source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 3597

Last change on this file since 3597 was 3597, checked in by maronga, 3 years ago

revised calculation of near surface air potential temperature

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of the PALM model system.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
6! terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
7! Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
8! version.
9!
10! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
11! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
12! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
13!
14! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
15! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
16!
17! Copyright 1997-2018 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
18!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
19!
20! Current revisions:
21! ------------------
22!
23!
24! Former revisions:
25! -----------------
26! $Id: time_integration.f90 3597 2018-12-04 08:40:18Z maronga $
27! Removed call to calculation of near air (10 cm) potential temperature (now in
28! surface layer fluxes)
29!
30! 3589 2018-11-30 15:09:51Z suehring
31! Move the control parameter "salsa" from salsa_mod to control_parameters
32! (M. Kurppa)
33!
34! 3582 2018-11-29 19:16:36Z suehring
35! dom_dwd_user, Schrempf:
36! Changes due to merge of uv exposure model into biometeorology_mod.
37!
38! 3525 2018-11-14 16:06:14Z kanani
39! Changes related to clean-up of biometeorology (dom_dwd_user)
40!
41! 3524 2018-11-14 13:36:44Z raasch
42! unused variables removed
43!
44! 3484 2018-11-02 14:41:25Z hellstea
45! pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation is premanently removed
46!
47! 3473 2018-10-30 20:50:15Z suehring
48! new module for virtual measurements introduced
49!
50! 3472 2018-10-30 20:43:50Z suehring
51! Add indoor model (kanani, srissman, tlang)
52!
53! 3467 2018-10-30 19:05:21Z suehring
54! Implementation of a new aerosol module salsa.
55!
56! 3448 2018-10-29 18:14:31Z kanani
57! Add biometeorology
58!
59! 3421 2018-10-24 18:39:32Z gronemeier
60! Surface data output
61!
62! 3418 2018-10-24 16:07:39Z kanani
63! call to material_heat_model now with check if spinup runs (rvtils)
64!
65! 3378 2018-10-19 12:34:59Z kanani
66! merge from radiation branch (r3362) into trunk
67! (moh.hefny):
68! Bugfix in the if statement to call radiation_interaction
69!
70! 3347 2018-10-15 14:21:08Z suehring
71! - offline nesting separated from large-scale forcing module
72! - changes for synthetic turbulence generator
73!
74! 3343 2018-10-15 10:38:52Z suehring
75! - Formatting, clean-up, comments (kanani)
76! - Added CALL to chem_emissions_setup (Russo)
77! - Code added for decycling chemistry (basit)
78!
79! 3294 2018-10-01 02:37:10Z raasch
80! changes concerning modularization of ocean option
81!
82! 3274 2018-09-24 15:42:55Z knoop
83! Modularization of all bulk cloud physics code components
84!
85! 3241 2018-09-12 15:02:00Z raasch
86! unused variables removed
87!
88! 3198 2018-08-15 09:23:10Z sward
89! Added multi_agent_system_end; defined start time for MAS relative to
90! time_since_reference_point
91!
92! 3183 2018-07-27 14:25:55Z suehring
93! Replace simulated_time by time_since_reference_point in COSMO nesting mode.
94! Rename subroutines and variables in COSMO nesting mode
95!
96! 3182 2018-07-27 13:36:03Z suehring
97! Added multi agent system
98!
99! 3042 2018-05-25 10:44:37Z schwenkel
100! Changed the name specific humidity to mixing ratio
101!
102! 3040 2018-05-25 10:22:08Z schwenkel
103! Fixed bug in IF statement
104! Ensure that the time when calling the radiation to be the time step of the
105! pre-calculated time when first calculate the positions of the sun
106!
107! 3004 2018-04-27 12:33:25Z Giersch
108! First call of flow_statistics has been removed. It is already called in
109! run_control itself
110!
111! 2984 2018-04-18 11:51:30Z hellstea
112! CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation is removed (so far only commented out)
113! as seemingly unnecessary.
114!
115! 2941 2018-04-03 11:54:58Z kanani
116! Deduct spinup_time from RUN_CONTROL output of main 3d run
117! (use time_since_reference_point instead of simulated_time)
118!
119! 2938 2018-03-27 15:52:42Z suehring
120! Nesting of dissipation rate in case of RANS mode and TKE-e closure is applied
121!
122! 2936 2018-03-27 14:49:27Z suehring
123! Little formatting adjustment.
124!
125! 2817 2018-02-19 16:32:21Z knoop
126! Preliminary gust module interface implemented
127!
128! 2801 2018-02-14 16:01:55Z thiele
129! Changed lpm from subroutine to module.
130! Introduce particle transfer in nested models.
131!
132! 2776 2018-01-31 10:44:42Z Giersch
133! Variable use_synthetic_turbulence_generator has been abbreviated
134!
135! 2773 2018-01-30 14:12:54Z suehring
136! - Nesting for chemical species
137!
138! 2766 2018-01-22 17:17:47Z kanani
139! Removed preprocessor directive __chem
140!
141! 2718 2018-01-02 08:49:38Z maronga
142! Corrected "Former revisions" section
143!
144! 2696 2017-12-14 17:12:51Z kanani
145! - Change in file header (GPL part)
146! - Implementation of uv exposure model (FK)
147! - Moved vnest_boundary_conds_khkm from tcm_diffusivities to here (TG)
148! - renamed diffusivities to tcm_diffusivities (TG)
149! - implement prognostic equation for diss (TG)
150! - Moved/commented CALL to chem_emissions (FK)
151! - Added CALL to chem_emissions (FK)
