In this chapter a brief, simple and complete parameter set is described, which can be used to simulate a quasi-stationary, convective, atmospheric boundary layer with zero mean horizontal wind. For evaluation purposes, cross sections and horizontally averaged vertical profiles of typical boundary layer variables are output at the end of the run. The run shall be carried out in batch mode on the IBM Regatta "hanni" of the HLRN.

The parameter file necessary to carry out a run must be provided to the model as an input file under the local name PARIN and has the following contents:

&inipar nx = 39, ny = 39, nz = 40,

dx = 50.0, dy = 50.0, dz = 50.0,

dz_stretch_level = 1200.0,

fft_method = 'temperton-algorithm',

initializing_actions = 'set_constant_profiles',

ug_surface = 0.0, vg_surface = 0.0,

pt_vertical_gradient = 0.0, 1.0,

pt_vertical_gradient_level = 0.0, 800.0,

surface_heatflux = 0.1, bc_pt_b = 'neumann',/

&d3par end_time = 3600.0,

create_disturbances = .T.,

dt_disturb = 150.0, disturbance_energy_limit = 0.01,

dt_run_control = 0.0,

data_output = 'w_xy', 'w_xz', 'w_xz_av', 'pt_xy', 'pt_xz',

dt_data_output = 900.0,

dt_data_output_av = 1800.0,

averaging_interval = 900.0,

dt_averaging_input = 10.0,

section_xy = 2, 10, section_xz = 20,

data_output_2d_on_each_pe = .F.,

dt_dopr = 900.0, averaging_interval_pr = 600.0,

dt_averaging_input_pr = 10.0,

data_output_pr = '#pt', 'w”pt”', 'w*pt*', 'wpt', 'w*2', 'pt*2',

cross_profiles = ' pt ', ' w"pt" w*pt* wpt ', ' w*2 ', ' pt*2 ',

cross_xtext = 'pot. temperature in K',

'heat flux in K ms>->1',

'velocity variance in m>2s>->2',

'temperature variance in K>2',

z_max_do1d = 1500.0, /

The initialization
parameters (`&inipar`)
are located at the beginning of the file. For analysis of a
convective boundary layer of approx. 1000 m thickness the horizontal
size of the model domain should amount to at least 2 km x 2 km. In
order to resolve the convective structures a grid spacing of **dx**
=
**dy** = **dz** = *50 m*
is enough, since the typical
diameter of convective plumes is more than 100 m. Thereby the
upper array index in the two horizontal directions needs to be **nx**
= **ny** = *39*. Since in
each case the lower array index has the value 0, 40 grid points are
used along both horizontal directions. In the vertical
direction
the domain must be high enough to include the entrainment processes at
the top of the boundary layer as well as the propagation of gravity
waves, which were stimulated by
the convection. However, in the stably stratified region the grid
resolution has not necessarily to be as high as within the boundary
layer. This can be obtained by a vertical stretching of the grid
starting
from 1200 m via **dz_stretch_level** = *1200.0
m.* This saves
grid points and computing time. The
upper boundary of the model is located at (see dz_stretch_factor)
… m (computed by the model).

Fast Fourier transformations are calculated using the Temperton-algorithm, which -on the IBM Regatta- is faster than the default system-specific algorithm (from IBM essl library).

The
initial profiles for
wind and temperature can be assigned via **initializing_actions**
= 'set_constant_profiles'.
The wind speed, constant with
height, amounts to **ug_surface** = **vg_surface**
= *0.0 m/s*. In order
to allow for a fast onset of convection, a neutral stratified layer up
to z
= 800 m capped by an inversion with dtheta/dz = 1K/100 m is given:
**pt_vertical_gradient** = *0.0, 1.0*,
**pt_vertical_gradient_level** = *0.0, 800.0.*
The surface
temperature, which by default amounts to 300 K, provides the fixed
point for the temperature profile (see pt_surface).
Convection is driven by a given, near-surface sensible heat flux via **surface_heatflux**
= *0.1 K m/s.* A given surface sensible heta flux
requires the
bottom boundary condition for potential temperature to be **bc_pt_b**
=
'neumann' .
Thus
all initialization parameters are determined. These can not be
changed during the run (also not for restart runs).

