source: palm/trunk/TUTORIAL/SOURCE/palm_overview.tex @ 915

Last change on this file since 915 was 915, checked in by maronga, 9 years ago

added first LaTeX source code for the new tutorial

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1% $Id: palm_overview.tex 915 2012-05-30 15:11:11Z maronga $
2\input{header_tmp.tex}
3%\input{header_lectures.tex}
4
5\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
6\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
7\usepackage{pgf}
8\usetheme{Dresden}
9\usepackage{subfigure}
10\usepackage{units}
11\usepackage{multimedia}
12\newcommand{\event}[1]{\newcommand{\eventname}{#1}}
13\usepackage{xmpmulti}
14\usepackage{tikz}
15\usetikzlibrary{shapes,arrows,positioning}
16\def\Tiny{\fontsize{4pt}{4pt}\selectfont}
17
18\institute{Institut fÌr Meteorologie und Klimatologie, Leibniz UniversitÀt Hannover}
19\date{last update: \today}
20\event{PALM Seminar}
21\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}
22
23\setbeamertemplate{footline}
24  {%
25    \begin{beamercolorbox}[rightskip=-0.1cm]&
26     {\includegraphics[height=0.65cm]{imuk_logo.pdf}\hfill \includegraphics[height=0.65cm]{luh_logo.pdf}}
27    \end{beamercolorbox}
28    \begin{beamercolorbox}[ht=2.5ex,dp=1.125ex,%
29      leftskip=.3cm,rightskip=0.3cm plus1fil]{title in head/foot}%
30      {\leavevmode{\usebeamerfont{author in head/foot}\insertshortauthor} \hfill \eventname \hfill \insertframenumber \; / \inserttotalframenumber}%
31    \end{beamercolorbox}%
32%    \begin{beamercolorbox}[colsep=1.5pt]{lower separation line foot}%
33%    \end{beamercolorbox}
34  }
35%\logo{\includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{luhimuk_logo.png}}
36
37\title[PALM Overview]{PALM Overview}
38\author{Siegfried Raasch}
39
40
41% Notes:
42% jede subsection bekommt einen punkt im menu (vertikal ausgerichtet.
43% jeder frame in einer subsection bekommt einen punkt (horizontal ausgerichtet)
44\begin{document}
45
46\begin{frame}
47\titlepage
48\end{frame}
49
50\section{PALM Overview}
51\subsection{PALM Overview}
52
53%Folie 01
54\begin{frame}
55   \begin{center}
56      PALM - Overview
57   \end{center}
58\end{frame}
59
60%Folie 02
61\begin{frame}
62   \frametitle{PALM - Overview}
63   \begin{flushleft}
64      \textbf{PA}rallelized \textbf{L}ES \textbf{M}odel
65   \end{flushleft}
66   \begin{itemize}
67      \item<2->{First version 1997, continously developed since then}
68      \item<3->{Written in FORTRAN 95}
69      \item<4->{Very high performance and scalability on all state-of-the-art parallel architectures}
70      \item<5->{One code for atmosphere and ocean}
71      \item<6->{Code is free to use for scientific applications}
72   \end{itemize}
73\end{frame}
74
75%Folie 03
76\begin{frame}
77   \frametitle{PALM - Overview}
78   \begin{flushleft}
79      \textbf{Software-development in a professional environment}
80   \end{flushleft}
81   \begin{itemize}
82      \item<2->{Detailed online-documentation}
83      \item<3->{Interface for code-extensions by users}
84      \item<4->{Code is managed and distributed via subversion }
85      \begin{itemize}
86         \item<5->{Direct code-access from the internet}
87         \item<6->{Allows collaborative code-development}
88      \end{itemize}
89   \end{itemize}
90\end{frame}
91
92%Folie 04
93\begin{frame}
94   \frametitle{PALM - Features (General Overview)}
95   \framesubtitle{Physics / Numerics        (special characteristics)}
96   \begin{itemize}
97      \item<2->{Cyclic horizontal boundary conditions but also non-cyclic boundary conditions along x or y available}
98      \item<3->{Turbulent inflow is realized for non-cyclic boundary conditions}
99      \item<4->{Topography can be used}
100      \item<5->{A Lagrangian particle model is embedded}
101      \item<6->{Code can be switched to ocean, i.e. salinity equation and equation of state for seawater is included}
102      \item<7->{Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations are possible}
103      \item<8->{A simple canopy model is included}
