2191
2192            <td>output
2193of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
2194read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
2195            </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
2196            <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td>
2197
2198
2199          </tr>
2200
2201
2202          <tr>
2203
2204
2205            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td>
2206
2207
2208            <td>output
2209of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
2210software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2211(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td>
2212
2213
2214          </tr>
2215
2216
2217          <tr>
2218
2219
2220            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td>
2221
2222
2223            <td>output
2224of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
2225software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
2226(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td>
2227
2228
2229          </tr>
2230
2231
2232       
2233       
2234        </tbody>
2235     
2236     
2237      </table>
2238
2239
2240      <br>
2241
2242
2243Multiple
2244values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
2245i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
2246cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
2247      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
2248assigned.<br>
2249
2250
2251      <br>
2252
2253
2254      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
2255There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
2256future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
2257
2258
2259 </td>
2260
2261
2262 </tr>
2263
2264
2265 <tr>
2266
2267
2268
2269      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2270     
2271     
2272      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
2273
2274
2275
2276      </td>
2277
2278
2279 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
228010&nbsp; <br>
2281
2282
2283
2284(100)</td>
2285
2286
2287 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
2288* ' '</i></td>
2289
2290
2291 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2292     
2293     
2294      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
2295are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
2296
2297
2298 
2299     
2300     
2301      <p>By default vertical
2302profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
2303The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
2304NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
2305
2306
2307     
2308     
2309      <p>For
2310historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
2311file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
2312which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
2313parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2314for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
2315
2316
2317 </p>
2318
2319
2320
2321     
2322     
2323      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
2324profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
2325vertical
2326grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
2327profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
2328also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
2329      </p>
2330
2331
2332 
2333     
2334     
2335      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
2336profiles is
2337assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
2338Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
2339the profiles are ordered with respect to their
2340output times.</p>
2341
2342
2343     
2344     
2345      <p>Profiles can also be temporally
2346averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).&nbsp;<br>
2347
2348
2349
2350      </p>
2351
2352
2353 
2354     
2355     
2356      <p>The following list shows the values which can be
2357assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
2358The profile data is either defined on
2359u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
2360or
2361on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
2362According to this,
2363the
2364z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
2365Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
2366the lowest output
2367level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
2368u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
2369.&nbsp; <br>
2370
2371
2372 </p>
2373
2374
2375 
2376     
2377     
2378      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2379
2380
2381 <tbody>
2382
2383
2384 <tr>
2385
2386
2387 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
2388
2389
2390
2391            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2392velocity (in m/s).</td>
2393
2394
2395 </tr>
2396
2397
2398 <tr>
2399
2400
2401 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
2402
2403
2404
2405            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2406velocity (in m/s).</td>
2407
2408
2409 </tr>
2410
2411
2412 <tr>
2413
2414
2415 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
2416
2417
2418
2419            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
2420velocity (in m/s).</td>
2421
2422
2423 </tr>
2424
2425
2426 <tr>
2427
2428
2429 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
2430
2431
2432
2433            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
2434K).</td>
2435
2436
2437 </tr>
2438
2439
2440 <tr>
2441
2442
2443 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
2444
2445
2446
2447            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
2448temperature (in K).</td>
2449
2450
2451 </tr>
2452
2453
2454 <tr>
2455
2456
2457 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
2458
2459
2460
2461            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
2462temperature (in K).</td>
2463
2464
2465 </tr>
2466
2467
2468 <tr>
2469
2470
2471 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
2472
2473
2474
2475            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
2476(in kg/kg).</td>
2477
2478
2479 </tr>
2480
2481
2482 <tr>
2483
2484
2485 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
2486
2487
2488
2489            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
2490kg/kg).</td>
2491
2492
2493 </tr>
2494
2495
2496 <tr>
2497
2498
2499 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
2500
2501
2502
2503            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
2504(in kg/kg).</td>
2505
2506
2507 </tr>
2508
2509
2510 <tr>
2511
2512
2513            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td>
2514
2515
2516            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
2517
2518
2519          </tr>
2520
2521
2522          <tr>
2523
2524
2525 <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
2526
2527
2528
2529            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
2530kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
2531
2532
2533 </tr>
2534
2535
2536 <tr>
2537
2538
2539            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td>
2540
2541
2542            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td>
2543
2544
2545          </tr>
2546
2547
2548          <tr>
2549
2550
2551 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
2552
2553
2554
2555            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
2556(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2557
2558
2559
2560          </tr>
2561
2562
2563 <tr>
2564
2565
2566 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
2567
2568
2569
2570            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
2571(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2572
2573
2574
2575          </tr>
2576
2577
2578 <tr>
2579
2580
2581 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
2582
2583
2584
2585            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
2586momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
2587
2588
2589 </tr>
2590
2591
2592 <tr>
2593
2594
2595
2596            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
2597
2598
2599
2600            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
2601(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
2602
2603
2604 </tr>
2605
2606
2607 <tr>
2608
2609
2610 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
2611
2612
2613
2614            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
2615
2616
2617
2618          </tr>
2619
2620
2621 <tr>
2622
2623
2624 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
2625
2626
2627
2628            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2629subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2630
2631
2632
2633          </tr>
2634
2635
2636 <tr>
2637
2638
2639 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
2640
2641
2642
2643            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2644resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2645
2646
2647
2648          </tr>
2649
2650
2651 <tr>
2652
2653
2654 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
2655
2656
2657
2658            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
2659vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
2660(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2661
2662
2663 </tr>
2664
2665
2666
2667          <tr>
2668
2669
2670 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
2671
2672
2673
2674            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2675subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2676
2677
2678
2679          </tr>
2680
2681
2682 <tr>
2683
2684
2685 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
2686
2687
2688
2689            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2690resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2691
2692
2693
2694          </tr>
2695
2696
2697 <tr>
2698
2699
2700 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
2701
2702
2703
2704            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
2705vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
2706(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2707
2708
2709 </tr>
2710
2711
2712
2713          <tr>
2714
2715
2716 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
2717
2718
2719
2720            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2721sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
2722
2723
2724 </tr>
2725
2726
2727 <tr>
2728
2729
2730 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
2731
2732
2733
2734            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
2735sensible
2736heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
2737
2738
2739 </tr>
2740
2741
2742 <tr>
2743
2744
2745 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
2746
2747
2748
2749            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
2750heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
2751(in K
2752m/s).</td>
2753
2754
2755 </tr>
2756
2757
2758 <tr>
2759
2760
2761 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
2762
2763
2764
2765            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2766sensible heat flux using the
2767Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
2768
2769
2770 </tr>
2771
2772
2773 <tr>
2774
2775
2776 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
2777
2778
2779
2780            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
2781heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
2782(<i>w"pt"</i>
2783+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
2784
2785
2786 </tr>
2787
2788
2789 <tr>
2790
2791
2792
2793            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
2794
2795
2796
2797            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2798buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
2799
2800
2801 </tr>
2802
2803
2804 <tr>
2805
2806
2807 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
2808
2809
2810
2811            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
2812buoyancy
2813flux (in K m/s).</td>
2814
2815
2816 </tr>
2817
2818
2819 <tr>
2820
2821
2822 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
2823
2824
2825
2826            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
2827flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
2828
2829
2830 </tr>
2831
2832
2833 <tr>
2834
2835
2836 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
2837
2838
2839
2840            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2841water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2842
2843
2844 </tr>
2845
2846
2847 <tr>
2848
2849
2850 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
2851
2852
2853
2854            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
2855flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2856
2857
2858 </tr>
2859
2860
2861 <tr>
2862
2863
2864 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
2865
2866
2867
2868            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
2869(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2870
2871
2872 </tr>
2873
2874
2875 <tr>
2876
2877
2878 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
2879
2880
2881
2882            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2883latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2884
2885
2886 </tr>
2887
2888
2889 <tr>
2890
2891
2892 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
2893
2894
2895
2896            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
2897heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2898
2899
2900 </tr>
2901
2902
2903 <tr>
2904
2905
2906 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
2907
2908
2909
2910            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
2911heat
2912flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2913
2914
2915 </tr>
2916
2917
2918 <tr>
2919
2920
2921
2922            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
2923
2924
2925
2926            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2927scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
2928
2929
2930
2931          </tr>
2932
2933
2934 <tr>
2935
2936
2937 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
2938
2939
2940
2941            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
2942concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td>
2943
2944
2945 </tr>
2946
2947
2948
2949          <tr>
2950
2951
2952 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
2953
2954
2955
2956            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
2957concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
2958
2959
2960
2961          </tr>
2962
2963
2964 <tr>
2965
2966
2967            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td>
2968
2969
2970            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
2971salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
2972
2973
2974          </tr>
2975
2976
2977          <tr>
2978
2979
2980            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td>
2981
2982
2983            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td>
2984
2985
2986          </tr>
2987
2988
2989          <tr>
2990
2991
2992            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td>
2993
2994
2995            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
2996
2997
2998          </tr>
2999
3000
3001          <tr>
3002
3003
3004 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
3005
3006
3007
3008            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
3009perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
3010
3011
3012 </tr>
3013
3014
3015 <tr>
3016
3017
3018 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
3019
3020
3021
3022            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
3023u-velocity
3024component (resolved)</td>
3025
3026
3027 </tr>
3028
3029
3030 <tr>
3031
3032
3033 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
3034
3035
3036
3037            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
3038v-velocity
3039component (resolved)</td>
3040
3041
3042 </tr>
3043
3044
3045 <tr>
3046
3047
3048 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
3049
3050
3051
3052            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
3053temperature (resolved)</td>
3054
3055
3056 </tr>
3057
3058
3059 <tr>
3060
3061
3062 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
3063
3064
3065
3066            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
3067temperature (resolved)</td>
3068
3069
3070 </tr>
3071
3072
3073 <tr>
3074
3075
3076 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
3077
3078
3079
3080            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
3081w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
3082
3083
3084 </tr>
3085
3086
3087 <tr>
3088
3089
3090 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
3091
3092
3093
3094            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
3095w-velocity
3096component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