Now the run parameters (`&d3par`)
must be specified. To produce a quasi stationary boundary layer the
simulated time should be at least one hour, i.e. **end_time**
= *3600
s.* To stimulate convection, the initially homogeneous (zero)
wind
field must be disturbed (**create_disturbances** = *.T.*).
These perturbations should be repeated in a temporal interval of
**dt_disturb** = *150.0 s* until the
energy of the
perturbations exceeds the value **disturbance_energy_limit**
= 0.*01
m ^{2}/s^{2}*. After
each time step run time
informations (e.g. size of the timestep, maximum velocities, etc.) are
to be written to the local file RUN_CONTROL
(

Instantaneous cross section data of vertical velocity (w) and potential temperature (pt) are to be output for horizontal (xy) and vertical (xz) cross sections, and additionally, time averaged (av) vertical cross section data are to be output for the vertical velocity: data_output = 'w_xy', 'w_xz', 'w_xz_av', 'pt_xy', 'pt_xz'. Output of instantaneous (time averaged) data is done after each 900 (1800)s: dt_data_output = 900.0, dt_data_output_av = 1800.0. The averaged data are time averaged over the last 900.0 s, where the temporal interval of data entering the average is 10 s: averaging_interval = 900.0, dt_averaging_input = 10.0. Horizontal cross sections are output for vertical levels with grid index k=2 and k=10, vertical cross sections are output for index j=20: section_xy = 2, 10, section_xz = 20. For runs on more than one processor, cross section data are collected and output on PE0: data_output_2d_on_each_pe = .F..

Output
of vertical profiles is to be done after each 900 s. The profiles shall
be temporally averaged over the last
600 seconds, whereby
the temporal interval of the profiles entering the average has to be
10 s: **dt_dopr** = *900.0 s*, **averaging_interval_pr**
=
*600.0 s*, **dt_averaging_input_pr** =
*10.0 s.* The temperature
profile including the initial temperature profile (therefore '#pt'),
the subgrid scale, resolved and total vertical sensible heat flux as
well as the variances of the vertical velocity and the potential
temperature are to be output: **data_output_pr**
= '#pt'*,
'w"pt”',
'w*pt*', 'wpt', 'w*2', 'pt*2'*.

If the data output format for
graphic software profil
is selected (see data_output_format),
the temperature
profile and the individual variances are to be drawn into independent
coordinate systems, and in contrast to this all heat flux profiles are
to
be
drawn into the same system: **cross_profiles** = 'pt'*,
'w"pt"w*pt*wpt', 'w*2', 'pt*2'*. The legend of the x
axes of these systems is set to **cross_xtext**= *'pot.
temperature in K', 'heat flux in K ms>->1', 'velocity
variance
in m>2s>->2', 'temperature variance in K>2'*.
The profiles are to be drawn up to a height level of **z_max_do1d**
=
*1500.0 m*.

Before starting the model on the parallel computer, the number of processing elements must be specified. Since relatively few grid points are used for this run, choosing of e.g. 8 PEs is sufficient. By default, a 1d domain decomposition along x is used on the IBM-Regatta, which means that a virtual processor topology (grid) of 8*1 (x*y) is used. (Note: the user may adjust this default domain decomposition with the help of the parameters npex and npey).

Provided that the parameters file described above are set within the file

~/palm/current_version/JOBS/example/INPUT/example_p3d

and that the conditions mentioned in the first sections of chapter 3.2 are met, the model run can be started with the command

mrun -d example -h ibmh -K parallel -X 8 -T 8 -t 1800 -q cdev -r “d3# xy# xz# pr#”

The output files will appear in the directories

~/palm/current_version/JOBS/example/MONITORING

~/palm/current_version/JOBS/example/OUTPUT ,

while the job protocol will
appear in
directory ~/`job_queue`.

*Last change:
*$Id: chapter_4.4.1.html 197 2008-09-16 15:29:03Z raasch $