104      \item<9->{It allows for very huge applications\\ (currently $4000^{3}$ gridpoints)}
105   \end{itemize}
106\end{frame}
107
108%Folie 05
109\begin{frame}
110   \frametitle{PALM - Features (General Overview)}
111   \begin{flushleft}
112      \textbf{Technical features}
113   \end{flushleft}
114   \begin{itemize}
115      \item<2->{Scripts allow for very comfortable operation of the model}
116      \item<3->{Model can be adapted for any kind of (Unix) system by simply adjusting a configuration file}
117      \item<4->{Batch jobs and job chains (restart mechanism) can be automatically created (requires manual adjustments of scripts)}
118      \item<5->{Runs are controlled by a simple NAMELIST parameter file}
119      \item<6->{ Error messages inform in case of parameter inconsistencies or other problems detected during runtime}
120   \end{itemize}
121\end{frame}
122
123%Folie 06
124\begin{frame}
125   \frametitle{PALM - Features (General Overview)}
126   \begin{flushleft}
127      \textbf{Technical features}
128   \end{flushleft}
129   \begin{itemize}
130      \item<1->{Standard data analysis is done within the simulation itself}
131      \item<2->{All output is in standard netCDF data format}
132      \item<3->{A user-interface allows for easy code extensions by the user}
133      \item<4->{A powerful 3D-visualization software is included in the code (requires additional graphics library, (a streaming server), and a plugin for web-browsers)}
134   \end{itemize}
135\end{frame}
136
137%Folie 07
138\begin{frame}
139   \begin{figure}
140      \href{/home/maronga/dvr/data/rinne_1.html}{\includegraphics<3,5,7,9,11>[height=0.35\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig08_mini_Luepkes.png}}
141      \href{Link 2}{\includegraphics<5,7,9,11>[height=0.35\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig09_mini_Raasch_Franke.png}}
142      \href{Link 3}{\includegraphics<7,9,11>[height=0.35\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig10_mini_gryschka.png}}
143      \href{Link 4}{\includegraphics<9,11>[height=0.35\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig11_mini_steinfeld.png}}
144      \href{Link 5}{\includegraphics<11>[height=0.35\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig07_mini_Letzel.png}}
145   \end{figure}
146   \begin{center}
147      \includegraphics<1>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig05_land.png}
148      \includegraphics<2>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig06_ice.png}
149      \includegraphics<4>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig04_staubteufel.png}
150      \includegraphics<6>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig03_clouds.png} 
151      \includegraphics<8>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig02_Mast.png}
152      \includegraphics<10>[height=0.82\textheight]{palm_overview_figures/Fig01_letzel_building.png}
153   \end{center}
154\end{frame}
155
156%Folie 08
157\begin{frame}
158   \frametitle{PALM – External Users / Areas of Application}
159   \begin{itemize}
160      \item<1->{Users / Collaborations}
161      \begin{itemize}
162         \item<2->{\textbf{AWI} Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research (Bremerhaven, Germany)}
163         \item<3->{\textbf{ForWind} (University of Oldenburg, Germany)}
164         \item<4->{\textbf{NERSC} Nansen Environmental And Remote Sensing Center (Bergen, Norway)}
165         \item<5->{\textbf{FMI} Finnish Meteorological Institute (Helsinki, Finland)}
166         \item<6->{Department of Atmospheric Sciences, \textbf{Yonsei University} (Seoul, Korea)}
167         \item<7->{\textbf{IGSES} (Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences), \textbf{Kyushu University} (Fukuoka, Japan)}
168         \item<8->{School of Earth and Environmental Science, \textbf{Seoul National University} (Seoul, Korea)}
169         \item<9->{Dept. of Intl. Development Eng., \textbf{Tokyo Institute of Technology} (Tokyo, Japan)}