3097= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
3098
3099
3100
3101          </tr>
3102
3103
3104 <tr>
3105
3106
3107 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
3108
3109
3110
3111            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
3112
3113
3114
3115          </tr>
3116
3117
3118 <tr>
3119
3120
3121 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
3122
3123
3124
3125            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
3126
3127
3128
3129          </tr>
3130
3131
3132 <tr>
3133
3134
3135 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
3136
3137
3138
3139            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3140shear
3141(resolved)</td>
3142
3143
3144 </tr>
3145
3146
3147 <tr>
3148
3149
3150 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
3151
3152
3153
3154            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3155turbulent transport of pressure
3156fluctuations (resolved)</td>
3157
3158
3159 </tr>
3160
3161
3162 <tr>
3163
3164
3165 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
3166
3167
3168
3169            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3170transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
3171
3172
3173 </tr>
3174
3175
3176 
3177       
3178       
3179        </tbody>
3180     
3181     
3182      </table>
3183
3184
3185 <br>
3186
3187
3188Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
3189variables can additionally be
3190output (this output is only done once
3191with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
3192later
3193times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
3194above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
3195
3196
3197 
3198     
3199     
3200      <ul>
3201
3202
3203
3204       
3205       
3206        <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
3207        <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l, #lpt, #q, #qv, #s, #sa, #vpt</i></p>
3208
3209
3210
3211     
3212     
3213      </ul>
3214
3215
3216 
3217     
3218     
3219      <p>Profile names preceded by a hash automatically imply that
3220profiles for these variables are also output at later times. It is not
3221necessary and not allowed to specify the same profile name with and
3222without hash simultaneously(this would lead to an NetCDF error). </p>
3223      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
3224the user or
3225have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>
3226
3227
3228The
3229user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
3230own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br>
3231
3232
3233      <br>
3234
3235
3236In case
3237of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
3238PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
3239which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
3240Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
3241using these two files. The
3242plot layout is
3243steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
3244are determined by
3245a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
3246      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
3247      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
3248      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
3249etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
3250input
3251file. <br>
3252
3253
3254      <br>
3255
3256
3257Further details about plotting vertical
3258profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
3259be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
32604.5.2</a></td>
3261
3262
3263 </tr>
3264
3265
3266 <tr>
3267
3268
3269 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3270     
3271     
3272      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
3273      <br>
3274
3275
3276 <b>_each_pe</b></p>
3277
3278
3279 </td>
3280
3281
3282 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3283
3284
3285 </td>
3286
3287
3288 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
3289
3290
3291 </td>
3292
3293
3294
3295      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
3296data by one or
3297all processors.&nbsp; 
3298     
3299     
3300      <p>In runs with several processors, by
3301default, each processor
3302outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
3303file. After PALM
3304has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
3305file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
3306the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
3307
3308
3309
3310     
3311     
3312      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
3313= <i>.F.,</i>
3314the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
3315into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
3316have to be
3317called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
3318gridpoints, sufficient
3319memory is required on PE0. </p>
3320
3321
3322 </td>
3323
3324
3325 </tr>
3326
3327
3328
3329    <tr>
3330
3331
3332 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3333     
3334     
3335      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
3336
3337
3338
3339_amplitude</b></p>
3340
3341
3342 </td>
3343
3344
3345 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3346
3347
3348 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
3349
3350
3351
3352      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3353     
3354     
3355      <p>Maximum
3356perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
3357imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
3358
3359
3360
3361     
3362     
3363      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
3364describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
3365field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
3366the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
3367only an
3368approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
3369
3370
3371 </td>
3372
3373
3374
3375    </tr>
3376
3377
3378 <tr>
3379
3380
3381 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3382     
3383     
3384      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
3385      <br>
3386
3387
3388 <b>_limit</b></p>
3389
3390
3391 </td>
3392
3393
3394 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3395
3396
3397 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
3398
3399
3400
3401      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3402     
3403     
3404      <p lang="en-GB">Upper
3405limit value of the perturbation energy of
3406the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
3407perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
3408      </p>
3409
3410
3411 
3412     
3413     
3414      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3415describes how to impose
3416random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
3417energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
3418of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
3419mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
3420assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
3421velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
3422must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
3423number of grid points).</span> </font> </p>
3424
3425
3426 </td>
3427
3428
3429
3430    </tr>
3431
3432
3433 <tr>
3434
3435
3436 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3437     
3438     
3439      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
3440
3441
3442
3443      </td>
3444
3445
3446 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3447
3448
3449
3450      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>
3451
3452
3453zu(nz*2/3)<br>
3454
3455
3456see right</i></td>
3457
3458
3459
3460      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3461     
3462     
3463      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
3464limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
3465imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
3466      </font></font> </p>
3467
3468
3469 
3470     
3471     
3472      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
3473parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
3474&lt;= zu(</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-2</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
3475&lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a>
3476      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must
3477also hold.</font></span></p>
3478
3479
3480     
3481     
3482      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz * 2 / 3) </span>(negative).</span></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
3483
3484
3485 
3486     
3487     
3488      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
3489parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3490describes how to impose
3491random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
3492      </font> </p>
3493
3494
3495 </td>
3496
3497
3498 </tr>
3499
3500
3501 <tr>
3502
3503
3504 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3505     
3506     
3507      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
3508
3509
3510
3511      </td>
3512
3513
3514 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3515
3516
3517
3518      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>
3519
3520
3521zu(nzt-3)<br>
3522
3523
3524see right</i></td>
3525
3526
3527
3528      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3529     
3530     
3531      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
3532limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
3533imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
3534      </font></font> </p>
3535
3536
3537 
3538     
3539     
3540      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
3541parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
3542&lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-2</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
3543Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a>
3544      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;=
3545      <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
3546must also hold.</font></span></p>
3547
3548
3549      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nzt - 3</span>)</span></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;"><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>(negative)</span></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">.</span></span>
3550     
3551     
3552      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
3553parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3554describes how to impose
3555random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
3556      </font> </p>
3557
3558
3559 </td>
3560
3561
3562 </tr>
3563
3564
3565 <tr>
3566
3567
3568 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3569     
3570     
3571      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
3572
3573
3574
3575      </td>
3576
3577
3578 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3579
3580
3581 </td>
3582
3583
3584
3585      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3586
3587
3588 </td>
3589
3590
3591
3592      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3593     
3594     
3595      <p>Output of 2d
3596cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
3597
3598
3599 
3600     
3601     
3602      <p>The
3603temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
3604are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
3605and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
3606By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
3607an additional output
3608will be made at the
3609beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
3610starting times of restart runs).</p>
3611
3612
3613 </td>
3614
3615
3616 </tr>
3617
3618
3619 <tr>
3620
3621
3622
3623      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3624     
3625     
3626      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
3627
3628
3629
3630      </td>
3631
3632
3633 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3634
3635
3636 </td>
3637
3638
3639
3640      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3641
3642
3643 </td>
3644
3645
3646
3647      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
3648at the beginning
3649of a run.<br>
3650
3651
3652      <br>
3653
3654
3655The temporal intervals of output times of
36563d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
3657is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
3658By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
3659an additional output
3660will be made at the
3661beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
3662starting times of restart runs).</td>
3663
3664
3665 </tr>
3666
3667
3668 <tr>
3669
3670
3671 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3672     
3673     
3674      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
3675
3676
3677
3678      </td>
3679
3680
3681 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3682
3683
3684 </td>
3685
3686
3687
3688      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3689
3690
3691 </td>
3692
3693
3694
3695      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3696     
3697     
3698      <p>Output of data
3699for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
3700
3701
3702 
3703     
3704     
3705      <p>This
3706parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3707= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
3708
3709
3710     
3711     
3712      <p>Output
3713of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
3714(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
3715reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
3716form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
3717= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
3718assigned. This
3719yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
3720parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_precision">do3d_precision</a>
3721can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
3722each quantity.<br>
3723
3724
3725 </p>
3726
3727
3728 
3729     
3730     
3731      <p>So far compressed data
3732output is only possible for Cray-T3E
3733machines. Additional information for
3734handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
37354.5.6</a>.</p>
3736
3737
3738 </td>
3739
3740
3741 </tr>
3742
3743
3744 <tr>
3745
3746
3747 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3748     
3749     
3750      <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
3751
3752
3753
3754      </td>
3755
3756
3757 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
37587&nbsp; <br>
3759
3760
3761
3762&nbsp; (100)</td>
3763
3764
3765 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see
3766right<br>
3767
3768
3769 </td>
3770
3771
3772 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3773     
3774     
3775      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
3776output.&nbsp; </p>
3777
3778
3779 
3780     
3781     
3782      <p>This parameter only applies for
3783&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3784= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
3785
3786
3787     
3788     
3789      <p>In
3790case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
3791(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
3792this parameter determines the number of significant digits
3793which are to be output.<br>
3794
3795
3796 </p>
3797
3798
3799 
3800     
3801     
3802      <p>Fewer digits
3803clearly reduce the amount
3804of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
3805quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
3806name&gt;&lt;number of
3807significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
3808Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
3809are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
3810are not very reasonable
3811because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
3812
3813
3814 </p>
3815
3816
3817
3818     
3819     
3820      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
3821= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
3822
3823
3824 </td>
3825
3826
3827
3828    </tr>
3829
3830
3831    <tr>
3832
3833
3834 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3835     
3836     
3837      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
3838
3839
3840
3841      </td>
3842
3843
3844 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3845
3846
3847
3848      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
3849
3850
3851
3852      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3853     
3854     
3855      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
3856step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
3857      </font></font> </p>
3858
3859
3860 
3861     
3862     
3863      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
3864      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is
3865described in
3866detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">).