170      \end{itemize}
171   \end{itemize}
172\end{frame}
173
174%Folie 09
175\begin{frame}
176   \frametitle{PALM – External Users / Areas of Application}
177   \begin{itemize}
178      \item<1->{Areas of Application}
179      \begin{itemize}
180         \item<2->{Interaction of boundary layer turbulence $\leftrightarrow$ wind energy converters}
181         \item<3->{Improvement of turbulence parameterizations}
182         \item<4->{Atmosphere-ocean coupling}
183         \item<5->{Ocean mixed layer}
184         \item<6->{Turbulence in the urban canopy layer}
185      \end{itemize}
186   \end{itemize}
187\end{frame}
188
189\section{Technical Issues}
190\subsection{Technical Issues}
191
192%Folie 10
193\begin{frame}
194   \begin{center}
195      PALM - Overview\\
196      Technical Issues
197   \end{center}
198\end{frame}
199
200%Folie 11
201\begin{frame}
202   \tikzstyle{green} = [rectangle, draw, fill=green!20, text width=0.15\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
203   \tikzstyle{white} = [rectangle, text width=0.4\textwidth, font=\tiny]
204   \tikzstyle{line} = [draw, -]
205   \tikzstyle{alert} = [rectangle, draw, text width=0.77\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
206
207   \frametitle{PALM - Components - Overview}
208   The PALM download not only contains the model‘s FORTRAN code but a variety of further components / files.
209   The directory structure is as follows.\\
210   \ \\
211   \begin{tikzpicture}[auto, node distance=0]
212      \node [green] (first) {
213      \textbf{trunk} };
214      \uncover<1->{\node [white, right=1cm of first] (second) {};}
215      \uncover<2->{\node [green, above=2cm of second] (third) {\textbf{DOC/}};}
216      \uncover<3->{
217      \node [green, below=0.3cm of third] (fourth) {\textbf{EXAMPLES/}};}
218      \uncover<4->{\node [green, below=0.25cm of fourth] (fifth) {\textbf{INSTALL/}};}
219      \uncover<5->{\node [green, below=0.25cm of fifth] (sixth) {\textbf{SCRIPTS/}};}
220      \uncover<6->{\node [green, below=0.25cm of sixth] (seventh) {\textbf{SOURCE/}};}
221      \uncover<7->{\node [green, below=0.25cm of seventh] (eighth) {\textbf{UTIL/}};}
222      \uncover<2->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of third] (ninth) {\textbf{complete documentation, also accessible from the PALM homepage}};}
223      \uncover<3->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of fourth] (tenth) {\textbf{parameter files and run control output for a variety of application examples}};}
224      \uncover<4->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of fifth] (eleventh) {\textbf{parameter file and run control output to check and verify the PALM installation}};}
225      \uncover<5->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of sixth] (twelfth) {\textbf{shell scripts and helper programs for running PALM, default configuration files for the shell scripts}};}
226      \uncover<6->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of seventh] (thirteen) {\textbf{PALM source code + Makefile}};}
227      \uncover<7->{\node [white, right=0.25cm of eighth] (fourteen) {\textbf{source code for helper programs}};}
228      \uncover<8->{\node [alert, below=2cm of second] (alert) {\textcolor{red}{Please never modify or delete files in trunk and its subdirectories!}};}
229
230      \path<2-> [line] (first.east) -- (third.west);
231      \path<3-> [line] (first.east) -- (fourth.west);
232      \path<4-> [line] (first.east) -- (fifth.west);
233      \path<5-> [line] (first.east) -- (sixth.west);
234      \path<6-> [line] (first.east) -- (seventh.west);
235      \path<7-> [line] (first.east) -- (eighth.west);
236   \end{tikzpicture}
237\end{frame}
238
239%Folie 12
240\begin{frame}
241   \frametitle{Recommended Directory Structure for the PALM Installation}
242   \tikzstyle{green} = [rectangle, draw, fill=green!20, text width=0.2\textwidth, font=\Tiny]
243   \tikzstyle{yellow1} = [rectangle, draw, fill=yellow!20, text width=0.2\textwidth, font=\Tiny]