3867Additionally, it may be
3868used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
3869is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
3870time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span>
3871      </font> </p>
3872
3873
3874 </td>
3875
3876
3877 </tr>
3878
3879
3880 <tr>
3881
3882
3883 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
3884
3885
3886
3887      </td>
3888
3889
3890 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
3891
3892
3893 </td>
3894
3895
3896
3897      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
3898
3899
3900 </td>
3901
3902
3903
3904      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
3905of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br>
3906
3907
3908      <br>
3909
3910
3911By
3912default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
3913are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
3914&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
3915the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
3916reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
3917average's statistics.<br>
3918
3919
3920      <br>
3921
3922
3923      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
3924variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
3925the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
3926averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
3927is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
3928MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
3929      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
3930gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
3931this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp;
3932      <br>
3933
3934
3935      <br>
3936
3937
3938      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
3939
3940
3941With
3942an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
3943      <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
3944the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
3945s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
3946larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
3947(maximum) 10 time levels.<br>
3948
3949
3950      <br>
3951
3952
3953      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
3954is allowed
3955to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
3956the last averaging
3957interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
3958has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
3959spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
3960averaging interval.<br>
3961
3962
3963      <br>
3964
3965
3966      </span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
3967be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
3968vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
3969
3970
3971 </td>
3972
3973
3974 </tr>
3975
3976
3977
3978    <tr>
3979
3980
3981 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3982     
3983     
3984      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
3985
3986
3987
3988      </td>
3989
3990
3991 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3992
3993
3994
3995      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>
3996
3997
3998averaging_<br>
3999
4000
4001input</a></span></td>
4002
4003
4004
4005      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4006     
4007     
4008      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
4009interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
4010profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
4011      </font></font> </p>
4012
4013
4014 
4015     
4016     
4017      <p>By default, data from
4018each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
4019used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
4020&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
4021the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
4022reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
4023average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
4024
4025
4026 </p>
4027
4028
4029     
4030     
4031      <p>For
4032more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p>
4033
4034
4035      </td>
4036
4037
4038
4039    </tr>
4040
4041
4042 <tr>
4043
4044
4045      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_coupling"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span></td>
4046
4047
4048      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4049
4050
4051      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
4052
4053
4054      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval for the data exchange in case of <a href="chapter_3.8.html">runs with coupled models</a> (e.g. atmosphere - ocean) (in s).<br>
4055
4056
4057      <br>
4058
4059
4060This parameter has an effect only in case of a run with coupled models. It is available starting from version 3.3a. <br>
4061
4062
4063      <br>
4064
4065
4066This parameter specifies the temporal interval at which data are
4067exchanged at the interface between coupled models (currently: interface
4068between atmosphere and ocean). If this parameter is not explicitly
4069specified in the parameter files for both coupled models, or if there
4070is an inconsistency between its values for both coupled models,
4071the&nbsp;execution will terminate and an informative error message will
4072be given.&nbsp;In order to ensure synchronous coupling throughout the simulation, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span> should be chosen larger than
4073      <a href="#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</td>
4074
4075
4076    </tr>
4077
4078
4079    <tr>
4080
4081
4082 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
4083
4084
4085
4086      </td>
4087
4088
4089 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4090
4091
4092 </td>
4093
4094
4095
4096      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
4097
4098
4099
4100      </td>
4101
4102
4103 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4104     
4105     
4106      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
4107at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
4108averaged),
4109cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
4110spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
4111
4112
4113
4114      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
4115data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
4116parameter can be used to
4117assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
4118output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
4119simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
4120which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4121time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
4122takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
4123dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
4124+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
4125+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
4126etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
4127the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
4128deviate
4129from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
4130
4131
4132      <br>
4133
4134
4135Individual temporal
4136intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
4137parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
4138and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
4139      </td>
4140
4141
4142 </tr>
4143
4144
4145 <tr>
4146
4147
4148 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
4149
4150
4151
4152      </td>
4153
4154
4155 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4156
4157
4158 </td>
4159
4160
4161
4162      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
4163&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
4164
4165
4166output</a></i>
4167      </td>
4168
4169
4170 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4171     
4172     
4173      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
4174at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
4175shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
4176
4177
4178      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
4179output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
4180parameter can be used to
4181assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
4182output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
4183simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
4184which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4185time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
4186takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
4187dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
4188+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
4189+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
4190etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
4191the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
4192deviate from
4193these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
4194
4195
4196      <br>
4197
4198
4199      </font></span>The
4200length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
4201
4202
4203
4204    </tr>
4205
4206
4207    <tr>
4208
4209
4210 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4211     
4212     
4213      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
4214
4215
4216
4217      </td>
4218
4219
4220 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4221
4222
4223
4224      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
4225
4226
4227
4228      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4229     
4230     
4231      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4232interval</font> at which random
4233perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
4234(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
4235      </p>
4236
4237
4238 
4239     
4240     
4241      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
4242describes how to impose
4243random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
4244      </font> </p>
4245
4246
4247 </td>
4248
4249
4250 </tr>
4251
4252
4253 <tr>
4254
4255
4256 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4257     
4258     
4259      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
4260
4261
4262
4263      </td>
4264
4265
4266 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4267
4268
4269
4270      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
4271&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
4272
4273
4274output</a></i></td>
4275
4276
4277
4278      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4279     
4280     
4281      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
4282interval at
4283which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
4284file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
4285or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
4286      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
4287      </font></span> </p>
4288
4289
4290 
4291     
4292     
4293      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
4294horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
4295parameter can be used to
4296assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
4297be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
4298zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4299time is the beginning
4300of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
4301takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
4302      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
4303+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
4304etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
4305profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
4306interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
4307If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
4308example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
4309the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
4310model uses a variable time step, these
4311deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
4312different for each output time.<br>
4313
4314
4315 </font></span></p>
4316
4317
4318
4319     
4320     
4321      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
4322order to
4323guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
4324      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
4325should be equal or a little bit
4326larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
4327= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
4328      </span>and 3600.0
4329seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
4330&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
4331      </p>
4332
4333
4334 
4335     
4336     
4337      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
4338profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
4339      </p>
4340
4341
4342 </td>
4343
4344
4345 </tr>
4346
4347
4348 <tr>
4349
4350
4351 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
4352
4353
4354
4355      </td>
4356
4357
4358 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4359
4360
4361 </td>
4362
4363
4364
4365      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
4366
4367
4368
4369      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4370     
4371     
4372      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4373interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
4374vertical
4375profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
4376      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
4377      </p>
4378
4379
4380 
4381     
4382     
4383      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
4384parameter can be used to
4385assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
4386time is the beginning
4387of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
4388= 1800.0,
4389then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
4390profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
4391interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
4392If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
4393example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
4394the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
4395are related to
4396the
4397example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
4398deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
4399different for each output time.<br>
4400
4401
4402 </font></span></p>
4403
4404
4405
4406     
4407     
4408      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
4409order to
4410guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
4411      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
4412should be a little bit
4413larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
4414= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
4415      </span>and 3600.0
4416seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
4417&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
4418variable time steps are used
4419(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
4420should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
4421
4422
4423
4424     
4425     
4426      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
4427and output
4428format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
4429      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
4430internally fixed. In this file
4431the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
4432adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
4433
4434
4435 </td>
4436
4437
4438 </tr>
4439
4440
4441
4442    <tr>
4443
4444
4445 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4446     
4447     
4448      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
4449
4450
4451
4452      </td>
4453
4454
4455 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4456
4457
4458
4459      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
4460
4461
4462
4463      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4464     
4465     
4466      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4467interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
4468output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
4469      </p>
4470
4471
4472 
4473     
4474     
4475      <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
4476is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
4477calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p>
4478
4479
4480     
4481     
4482      <p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4483IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
4484== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
4485
4486
4487&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4488      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4489MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
4490
4491
4492&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4493ELSE<br>
4494
4495
4496&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4497      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4498MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
4499)<br>
4500
4501
4502&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4503ENDIF</p>
4504
4505
4506     
4507     
4508      <p>This parameter can be used to
4509assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4510time is the beginning of
4511&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
45122*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
4513actual output times can
4514deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
4515Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
4516of the time series are
4517written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
4518= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p>
4519
4520
4521     
4522     
4523      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
4524value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
4525is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>
4526
4527
4528&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4529IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
4530== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
4531
4532
4533&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4534      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4535MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
4536
4537
4538&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4539ELSE<br>
4540
4541
4542&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4543      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4544MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
4545      <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
4546)<br>
4547
4548
4549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4550ENDIF<br>
4551
4552
4553      <br>
4554
4555
4556(which minimizes the number of calls of
4557routine flow_statistics).<br>
4558
4559
4560     
4561     
4562      <p>By default time series data
4563is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
4564Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
4565it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
4566format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
4567data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
4568
4569
4570The
4571file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
4572gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br>
4573
4574
4575     
4576     
4577      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
4578
4579
4580 <tbody>
4581
4582
4583 <tr>
4584
4585
4586 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
4587
4588
4589
4590            </td>
4591
4592
4593 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
4594kinetic energy of
4595the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
4596(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
4597
4598
4599
4600          </tr>
4601