244   \tikzstyle{yellow} = [rectangle, draw, fill=yellow!20, text width=0.12\textwidth, font=\Tiny]
245   \tikzstyle{white} = [rectangle, text width=0.12\textwidth, font=\Tiny]
246   \tikzstyle{white1} = [rectangle, text width=0.2\textwidth, font=\Tiny]
247   \tikzstyle{line} = [draw, -]
248
249   \begin{tikzpicture}[auto, node distance=0]
250      \uncover<1->{\node [yellow] (first) {\textbf{\$HOME/} };}
251      \uncover<2->{\node [yellow, right=0.25cm of first] (second) {\textbf{palm/}};}
252      \uncover<3->{\node [yellow, right=0.25cm of second] (third) {\textbf{current\_version/}};}
253      \uncover<4->{\node [green, right=0.75cm of third] (fourth) {\textbf{trunk/}};}
254      \uncover<5->{\node [yellow, above=0.5cm of second] (fifth) {\textbf{job\_queue/}};}
255      \uncover<6->{\node [yellow, below=1cm of third] (sixth) {\textbf{older\_version/}};}
256      \uncover<7->{\node [yellow1, above=1.5cm of fourth] (seventh) {\textbf{JOBS/}};}
257      \uncover<8->{\node [yellow1, above=0.5cm of fourth] (eighth) {\textbf{USER\_CODE/}};}
258      \uncover<9->{\node [green, below=0.5cm of fourth] (ninth) {\textbf{MAKE\_DEPOSITORY\_.../}};}
259      \uncover<10->{\node [green, below=1.5cm of fourth] (tenth) {\textbf{MAKE\_DEPOSITORY\_.../}};}
260      \uncover<11->{\node [green, below=2.75cm of first] (eleventh) {\textbf{/tmp\_user\_catalog/}};}
261      \uncover<12->{\node [yellow1, below=3.5cm of first] (twelfth) {\textbf{/tmp\_data\_catalog/}};}
262      \uncover<3->{\node [white, above=0.05cm of third] (thirteen) {{working directory of PALM user}};}
263      \uncover<5->{\node [white, above=0.05cm of fifth] (fourteen) {{contains job protocol files from batch jobs}};}
264      \uncover<6->{\node [white, below=0.05cm of sixth] (fifteen) {{older PALM version, if needed}};}
265      \uncover<7->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of seventh] (sixteen) {{parameter files for steering, output data}};}
266      \uncover<8->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of eighth] (seventeen) {{code extensions from user (user interface)}};}
267      \uncover<4->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of fourth] (eighteen) {{PALM software (FORTRAN code, scripts, etc.) }};}
268      \uncover<9->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of ninth] (nineteen) {{precompiled routines, generated by \textbf{mbuild}}};}
269      \uncover<10->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of tenth] (twenty) {{$\ldots$ compiled with different options (e.g. for debugging)}};}
270      \uncover<11->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of eleventh] (twentyone) {{contains temporary directory created (by \textbf{mrun}) for each PALM run}};}
271      \uncover<12->{\node [white1, right=0.2cm of twelfth] (twentytwo) {{contains large binary data files created by PALM and needed e.g. for restarts}};}
272      \uncover<5->{\node [white1, below=1cm of tenth] (twentythree) {{}};}
273      \uncover<5->{\node [white, right=1cm of twentythree] (twentyfour) {{optional}};}
274      \uncover<4->{\node [white, above=0.1cm of eighteen] (twentyfifth) {{}};}
275      \uncover<4->{\node [white, below=0.1cm of eighteen] (twentysixth) {{}};}
276      \uncover<7->{\node [white, above=0.1cm of sixteen] (twentyseventh) {{}};}
277      \uncover<7->{\node [white, below=0.1cm of sixteen] (twentyeighth) {{}};}
278
279      \path<2-> [line] (first.east) -- (second.west);
280      \path<3-> [line] (second.east) -- (third.west);
281      \path<4-> [line] (third.east) -- (fourth.west);
282      \path<4-> [line] (fourth.east) -- (twentyfifth.west);
283      \path<4-> [line] (fourth.east) -- (twentysixth.west);
284      \path<4-> [line] (fourth.east) -- (eighteen.west);
285      \path<5-> [line,dashed] (first.east) -- (fifth.west);
286      \path<5-> [line,dashed] (twentythree.east) -- (twentyfour.west);
287      \path<6-> [line,dashed] (second.east) -- (sixth.west);
288      \path<7-> [line] (third.east) -- (seventh.west);