4602
4603 <tr>
4604
4605
4606 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
4607
4608
4609
4610            </td>
4611
4612
4613 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
4614kinetic
4615energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
4616            </sup>(normalized
4617with respect to the total number of grid
4618points)</td>
4619
4620
4621 </tr>
4622
4623
4624 <tr>
4625
4626
4627 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
4628
4629
4630
4631            </td>
4632
4633
4634 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
4635size (in s).</td>
4636
4637
4638 </tr>
4639
4640
4641 <tr>
4642
4643
4644 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
4645
4646
4647
4648            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
4649m/s)
4650(horizontal average).</td>
4651
4652
4653 </tr>
4654
4655
4656 <tr>
4657
4658
4659 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
4660
4661
4662
4663            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
4664of
4665the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
4666
4667
4668 </tr>
4669
4670
4671 <tr>
4672
4673
4674
4675            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
4676
4677
4678
4679            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
4680scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
4681/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
4682(horizontal
4683average) (in K).</td>
4684
4685
4686 </tr>
4687
4688
4689 <tr>
4690
4691
4692 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
4693
4694
4695
4696            </td>
4697
4698
4699 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4700u-component of the
4701velocity (in m/s).</td>
4702
4703
4704 </tr>
4705
4706
4707 <tr>
4708
4709
4710 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
4711
4712
4713
4714            </td>
4715
4716
4717 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4718v-component of the
4719velocity (in m/s).</td>
4720
4721
4722 </tr>
4723
4724
4725 <tr>
4726
4727
4728 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
4729
4730
4731
4732            </td>
4733
4734
4735 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4736w-component of the
4737velocity (in m/s).</td>
4738
4739
4740 </tr>
4741
4742
4743 <tr>
4744
4745
4746 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
4747
4748
4749
4750            </td>
4751
4752
4753 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
4754of the velocity
4755field before the pressure
4756solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
4757grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
4758
4759
4760 </tr>
4761
4762
4763 <tr>
4764
4765
4766 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
4767
4768
4769
4770            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
4771velocity
4772field after the pressure
4773solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
4774grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
4775
4776
4777 </tr>
4778
4779
4780 <tr>
4781
4782
4783 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
4784
4785
4786
4787            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
4788boundary layer (horizontal average)
4789determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
4790
4791
4792
4793          </tr>
4794
4795
4796 <tr>
4797
4798
4799 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
4800
4801
4802
4803            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
4804boundary layer (horizontal average)
4805determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td>
4806
4807
4808 </tr>
4809
4810
4811 <tr>
4812
4813
4814
4815            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
4816
4817
4818
4819            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
4820heat flux near the surface (horizontal
4821average)
4822between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it
4823corresponds to
4824the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td>
4825
4826
4827 </tr>
4828
4829
4830 <tr>
4831
4832
4833 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
4834
4835
4836
4837            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
4838(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
4839m/s).</td>
4840
4841
4842 </tr>
4843
4844
4845 <tr>
4846
4847
4848 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
4849
4850
4851
4852            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
4853(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
4854
4855
4856 </tr>
4857
4858
4859 <tr>
4860
4861
4862
4863            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
4864
4865
4866
4867            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
4868the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
4869
4870
4871 </tr>
4872
4873
4874 <tr>
4875
4876
4877
4878            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
4879
4880
4881
4882            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
4883z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
4884
4885
4886 </tr>
4887
4888
4889 <tr>
4890
4891
4892
4893            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
4894
4895
4896
4897            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4898using upstream scheme along x with
4899upstream-spline advection switched on.</td>
4900
4901
4902 </tr>
4903
4904
4905 <tr>
4906
4907
4908
4909            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
4910
4911
4912
4913            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4914using upstream scheme along y with
4915upstream-spline
4916advection switched on.</td>
4917
4918
4919 </tr>
4920
4921
4922 <tr>
4923
4924
4925 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
4926
4927
4928
4929            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4930using upstream scheme along z with
4931upstream-spline
4932advection switched on.<br>
4933
4934
4935 </td>
4936
4937
4938 </tr>
4939
4940
4941 <tr>
4942
4943
4944 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
4945
4946
4947
4948            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
4949
4950
4951
4952          </tr>
4953
4954
4955 
4956       
4957       
4958        </tbody> 
4959     
4960     
4961      </table>
4962
4963
4964      <br>
4965
4966
4967Additionally, the
4968user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
4969user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
4970These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
4971this.<br>
4972
4973
4974      <br>
4975
4976
4977Time series data refers to the total
4978domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
4979However, the following time series always present the values of the
4980total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
4981      <i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
4982      <i>div_new</i>.</td>
4983
4984
4985 </tr>
4986
4987
4988 <tr>
4989
4990
4991 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4992     
4993     
4994      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
4995
4996
4997
4998      </td>
4999
5000
5001 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5002
5003
5004
5005      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5006&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5007
5008
5009output</a></i></td>
5010
5011
5012
5013      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5014     
5015     
5016      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5017interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
5018shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5019      </font> </p>
5020
5021
5022 
5023     
5024     
5025      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5026horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5027      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5028      </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
5029parameter can be used to
5030assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
5031output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
5032simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
5033which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5034time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
5035takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
5036      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
5037+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
5038+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
5039etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
5040(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5041
5042
5043
5044      </font></span></p>
5045
5046
5047 
5048     
5049     
5050      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5051has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5052the time t = 0 or at the
5053respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5054
5055
5056
5057      </td>
5058
5059
5060 </tr>
5061
5062
5063 <tr>
5064
5065
5066 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5067     
5068     
5069      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
5070
5071
5072
5073      </td>
5074
5075
5076 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5077
5078
5079
5080      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5081&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5082
5083
5084output</a></i></td>
5085
5086
5087
5088      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5089     
5090     
5091      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5092interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
5093(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5094      </font> </p>
5095
5096
5097 
5098     
5099     
5100      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5101horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5102      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5103      </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
5104this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
5105cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5106be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
5107has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
5108the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
5109+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
5110      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
5111+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
5112+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
5113can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5114
5115
5116
5117      </font></span></p>
5118
5119
5120 
5121     
5122     
5123      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5124has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5125the time t = 0 or at the
5126respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5127
5128
5129
5130      </td>
5131
5132
5133 </tr>
5134
5135
5136 <tr>
5137
5138
5139 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5140     
5141     
5142      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
5143
5144
5145
5146      </td>
5147
5148
5149 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5150
5151
5152
5153      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5154&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5155
5156
5157output</a></i></td>
5158
5159
5160
5161      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5162     
5163     
5164      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5165interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
5166(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
5167      </font> </p>
5168
5169
5170 
5171     
5172     
5173      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5174horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5175      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5176      </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
5177this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
5178cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5179be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
5180has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5181time is the beginning of
5182the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
5183+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
5184      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
5185+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
5186      </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
5187times
5188can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5189
5190
5191
5192      </font></span></p>
5193
5194
5195 
5196     
5197     
5198      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5199has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5200the time t = 0 or at the
5201respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5202
5203
5204
5205      </td>
5206
5207
5208 </tr>
5209
5210
5211 <tr>
5212
5213
5214 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5215     
5216     
5217      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
5218
5219
5220
5221      </td>
5222
5223
5224 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5225
5226
5227
5228      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5229&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5230
5231
5232output</a></i></td>
5233
5234
5235
5236      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5237     
5238     
5239      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5240interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
5241      <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
5242
5243
5244
5245     
5246     
5247      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
5248output of
52493d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
5250to assign
5251th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
5252interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5253be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
5254zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5255time is the
5256beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
5257+ dt_do3d</b>,
5258      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
5259+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
5260+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
5261deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
5262
5263
5264
5265      </font></span></p>
5266
5267
5268 
5269     
5270     
5271      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5272has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5273the time t = 0 or at the
5274respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5275
5276
5277
5278      </td>
5279
5280
5281 </tr>
5282
5283
5284 <tr>
5285
5286
5287      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td>
5288
5289
5290      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5291
5292
5293      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td>
5294
5295
5296      <td>Maximum
5297allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br>
5298
5299
5300      <br>
5301
5302
5303By default,
5304the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
5305simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
5306changed for other situations.</td>
5307
5308
5309    </tr>
5310
5311
5312    <tr>
5313
5314
5315 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5316     
5317     
5318      <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
5319
5320
5321
5322      </td>
5323
5324
5325 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5326
5327
5328
5329      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
5330
5331
5332
5333      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5334     
5335     
5336      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5337interval</font> at which a new
5338restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p>
5339
5340
5341 
5342     
5343     
5344      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
5345description
5346how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
5347does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
5348has not been set.</font></span></p>
5349
5350     
5351      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
5352and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
5353
5354
5355 </td>
5356
5357
5358 </tr>
5359
5360
5361
5362    <tr>
5363
5364
5365 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5366     
5367     
5368      <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
5369
5370
5371
5372      </td>
5373
5374
5375 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5376
5377
5378
5379      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
5380
5381
5382
5383      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5384     
5385     
5386      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5387interval</font> at which run control
5388output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5389      </font> </p>
5390
5391
5392 
5393     
5394     
5395      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
5396information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
5397output time, one line
5398with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
5399kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
5400beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
54012*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
5402etc., and always at
5403the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
5404respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
5405deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5406
5407
5408
5409      </font></span></p>
5410
5411
5412 
5413     
5414     
5415      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
5416information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
5417= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
5418
5419
5420 </td>
5421
5422
5423
5424    </tr>
5425
5426
5427 <tr>
5428
5429
5430 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5431     
5432     
5433      <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
5434
5435
5436
5437      </td>
5438
5439
5440 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5441
5442
5443
5444      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
5445
5446
5447
5448      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5449     
5450     
5451      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
5452model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5453      </font> </p>
5454
5455
5456 
5457     
5458     
5459      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
5460is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
5461starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span></p>
5462
5463     
5464      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
5465and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
5466
5467
5468 </td>
5469
5470
5471 </tr>
5472
5473
5474 <tr>
5475
5476
5477 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5478     
5479     
5480      <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
5481
5482
5483
5484      </td>
5485
5486
5487 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
5488
5489
5490
5491      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
5492
5493
5494
5495      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5496     
5497     
5498      <p>Steering of
5499header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
5500      </p>
5501
5502
5503 
5504     
5505     
5506      <p>By default, informations about the model
5507parameters in use are
5508output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
5509(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
5510file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
5511With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
5512these informations are
5513also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
5514at restart runs.</p>
5515
5516
5517 </td>
5518
5519
5520 </tr>
5521
5522
5523 <tr>
5524
5525
5526 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5527     
5528     
5529      <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
5530
5531
5532
5533      </td>
5534
5535
5536 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5537
5538
5539
5540      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
5541
5542
5543
5544      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5545     
5546     
5547      <p>Number of
5548cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
5549
5550
5551 <br>
5552
5553
5554
5555This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
5556multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
5557perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
5558The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
5559
5560
5561
5562      </p>
5563
5564
5565 <br>
5566
5567
5568By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>-
55691</i>), the
5570number of cycles
5571depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
5572and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
5573for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
5574the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
5575
5576
5577 <br>
5578
5579
5580
5581By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
5582cycles can be
5583fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
5584
5585
5586 <br>
5587
5588
5589
5590      <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
5591must
5592examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
5593regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
5594sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
5595least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
5596both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
5597and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
5598good choice, for
5599non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
5600= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
5601sufficient.</td>
5602
5603
5604 </tr>
5605
5606
5607 <tr>
5608
5609
5610 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
5611
5612
5613
5614level</b></td>
5615
5616
5617 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5618
5619
5620
5621      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
5622
5623
5624 </td>
5625
5626
5627 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
5628level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
5629
5630
5631 <br>
5632
5633
5634
5635In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
5636the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
5637the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
5638gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
5639The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
5640gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
5641It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
5642determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
5643this level.</td>
5644
5645
5646 </tr>
5647
5648
5649 <tr>
5650
5651
5652 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
5653
5654
5655
5656      </td>
5657
5658
5659 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5660
5661
5662 </td>
5663
5664
5665
5666      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
5667
5668
5669 </td>
5670
5671
5672
5673      <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files will have 64
5674bit offset format.<br>
5675
5676
5677      <br>
5678
5679
5680By
5681default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
5682GByte. Using netcdf_64bit = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
5683GByte.<br>
5684
5685
5686      <br>
5687
5688
5689The 64 bit offset format can be separately
5690switched off for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume date (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
5691      <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>)
5692using <a href="#netcdf_64bit_3d">netcdf_64bit_3d</a>.<br>
5693
5694
5695      <br>
5696
5697
5698      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>
5699
5700
5701Some
5702(PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
5703
5704
5705
5706      </td>
5707
5708
5709 </tr>
5710
5711
5712    <tr>
5713
5714
5715      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit_3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span></td>
5716
5717
5718      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
5719
5720
5721      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.T.</td>
5722
5723
5724      <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files containing 3d
5725volume data will have 64 bit offset format.<br>
5726
5727
5728      <br>
5729
5730
5731This
5732switch&nbsp;only comes into effect if <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
5733= .TRUE.. It allows to switch off separately the 64 bit offset format
5734for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume data (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
5735      <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>).</td>
5736
5737
5738    </tr>
5739
5740
5741    <tr>
5742
5743
5744
5745      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5746     
5747     
5748      <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
5749
5750
5751 </td>
5752
5753
5754
5755      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5756
5757
5758 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
5759
5760
5761
5762      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
5763level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
5764
5765
5766 <br>
5767
5768
5769
5770In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
5771the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
5772the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
5773gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
5774The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
5775gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
5776It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
5777determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
5778this level.</td>
5779
5780
5781 </tr>
5782
5783
5784 <tr>
5785
5786
5787 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5788     
5789     
5790      <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
5791
5792
5793
5794      </td>
5795
5796
5797 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5798
5799
5800
5801      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
5802
5803
5804 </td>
5805
5806
5807
5808      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5809     
5810     
5811      <p>Determines the
5812subdomain from which the normalization
5813quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
5814
5815
5816 
5817     
5818     
5819      <p>If output
5820data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
5821(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
5822is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
5823      <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
5824the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
5825the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
5826= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
5827domain. Instead
5828of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
5829subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
5830where <i>1</i>
5831&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
5832hold. These
5833quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
5834of the total domain).</p>
5835
5836
5837 </td>
5838
5839
5840 </tr>
5841
5842
5843 <tr>
5844
5845
5846 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5847     
5848     
5849      <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
5850
5851
5852
5853      </td>
5854
5855
5856 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5857
5858
5859
5860      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
5861
5862
5863
5864      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5865     
5866     
5867      <p>Number of
5868iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
5869
5870
5871 
5872     
5873     
5874      <p>This
5875parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
5876as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
5877= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
5878The number of
5879iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
5880on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
5881runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
5882point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
5883SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
5884
5885
5886
5887      </td>
5888
5889
5890 </tr>
5891
5892
5893 <tr>
5894
5895
5896 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5897     
5898     
5899      <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
5900
5901
5902
5903      </td>
5904
5905
5906 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5907
5908
5909
5910      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
5911
5912
5913
5914      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
5915volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br>
5916
5917
5918      <br>
5919
5920
5921By
5922default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
5923can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
5924(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
5925output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
5926for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
5927see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
5928
5929
5930
5931    </tr>
5932
5933
5934 <tr>
5935
5936
5937 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5938     
5939     
5940      <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
5941
5942
5943
5944      </td>
5945
5946
5947 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5948
5949
5950
5951      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
5952
5953
5954
5955      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5956     
5957     
5958      <p>Convergence
5959factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
5960
5961
5962 
5963     
5964     
5965      <p>If
5966the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
5967= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
5968this parameter
5969determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
5970&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
5971The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
5972depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
5973space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
5974appropriate test runs.</p>
5975
5976
5977 </td>
5978
5979
5980 </tr>
5981
5982
5983 <tr>
5984
5985
5986 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5987     
5988     
5989      <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
5990
5991
5992
5993      </td>
5994
5995
5996 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5997
5998
5999
6000      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
6001
6002
6003
6004      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6005     
6006     
6007      <p>Ratio of the
6008eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
6009      </p>
6010
6011
6012 
6013     
6014     
6015      <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
6016this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
6017/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
6018
6019
6020 </td>
6021
6022
6023 </tr>
6024
6025
6026 <tr>
6027
6028
6029      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="precipitation_amount_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">precipitation_amount_</span><br style="font-weight: bold;">
6030
6031
6032      <span style="font-weight: bold;">interval</span></td>
6033
6034
6035      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6036
6037
6038      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6039&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_<br>
6040
6041
6042xy</a></i></td>
6043
6044
6045      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6046     
6047     
6048      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6049interval</font> for which the precipitation amount (in mm) shall be calculated and output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
6050      </font> </p>
6051
6052
6053 
6054     
6055     
6056      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">This
6057parameter requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>The interval must be smaller or equal than the output interval for 2d horizontal cross sections given by </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_do2d_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). The output of the precipitation amount also requires setting of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> =<span style="font-style: italic;"> 'pra*'</span>.<br>
6058
6059
6060
6061      </font></span></p>
6062
6063
6064 <span lang="en-GB"></span></td>
6065
6066
6067    </tr>
6068
6069
6070    <tr>
6071
6072
6073
6074      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6075     
6076     
6077      <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
6078
6079
6080
6081      </td>
6082
6083
6084 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
6085
6086
6087
6088      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
6089
6090
6091
6092      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6093     
6094     
6095      <p>Number of
6096coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
6097in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
6098      </p>
6099
6100
6101 
6102     
6103     
6104      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
6105= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
6106
6107
6108     
6109     
6110      <p>It
6111determines the layout of plots of
6112horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
6113when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
6114Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
6115plotted on one page are
6116determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
6117      <b>profile_columns</b>
6118determines how many panels are to be
6119arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
6120respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
6121According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
6122the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
6123then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
6124&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
6125the remaining
6126panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
6127then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
6128If
6129row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
6130is reduced automatically.</p>
6131
6132
6133 </td>
6134
6135
6136 </tr>
6137
6138
6139 <tr>
6140
6141
6142
6143      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6144     
6145     
6146      <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
6147
6148
6149
6150      </td>
6151
6152
6153 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
6154
6155
6156
6157      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
6158
6159
6160
6161      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6162     
6163     
6164      <p>Number of rows
6165of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
6166by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
6167      </p>
6168
6169
6170 
6171     
6172     
6173      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
6174= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
6175
6176
6177     
6178     
6179      <p>It
6180determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
6181profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
6182
6183
6184
6185      </td>
6186
6187
6188 </tr>
6189
6190
6191 <tr>
6192
6193
6194 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6195     
6196     
6197      <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
6198
6199
6200
6201      </td>
6202
6203
6204 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
6205
6206
6207
6208      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
6209
6210
6211
6212      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6213     
6214     
6215      <p>Scheme to be
6216used to solve the Poisson equation for the
6217perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
6218
6219
6220 <br>
6221
6222
6223
6224The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
6225
6226
6227 
6228     
6229     
6230      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
6231
6232
6233 <tbody>
6234
6235
6236 <tr>
6237
6238
6239 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
6240
6241
6242
6243            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
6244along x and y, solution of a
6245tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
6246FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
6247used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
6248
6249
6250
6251This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
6252Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
6253
6254
6255
6256          </tr>
6257
6258
6259 <tr>
6260
6261
6262 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6263           
6264           
6265            <p><i>poisfft_</i>
6266            <br>
6267
6268
6269 <i>hybrid</i></p>
6270
6271
6272
6273            </td>
6274
6275
6276 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
6277method using FFT
6278along x and y, solution of a
6279tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
6280FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
6281used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
6282
6283
6284
6285This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
6286Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
6287
6288
6289
6290          </tr>
6291
6292
6293 <tr>
6294
6295
6296 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
6297
6298
6299
6300            <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6301           
6302           
6303            <p>Multi-grid
6304scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
6305and
6306w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
6307are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
6308steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
6309the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
6310and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
6311to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
6312can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
6313            <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
6314The
6315smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
6316case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
6317
6318
6319
6320            <br>
6321
6322
6323If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
6324is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
6325multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
6326the number of
6327grid points in the three directions
6328of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
6329where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
6330            </i>the
6331multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
6332its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
6333affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
6334always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
6335for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
6336because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
6337parameter.