289      \path<7-> [line] (seventh.east) -- (twentyseventh.west);
290      \path<7-> [line] (seventh.east) -- (twentyeighth.west);
291      \path<7-> [line] (seventh.east) -- (sixteen.west);
292      \path<8-> [line] (eighth.east) -- (twentyfifth.west);
293      \path<8-> [line] (eighth.east) -- (twentyeighth.west);
294      \path<8-> [line,dashed] (third.east) -- (eighth.west);
295      \path<8-> [line] (eighth.east) -- (seventeen.west);
296      \path<9-> [line] (third.east) -- (ninth.west);
297      \path<10-> [line,dashed] (third.east) -- (tenth.west);   
298   \end{tikzpicture}
299\end{frame}
300
301%Folie 13
302\begin{frame}
303   \frametitle{PALM - Main Modes of Operation}
304   \begin{itemize}
305      \item<1->{\textbf{Interactive mode}}
306      \begin{itemize}
307         \item<2->{PALM is run in interactive shell (terminal session)}
308         \item<3->{CPU time as well as number of processors for interactive runs is limited on many systems}
309         \item<4->{restart runs (job chain) are not possible}
310         \item<5->{only requires appropriate settings in the configuration file}
311      \end{itemize}
312      \item<6->\textbf{{Batch mode (running batch jobs)}}
313      \begin{itemize}
314         \item<7->{requires a batch queueing system (e.g. NQS, PBS, Loadleveler, etc.) on the computer in use}
315         \item<8->{still may require manual adjustments of PALM scripts (\textbf{mrun, mbuild, subjob})}
316      \end{itemize}
317   \end{itemize}
318\end{frame}
319
320%Folie 14
321\begin{frame}
322   \begin{itemize}     
323      \item<1->{\textbf{Running batch jobs on remote computers}}
324      \begin{itemize}
325         \item<2->{requires a batch queueing system on the remote computer}
326         \item<3->{requires ssh/scp access of the remote computer (in both directions “local $\leftrightarrow$ remote“),
327                   fixed IP-adresses for local and remote computer are required}
328      \end{itemize}
329      \item<4->\textbf{{Running job chains}}
330      \begin{itemize}
331         \item<5->{requires a batch queueing system (+ ssh/scp access)}
332      \end{itemize}
333   \end{itemize}
334\end{frame}
335
336%Folie 15
337\begin{frame}
338   \frametitle{PALM - Scripts for Operating}
339   {\scriptsize PALM is operated by two scripts, named \textbf{mbuild} and \textbf{mrun}. \textbf{mrun} itself calls some helper programs and, if a batch job is to be submitted, the script \textbf{subjob}.}
340   \begin{itemize}
341      \item<2->{\textbf{mrun}}
342      \begin{itemize}
343         \item<3->{{\scriptsize script for running PALM (interactive or batch)}}
344      \end{itemize}
345      \item<4->{\textbf{mbuild}}
346      \begin{itemize}
347         \item<5->{{\scriptsize script for generating a pre-compiled PALM version (object files)}}
348      \end{itemize}
349      \item<6->{\textbf{subjob}}
350      \begin{itemize}
351         \item<7->{{\scriptsize script for generating an submitting batch jobs}}
352      \end{itemize}
353      \item<8->{\textbf{helper programs}}
354      \begin{itemize}
355         \item<9->{{\scriptsize small FORTRAN programs, needed e.g. for interpreting the configuration file and for collecting output data (\texttt{interpret-config.x}, \texttt{combine-plot-fields.x})}}
356      \end{itemize}
357   \end{itemize}
358
359   \tikzstyle{white} = [rectangle, text width=0.25\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
360   \tikzstyle{white1} = [rectangle, text width=0.95\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
361   \tikzstyle{line} = [draw, -]
362   \tikzstyle{green} = [rectangle, draw, fill=green!20, text width=0.15\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
363
364   \begin{tikzpicture}[auto, node distance=0]
365      \uncover<10->{\node [white] (first) {{Location of scripts:}};}
366      \uncover<11->{\node [green, right=0.5cm of first] (second) {\textbf{trunk/} };}   
367      \uncover<11->{\node [white, right=0.5cm of second] (third) {{}};}
368      \uncover<11->{\node [green, below=0.15cm of third] (fourth) {\textbf{SCRIPTS/}};}
369      \path<11-> [line] (second.east) -- (fourth.west);
370      \uncover<11->{\node [white1, below=0.65cm of second] (fifth) {{The scripts have a large number of options. A short summary of available options can be listed by giving the question mark as the only option, e.g.  \texttt{mrun ?}}};}
371   \end{tikzpicture}
372\end{frame}
373
374%Folie 16
375\begin{frame}
376   \frametitle{PALM - Configuration File}
377   {\scriptsize \textbf{mrun and mbuild} require a lot of settings (which depend on the respective computer system used), which have to be given in a configuration file with default name  \texttt{.mrun.config}}\\
378   \begin{itemize}
379      \item<1->{\textbf{Main purposes of the configuration file:}}
380      \begin{itemize}
381         \item<2->{setting of compiler options}
382         \item<3->{setting of paths for libraries (e.g. netCDF library)}
383         \item<4->{setting of environment variables}
384         \item<5->{definition of (UNIX-)commands to be executed before or after PALM execution}
385         \item<6->{handling of input/output files by file connection statements}
386      \end{itemize}
387   \end{itemize}
388
389   \tikzstyle{white} = [rectangle, text width=0.3\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
390   \tikzstyle{yellow} = [rectangle, draw, fill=yellow!20, text width=0.2\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
391   \tikzstyle{line} = [draw, -]
392   \tikzstyle{green} = [rectangle, draw, fill=green!20, text width=0.2\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
393
394   \begin{tikzpicture}[auto, node distance=0]
395      \uncover<7->{\node [white] (first) {{Default position for \\\texttt{.mrun.config}:}};}
396      \uncover<8->{\node [yellow, right=0.2cm of first] (second) {\textbf{home/} };}
397      \uncover<9->{\node [yellow, right=0.25cm of second] (third) {\textbf{palm/}};}
398      \uncover<10->{\node [yellow, right=0.25cm of third] (fourth) {\textbf{current-version/}};}
399      \path<9-> [line] (second.east) -- (third.west);
400      \path<10-> [line] (third.east) -- (fourth.west);
401      \uncover<11->{\node [white, below=0.15cm of first] (fifth) {{A default version of this file \texttt{.mrun.config.default} \\(to be adjusted by the user) can be found in:}};}
402      \uncover<12->{\node [green, below=0.35cm of second] (sixth) {\textbf{trunk/}};}
403      \uncover<13->{\node [green, below=0.7cm of third] (seventh) {\textbf{SCRIPTS/}};}
404      \path<13-> [line] (sixth.east) -- (seventh.west);
405   \end{tikzpicture}   
406\end{frame}
407
408%Folie 17
409\begin{frame}
410   \frametitle{PALM - Other Requirements for Running}
411
412   \tikzstyle{alert} = [rectangle, draw, text width=0.8\textwidth, font=\scriptsize]
413
414   \begin{tikzpicture}[auto, node distance=0]
415      \uncover<2->{\node [alert] (first) {\textbf{The following things are not provided with the download!}};}
416   \end{tikzpicture}
417
418   \begin{itemize}
419      \item<3->{Korn-Shell (/bin/ksh), either AT and T or public domain}
420      \item<4->{subversion, a version control system (www.tigris.org)}
421      \begin{itemize}
422         \item<5->{needed for downloading the PALM code}
423      \end{itemize}
424      \item<6->{FORTRAN 90/95 compiler}
425      \item<7->{MPI-library (must fit to the compiler!), MPI-2 not required}
426      \item<8->{netCDF-library (see www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf/)}
427      \begin{itemize}
428         \item<9->{needed for data output}
429      \end{itemize}
430      \item<10->{graphics software capable to read netCDF data format}
431      \begin{itemize}
432         \item<11->{e.g. NCL, IDL, ferret}
433      \end{itemize}
434      \item<12->{Batch-system}
435      \item<13->{ssh/scp connection to the remote host (both ways)}
436   \end{itemize}
437\end{frame}
438
439\end{document}
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