6338           
6339           
6340            <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
6341points of
6342the
6343subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
6344of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
6345
6346
6347
6348With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
6349data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
6350for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
6351be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
6352
6353
6354
6355           
6356           
6357            <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
6358identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
6359
6360
6361
6362            </td>
6363
6364
6365 </tr>
6366
6367
6368 <tr>
6369
6370
6371 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
6372
6373
6374
6375            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
6376relaxation
6377method (SOR). The convergence of
6378this
6379iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
6380            <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
6381and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
6382            <br>
6383
6384
6385Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
6386scheme
6387needs substantially
6388more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
6389errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
6390
6391
6392 </tr>
6393
6394
6395
6396       
6397       
6398        </tbody> 
6399     
6400     
6401      </table>
6402
6403
6404 <br>
6405
6406
6407In order to speed-up
6408performance, the Poisson equation is by default
6409only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
6410at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
6411      </td>
6412
6413
6414 </tr>
6415
6416
6417 <tr>
6418
6419
6420 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6421     
6422     
6423      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
6424      <br>
6425
6426
6427 <b>_factor</b></p>
6428
6429
6430 </td>
6431
6432
6433 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6434
6435
6436 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
6437
6438
6439
6440      <i>0.01</i></td>
6441
6442
6443 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6444     
6445     
6446      <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
6447
6448
6449 
6450     
6451     
6452      <p>A
6453so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
6454variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
6455If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
6456respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
6457damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6458is assigned to.
6459The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
6460and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
6461maximum value
6462at
6463the top (ocean: bottom) boundary. </p>
6464
6465
6466 
6467     
6468     
6469      <p>This method
6470effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
6471which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
6472reflected&nbsp;at the top (ocean: bottom)
6473boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
6474switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
6475or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
6476Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6477= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
6478off.&nbsp; </p>
6479
6480
6481 
6482     
6483     
6484      <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
6485hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
6486&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6487&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
6488numerical instabilities.</p>
6489
6490
6491 </td>
6492
6493
6494 </tr>
6495
6496
6497 <tr>
6498
6499
6500
6501      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6502     
6503     
6504      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
6505      <br>
6506
6507
6508 <b>_height</b></p>
6509
6510
6511 </td>
6512
6513
6514 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6515
6516
6517 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6518     
6519     
6520      <p><i>2/3 *</i>
6521      <br>
6522
6523
6524      <span style="font-style: italic;">zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
6525      <p> (ocean:<i style="font-style: italic;">&nbsp;</i><i>2/3 *</i>
6526      <i style="font-style: italic;"> zu(0)</i>)</p>
6527
6528
6529
6530      </td>
6531
6532
6533 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6534     
6535     
6536      <p>Height above (ocean: below) which the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p>
6537
6538
6539 
6540     
6541     
6542      <p>With
6543Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
6544this parameter determines the range where damping is applied. By
6545default, Rayleigh damping will be applied in the upper (ocean: lower) third of the
6546model
6547domain.</p>
6548
6549
6550 </td>
6551
6552
6553 </tr>
6554
6555
6556 <tr>
6557
6558
6559 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6560     
6561     
6562      <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
6563
6564
6565
6566      </td>
6567
6568
6569 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6570
6571
6572
6573      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
6574
6575
6576
6577      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6578     
6579     
6580      <p>Largest
6581residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
6582      </p>
6583
6584
6585 
6586     
6587     
6588      <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the
6589multi-grid
6590scheme (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
6591The assigned cycle (v- or w-cycle, see <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
6592is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If
6593this
6594is not the case after 1000 cycles, the PALM aborts with a corresponding
6595error message.</p>
6596
6597
6598 
6599     
6600     
6601      <p>The reciprocal value of this
6602parameter can be interpreted as
6603a factor by the divergence of the provisional
6604velocity field is approximately reduced after the multi-grid scheme has
6605been applied (thus the default value causes a reduction of the
6606divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p>
6607
6608
6609 </td>
6610
6611
6612
6613    </tr>
6614
6615
6616 <tr>
6617
6618
6619 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6620     
6621     
6622      <p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
6623
6624
6625
6626      </td>
6627
6628
6629 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6630
6631
6632
6633      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6634
6635
6636
6637      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6638     
6639     
6640      <p>Simulated time
6641after which a restart run is to be carried out
6642(in s). </p>
6643
6644
6645 
6646     
6647     
6648      <p>The simulated time refers to the
6649beginning of the
6650initial run (t = 0), not to the beginning of the respective
6651restart run. Restart runs can additionally be forced to be carried out
6652in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>. </p>
6653
6654
6655 
6656     
6657     
6658      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
6659
6660
6661
6662A successful operation of this parameter requires additional
6663modifications in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-call
6664for the respective run (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
66653.3</a>).<br>
6666
6667
6668 </p>
6669
6670
6671 
6672     
6673     
6674      <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b>
6675or <b>dt_restart</b> does
6676not override the automatic start of restart runs in case that the job
6677runs out of CPU time. <br>
6678
6679      </p>
6680
6681     
6682      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
6683and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
6684
6685
6686 </td>
6687
6688
6689 </tr>
6690
6691
6692
6693    <tr>
6694
6695
6696 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6697     
6698     
6699      <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
6700
6701
6702
6703      </td>
6704
6705
6706 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6707
6708
6709
6710      </td>
6711
6712
6713 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
6714
6715
6716
6717      </td>
6718
6719
6720 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6721     
6722     
6723      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position
6724of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross
6725sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6726
6727
6728 
6729     
6730     
6731      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output
6732of
6733horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6734parameter can be used to
6735define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
6736cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xy</b>
6737the
6738corresponding vertical grid point index/indices k of the requested
6739cross section(s). The exact location (height level) of the cross
6740section depends on the variable for which the output is made: zu(k) for
6741scalars and horizontal velocities, zw(k) for the vertical velocity.
6742Information about the exact location of the cross section is contained
6743in the NetCDF output file (if the default NetCDF output is switched on;
6744see <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>).</font></span></p>
6745
6746
6747     
6748     
6749      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6750creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In
6751the
6752NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6753z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p>
6754
6755
6756     
6757     
6758      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
6759does not effect the output of horizontal cross sections of variable u<sub>*</sub>
6760and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For
6761these quantities always only one cross
6762section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p>
6763
6764
6765      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6766      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6767if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
6768= <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>),
6769then the respective data are
6770successively written to file. The output order follows the order given
6771by <b>section_xy</b>.&nbsp;</font></span></td>
6772
6773
6774
6775    </tr>
6776
6777
6778 <tr>
6779
6780
6781 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6782     
6783     
6784      <p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
6785
6786
6787
6788      </td>
6789
6790
6791 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6792
6793
6794
6795      </td>
6796
6797
6798 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
6799
6800
6801
6802      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6803     
6804     
6805      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
6806for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point
6807index j).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6808
6809
6810 <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6811vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6812parameter can be used to
6813define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
6814cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b>
6815the
6816corresponding horizontal grid point index/indices j of the requested
6817cross section(s). The exact position (in y-direction) of the cross
6818section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
6819on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in
6820the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
6821default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
6822no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all
6823positions.<br>
6824
6825
6826      <br>
6827
6828
6829Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6830creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along y. In the
6831NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6832y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br>
6833
6834
6835      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br>
6836
6837
6838      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6839      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6840      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
6841selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>,
6842      <i>27</i>),
6843then the respective data are successively written to file. The output
6844order follows the order given by <b>section_xz</b>.</font></span></td>
6845
6846
6847
6848    </tr>
6849
6850
6851 <tr>
6852
6853
6854 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6855     
6856     
6857      <p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
6858
6859
6860
6861      </td>
6862
6863
6864 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6865
6866
6867
6868      </td>
6869
6870
6871 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
6872
6873
6874
6875      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6876     
6877     
6878      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
6879for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point
6880index i).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6881
6882
6883 <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6884vertical yz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
6885this parameter can be used to define the position(s) of the cross
6886section(s). Up to 100 positions of cross sections can be selected by
6887assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal
6888grid point
6889index/indices i of the requested cross section(s). The exact position
6890(in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
6891on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in
6892the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
6893default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
6894no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all
6895positions.<br>
6896
6897
6898      <br>
6899
6900
6901      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6902creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along x. In the
6903NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6904x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br>
6905
6906
6907      <span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br>
6908
6909
6910      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6911      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6912      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
6913selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
6914respective data are successively written to file. The output order
6915follows the order given by <b>section_yz</b>.</font></span></td>
6916
6917
6918
6919    </tr>
6920
6921
6922 <tr>
6923
6924
6925 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
6926
6927
6928
6929      </td>
6930
6931
6932 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6933
6934
6935 </td>
6936
6937
6938
6939      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
6940
6941
6942 </td>
6943
6944
6945
6946      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before
6947this interval has passed (in s).<br>
6948
6949
6950      <br>
6951
6952
6953This
6954parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
6955this interval
6956(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By
6957default, this
6958applies for output of instantaneous 3d volume data, cross section data,
6959spectra and vertical profile data as well as for temporally averaged 2d
6960and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
6961
6962
6963      <br>
6964
6965
6966      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
6967
6968
6969If
6970the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>
6971= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
6972and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6973= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
6974then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br>
6975
6976
6977 </td>
6978
6979
6980
6981    </tr>
6982
6983
6984 <tr>
6985
6986
6987      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td>
6988
6989
6990      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6991
6992
6993      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
6994
6995
6996data_output</a></span></td>
6997
6998
6999      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally
7000averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7001
7002
7003      <br>
7004
7005
7006This
7007parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7008this interval
7009(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7010
7011
7012      <br>
7013
7014
7015      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7016
7017
7018If
7019the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>
7020= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7021and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
7022= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7023then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td>
7024
7025
7026    </tr>
7027
7028
7029    <tr>
7030
7031
7032
7033      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
7034
7035
7036
7037      </td>
7038
7039
7040 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7041
7042
7043 </td>
7044
7045
7046
7047      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7048
7049
7050data_output</a></span>
7051      </td>
7052
7053
7054 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7055vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7056
7057
7058      <br>
7059
7060
7061This
7062parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7063this interval
7064(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7065
7066
7067      <br>
7068
7069
7070      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7071
7072
7073If
7074the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
7075first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7076
7077
7078 </tr>
7079
7080
7081 <tr>
7082
7083
7084
7085      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
7086
7087
7088
7089      </td>
7090
7091
7092 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7093
7094
7095 </td>
7096
7097
7098
7099      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7100
7101
7102data_output</a></span>
7103      </td>
7104
7105
7106 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7107instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has
7108passed (in s).<br>
7109
7110
7111      <br>
7112
7113
7114This
7115parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7116this interval
7117(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7118
7119
7120      <br>
7121
7122
7123      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7124
7125
7126If
7127the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>
7128= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7129and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7130= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7131then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7132
7133
7134 </tr>
7135
7136
7137
7138    <tr>
7139
7140
7141 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
7142
7143
7144
7145      </td>
7146
7147
7148 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7149
7150
7151 </td>
7152
7153
7154
7155      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7156
7157
7158data_output</a></span>
7159      </td>
7160
7161
7162 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7163instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has
7164passed (in s).<br>
7165
7166
7167      <br>
7168
7169
7170This
7171parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7172this interval
7173(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7174
7175
7176      <br>
7177
7178
7179      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7180
7181
7182If
7183the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
7184= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7185and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7186= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7187then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7188
7189
7190 </tr>
7191
7192
7193
7194    <tr>
7195
7196
7197 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
7198
7199
7200
7201      </td>
7202
7203
7204 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7205
7206
7207 </td>
7208
7209
7210
7211      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7212
7213
7214data_output</a></span>
7215      </td>
7216
7217
7218 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7219instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has
7220passed (in s).<br>
7221
7222
7223      <br>
7224
7225
7226This
7227parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7228this interval
7229(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7230
7231
7232      <br>
7233
7234
7235      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7236
7237
7238If
7239the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>
7240= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7241and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
7242= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7243then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7244
7245
7246 </tr>
7247
7248
7249
7250    <tr>
7251
7252
7253 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
7254
7255
7256
7257      </td>
7258
7259
7260 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7261
7262
7263 </td>
7264
7265
7266
7267      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7268
7269
7270data_output</a></span>
7271      </td>
7272
7273
7274 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7275instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7276
7277
7278      <br>
7279
7280
7281This
7282parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7283this interval
7284(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7285
7286
7287      <br>
7288
7289
7290      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7291
7292
7293If
7294the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
7295first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7296
7297
7298 </tr>
7299
7300
7301
7302    <tr>
7303
7304
7305 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7306     
7307     
7308      <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b>
7309      <br>
7310
7311
7312 <b>_needed</b></p>
7313
7314
7315 </td>
7316
7317
7318 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7319
7320
7321 </td>
7322
7323
7324 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br>
7325
7326
7327 </td>
7328
7329
7330
7331      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7332     
7333     
7334      <p>CPU time
7335needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
7336batch mode (in s).<br>
7337
7338
7339 </p>
7340
7341
7342 
7343     
7344     
7345      <p>If the environment
7346variable <b>write_binary </b>is
7347set <i>true</i> (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
73483.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after
7349each
7350timestep. Time integration must not consume the CPU time completely,
7351since several actions still have to be carried out after time
7352integration has finished (e.g. writing of binary data for the restart
7353run, carrying out output commands, copying of local files to their
7354permanent destinations, etc.) which also takes some time. The maximum
7355possible time needed for these activities plus a reserve is to be given
7356with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among
7357other things,
7358it depends on
7359the number of grid points used. If its value is selected too small,
7360then the
7361respective job will be prematurely aborted by the queuing system, which
7362may result in a data loss and will possibly interrupt the job chain.<br>
7363
7364
7365
7366      </p>
7367
7368
7369 
7370     
7371     
7372      <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment
7373variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span>
7374is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span>
7375and if moreover the job has
7376been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b>
7377option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>. <i><br>
7378
7379
7380
7381      </i> </p>
7382
7383
7384 
7385     
7386     
7387      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
7388
7389
7390
7391On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of
7392PALM
7393have also to be accounted for (e.g. for
7394compilation and copying of input files).</p>
7395
7396
7397 </td>
7398
7399
7400 </tr>
7401
7402
7403
7404    <tr>
7405
7406
7407 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7408     
7409     
7410      <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
7411      <br>
7412
7413
7414 <b>_parameters</b></p>
7415
7416
7417 </td>
7418
7419
7420 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
7421
7422
7423 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
7424
7425
7426
7427      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7428     
7429     
7430      <p>Additional
7431plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
7432from preceding runs of the
7433job chain.&nbsp; </p>
7434
7435
7436 
7437     
7438     
7439      <p>This parameter only applies
7440for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7441= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7442
7443
7444     
7445     
7446      <p>By
7447default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
7448(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7449only contain profiles of data produced by the model
7450run. If profiles of prior times (i.e. data of preceding jobs of a
7451job chain) shall be plotted additionally (e.g. for comparison
7452purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>.
7453must be
7454set.<br>
7455
7456
7457 </p>
7458
7459
7460 
7461     
7462     
7463      <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
74644.5.2</a>.</p>
7465
7466
7467 </td>
7468
7469
7470 </tr>
7471
7472
7473 <tr>
7474
7475
7476 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7477     
7478     
7479      <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
7480
7481
7482
7483      </td>
7484
7485
7486 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7487
7488
7489
7490      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model
7491top)</i></td>
7492
7493
7494 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
7495     
7496     
7497      <p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
7498be
7499plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
7500(in
7501m).&nbsp; </p>
7502
7503
7504 
7505     
7506     
7507      <p>This parameter only applies for
7508&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7509= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7510
7511
7512     
7513     
7514      <p>It
7515affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
7516(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7517when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
7518By default, profiles are plotted up to the top boundary. The height
7519level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller
7520value.
7521Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
7522vertical
7523grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are still output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.</p>
7524
7525
7526
7527     
7528     
7529      <p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
7530has no effect. Instead, <a href="#z_max_do1d_normalized">z_max_do1d_normalized</a>
7531must be used.</p>
7532
7533
7534 </td>
7535
7536
7537 </tr>
7538
7539
7540 <tr>
7541
7542
7543 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7544     
7545     
7546      <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b>
7547      <br>
7548
7549
7550 <b>_normalized</b></p>
7551
7552
7553 </td>
7554
7555
7556 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7557
7558
7559 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i>
7560      <br>
7561
7562
7563 <i>data</i> <br>
7564
7565
7566 </td>
7567
7568
7569 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7570     
7571     
7572      <p>Normalized height
7573level up to which horizontally averaged
7574profiles are to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
7575      </p>
7576
7577
7578 
7579     
7580     
7581      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7582= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7583
7584
7585     
7586     
7587      <p>It
7588affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
7589(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7590when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>,
7591if a normalization for the vertical axis is selected
7592(see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>).
7593If e.g. the boundary layer height is used for normalization, then <b>z_max_do1d_normalized</b>
7594= <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height
7595level of z =
75961.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p>
7597
7598
7599 </td>
7600
7601
7602 </tr>
7603
7604
7605
7606    <tr>
7607
7608
7609 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7610     
7611     
7612      <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
7613
7614
7615
7616      </td>
7617
7618
7619 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7620
7621
7622 </td>
7623
7624
7625
7626      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br>
7627
7628
7629 </td>
7630
7631
7632
7633      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7634     
7635     
7636      <p>Height level
7637up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
7638with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
7639(in m).&nbsp; </p>
7640
7641
7642 
7643     
7644     
7645      <p>This parameter only applies for
7646&nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7647= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p>
7648
7649
7650     
7651     
7652      <p>It
7653affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
7654sections (<a href="#data_output">data_output</a>)
7655when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.
7656By
7657default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d
7658      </b>the
7659visualization within
7660the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z
7661&lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
7662Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
7663grid points
7664of the complete cross section are still output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>
7665or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
7666The level up to which the section is visualized can later be changed by
7667manually editing the
7668file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>
7669or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>
7670(the respective <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>-parameter
7671is <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html#YRIGHT">yright</a>).</p>
7672
7673
7674
7675      </td>
7676
7677
7678 </tr>
7679
7680
7681 
7682 
7683 
7684  </tbody>
7685</table>
7686
7687
7688<br>
7689
7690
7691
7692<br>
7693
7694
7695<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="particle_parameters"></a>Particle
7696parameters: </h3>
7697
7698
7699
7700<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>NAMELIST group name: <span style="font-weight: bold;">particles_par<br>
7701
7702
7703
7704</span>
7705<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
7706
7707
7708 <tbody>
7709
7710
7711    <tr>
7712
7713
7714
7715      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
7716name</b></font></td>
7717
7718
7719
7720      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
7721
7722
7723
7724      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7725     
7726     
7727      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
7728
7729
7730 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
7731
7732
7733 </td>
7734
7735
7736
7737      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7738     
7739     
7740      <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
7741
7742
7743
7744      </td>
7745
7746
7747 </tr>
7748
7749
7750 <tr>
7751
7752
7753 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7754     
7755     
7756      <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
7757
7758
7759
7760      </td>
7761
7762
7763 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7764
7765
7766
7767      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
7768
7769
7770
7771      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7772     
7773     
7774      <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
7775interval at
7776which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from
7777a particle
7778source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp;
7779      </font> </p>
7780
7781
7782 
7783     
7784     
7785      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
7786particles are released only at the beginning of a simulation
7787(t_init=0). The time of the first release (t_init) can be changed with
7788package parameter </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><font><a href="#particle_advection_start"><font face="Thorndale, serif">particle_advection_start</font></a>.
7789      </font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be
7790set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>.
7791If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>
7792has been set, additional
7793releases will be at t = t_init+<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7794t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7795t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7796etc.. Actual release times
7797may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see
7798e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
7799
7800
7801
7802     
7803     
7804      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
7805of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source </font></span>as
7806well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
7807within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package
7808parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
7809      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
7810      </font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By
7811default, one particle is released at all points defined by these
7812parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a>
7813can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
7814
7815
7816
7817      </font></span></p>
7818
7819
7820 
7821     
7822     
7823      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
7824different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)
7825where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
7826to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other
7827particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
7828identical for all groups of particles.</font></span></p>
7829
7830
7831Subgrid
7832scale velocities can (optionally) be included for calculating the
7833particle advection, using the method of Weil et al. (2004, JAS, 61,
78342877-2887). This method is switched on by the package
7835parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>.
7836This also forces the Euler/upstream method to be used for time
7837advancement of the TKE (see initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#use_upstream_for_tke">use_upstream_for_tke</a>).
7838The minimum timestep during the sub-timesteps is controlled by package
7839parameter <a href="#dt_min_part">dt_min_part</a>.
7840     
7841     
7842      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By
7843default, particles are weightless and transported passively with the
7844resolved scale flow. Particles can be given a mass and thus an inertia
7845by assigning the
7846package parameter </font></span><a href="#density_ratio"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">density_ratio</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> a
7847non-zero value (it
7848defines the ratio of the density of the fluid and the density of the
7849particles). In these cases their </font></span><a href="#radius"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">radius</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">
7850must also be defined, which affects their flow resistance. </font></span><a href="#diameter"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span> </p>
7851
7852
7853
7854     
7855     
7856      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Boundary
7857conditions for the particle transport can be defined with package
7858parameters </font></span><a href="#bc_par_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_t</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#bc_par_lr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_lr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="bc_par_ns"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_ns</font></span></a>
7859      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
7860      </font></span><a href="#bc_par_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_b</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span></p>
7861
7862
7863      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Timeseries
7864of particle quantities in NetCDF format can be output to local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a>
7865by using package parameter <a href="#dt_dopts">dt_dopts</a>.<br>
7866
7867
7868      </font></span>
7869     
7870     
7871      <p>For
7872analysis, additional output of
7873particle
7874information in equidistant temporal intervals can be carried out using <a href="#dt_write_particle_data">dt_write_particle_data</a>
7875(file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>).<br>
7876
7877
7878
7879      </p>
7880
7881
7882 
7883     
7884     
7885      <p><span style="font-family: thorndale,serif;">Statistical
7886informations</span> (e.g. the total number of particles used, the
7887number of particles exchanged between the PEs, etc.) are output to the
7888local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_INFOS</a>,
7889if switched on by the parameter <a href="#write_particle_statistics">write_particle_statistics</a>.
7890      <br>
7891
7892
7893 </p>
7894
7895
7896 
7897     
7898     
7899      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">If a job
7900chain is to be carried out, particle
7901informations </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">for the restart run (e.g. current
7902location of
7903all
7904particles at the end of the
7905run) is output to
7906the local file</font></span> <font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a><font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font>,
7907      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">which
7908must be saved at the
7909end of the run <tt><span lang="en-GB"></span></tt>and
7910given as an
7911input file to the restart run
7912under local file name</font></span> <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>
7913u<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">sing
7914respective file
7915connection statements in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
7916configuration file. </font></span> <span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
7917
7918
7919     
7920     
7921      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The output of
7922particles for visualization with the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> is steered by
7923the package
7924parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dvrp</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.
7925For visualization
7926purposes particles can be given a
7927diameter by the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dvrp_psize">dvrp_psize</a>
7928(this diameter only affects the visualization). All particles have the
7929same size. Alternatively, particles can be given an individual size and
7930a </span>color <span lang="en-GB">by modifying the
7931user-interface (subroutine</span></font> <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>)<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
7932Particles can pull a
7933&ldquo;tail&rdquo; behind themselves to improve their
7934visualization.
7935This is steered via the parameter&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#use_particle_tails">use_particle_tails</a>.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#maximum_number_of_tailpoints"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></p>
7936
7937
7938 <span lang="en-GB"></span>
7939     
7940     
7941      <p><b>So far, the
7942particle transport realized in PALM does only
7943work
7944duly in case of a constant vertical grid spacing!</b></p>
7945
7946
7947 </td>
7948
7949
7950
7951    </tr>
7952
7953
7954 <tr>
7955
7956
7957 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
7958     
7959     
7960      <p><a name="bc_par_b"></a><b>bc_par_b</b></p>
7961
7962
7963
7964      </td>
7965
7966
7967 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
7968
7969
7970
7971      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i></td>
7972
7973
7974
7975      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7976     
7977     
7978      <p>Bottom
7979boundary condition for particle transport. </p>
7980
7981
7982 
7983     
7984     
7985      <p>By
7986default, particles are reflected at the bottom boundary.
7987Alternatively, a particle absorption can set by <b>bc_par_b</b>
7988= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>.</p>
7989
7990
7991 </td>
7992
7993
7994
7995    </tr>
7996
7997
7998 <tr>
7999
8000
8001 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8002     
8003     
8004      <p><a name="bc_par_lr"></a><b>bc_par_lr</b></p>
8005
8006
8007
8008      </td>
8009
8010
8011 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8012
8013
8014
8015      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
8016
8017
8018
8019      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8020     
8021     
8022      <p>Lateral
8023boundary condition (x-direction) for particle
8024transport. </p>
8025
8026
8027 
8028     
8029     
8030      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
8031are used along x.
8032Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
8033= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
8034= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
8035can be set. <br>
8036
8037
8038 </p>
8039
8040
8041 
8042     
8043     
8044      <p>This lateral boundary
8045conditions should correspond to the
8046lateral boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).</p>
8047
8048
8049 </td>
8050
8051
8052
8053    </tr>
8054
8055
8056 <tr>
8057
8058
8059 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8060     
8061     
8062      <p><a name="bc_par_ns"></a><b>bc_par_ns</b></p>
8063
8064
8065
8066      </td>
8067
8068
8069 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8070
8071
8072
8073      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
8074
8075
8076
8077      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8078     
8079     
8080      <p>Lateral
8081boundary condition (y-direction) for particle
8082transport. </p>
8083
8084
8085 
8086     
8087     
8088      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
8089are used along y.
8090Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
8091= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
8092= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
8093can be set.<br>
8094
8095
8096 </p>
8097
8098
8099
8100This lateral boundary conditions should correspond to the lateral
8101boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</td>
8102
8103
8104 </tr>
8105
8106
8107
8108    <tr>
8109
8110
8111 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8112     
8113     
8114      <p><a name="bc_par_t"></a><b>bc_par_t</b></p>
8115
8116
8117
8118      </td>
8119
8120
8121 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8122
8123
8124
8125      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i></td>
8126
8127
8128
8129      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8130     
8131     
8132      <p>Top boundary
8133condition for particle transport. </p>
8134
8135
8136 
8137     
8138     
8139      <p>By default,
8140particles are absorbed at the top boundary.
8141Alternatively, a reflection condition can be set by <b>bc_par_t</b>
8142= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>.</p>
8143
8144
8145 </td>
8146
8147
8148
8149    </tr>
8150
8151
8152 <tr>
8153
8154
8155 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8156     
8157     
8158      <p><a name="density_ratio"></a><b>density_ratio</b></p>
8159
8160
8161
8162      </td>
8163
8164
8165 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
8166
8167
8168
8169      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8170     
8171     
8172      <p><i>0.0, 9</i>
8173*<br>
8174
8175
8176 <i>9999999.9</i></p>
8177
8178
8179 </td>
8180
8181
8182 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8183     
8184     
8185      <p>Ratio of the density
8186of the fluid and the density of the
8187particles. </p>
8188
8189
8190 
8191     
8192     
8193      <p>With the default value<i> </i>the
8194particles are weightless and transported passively with the resolved
8195scale flow.
8196In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">density_ratio</span>
8197/=
81980.0 particles have a mass and hence inertia so that their velocity
8199deviates more or less from the velocity of the surrounding flow.
8200Particle velocity is calculated analytically and depends on (besides
8201the density ratio and the current velocity difference between particles
8202and surrounding fluid) the
8203particle radius which is determined via <a href=