152! - Implementation of chemistry module (FK)
153! - Calls for setting boundary conditions in USM and LSM (MS)
154! - Large-scale forcing with larger-scale models implemented (MS)
155! - Rename usm_radiation into radiation_interactions; merge with branch
156!   radiation (MS)
157! - added call for usm_green_heat_model for green building surfaces (RvT)
158! - added call for usm_temperature_near_surface for use in indoor model (RvT)
159!
160! 2617 2017-11-16 12:47:24Z suehring
161! Bugfix, assure that the reference state does not become zero.
162!
163! 2563 2017-10-19 15:36:10Z Giersch
164! Variable wind_turbine moved to module control_parameters
165!
166! 2365 2017-08-21 14:59:59Z kanani
167! Vertical grid nesting implemented (SadiqHuq)
168!
169! 2320 2017-07-21 12:47:43Z suehring
170! Set bottom boundary conditions after nesting interpolation and anterpolation
171!
172! 2299 2017-06-29 10:14:38Z maronga
173! Call of soil model adjusted
174!
175! 2292 2017-06-20 09:51:42Z schwenkel
176! Implementation of new microphysic scheme: cloud_scheme = 'morrison'
177! includes two more prognostic equations for cloud drop concentration (nc) 
178! and cloud water content (qc).
179!
180! 2271 2017-06-09 12:34:55Z sward
181! Start timestep message changed
182!
183! 2259 2017-06-08 09:09:11Z gronemeier
184! Implemented synthetic turbulence generator
185!
186! 2233 2017-05-30 18:08:54Z suehring
187!
188! 2232 2017-05-30 17:47:52Z suehring
189! Adjustments to new topography and surface concept
190! Modify passed parameters for disturb_field
191!
192! 2178 2017-03-17 11:07:39Z hellstea
193! Setting perturbations at all times near inflow boundary is removed
194! in case of nested boundaries
195!
196! 2174 2017-03-13 08:18:57Z maronga
197! Added support for nesting with cloud microphysics
198!
199! 2118 2017-01-17 16:38:49Z raasch
200! OpenACC directives and related code removed
201!
202! 2050 2016-11-08 15:00:55Z gronemeier
203! Implement turbulent outflow condition
204!
205! 2031 2016-10-21 15:11:58Z knoop
206! renamed variable rho to rho_ocean
207!
208! 2011 2016-09-19 17:29:57Z kanani
209! Flag urban_surface is now defined in module control_parameters,
210! removed commented CALLs of global_min_max.
211!
212! 2007 2016-08-24 15:47:17Z kanani
213! Added CALLs for new urban surface model
214!
215! 2000 2016-08-20 18:09:15Z knoop
216! Forced header and separation lines into 80 columns
217!
218! 1976 2016-07-27 13:28:04Z maronga
219! Simplified calls to radiation model
220!
221! 1960 2016-07-12 16:34:24Z suehring
222! Separate humidity and passive scalar
223!
224! 1957 2016-07-07 10:43:48Z suehring
225! flight module added
226!
227! 1919 2016-05-27 14:51:23Z raasch
228! Initial version of purely vertical nesting introduced.
229!
230! 1918 2016-05-27 14:35:57Z raasch
231! determination of time step moved to the end of the time step loop,
232! the first time step is now always calculated before the time step loop (i.e.
233! also in case of restart runs)
234!
235! 1914 2016-05-26 14:44:07Z witha
236! Added call for wind turbine model
237!
238! 1878 2016-04-19 12:30:36Z hellstea
239! Synchronization for nested runs rewritten
240!
241! 1853 2016-04-11 09:00:35Z maronga
242! Adjusted for use with radiation_scheme = constant
243!
244! 1849 2016-04-08 11:33:18Z hoffmann
245! Adapted for modularization of microphysics
246!
247! 1833 2016-04-07 14:23:03Z raasch
248! spectrum renamed spectra_mod, spectra related variables moved to spectra_mod
249!
250! 1831 2016-04-07 13:15:51Z hoffmann
251! turbulence renamed collision_turbulence
252!
253! 1822 2016-04-07 07:49:42Z hoffmann
254! icloud_scheme replaced by microphysics_*
255!
256! 1808 2016-04-05 19:44:00Z raasch
257! output message in case unscheduled radiation calls removed
258!
259! 1797 2016-03-21 16:50:28Z raasch
260! introduction of different datatransfer modes
261!
262! 1791 2016-03-11 10:41:25Z raasch
263! call of pmci_update_new removed
264!
265! 1786 2016-03-08 05:49:27Z raasch
266! +module spectrum
267!
268! 1783 2016-03-06 18:36:17Z raasch
269! switch back of netcdf data format for mask output moved to the mask output
270! routine
271!
272! 1781 2016-03-03 15:12:23Z raasch
273! some pmc calls removed at the beginning (before timeloop),
274! pmc initialization moved to the main program
275!
276! 1764 2016-02-28 12:45:19Z raasch
277! PMC_ACTIVE flags removed,
278! bugfix: nest synchronization after first call of timestep
279!
280! 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea
281! Introduction of nested domain feature
282!
283! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
284! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
285!
286! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
287! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
288! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
289!
290! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
291! Code annotations made doxygen readable
292!
293! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
294! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
295! for particles
296!
297! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
298! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
299!
300! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
301! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
302!
303! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
304! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
305!
306! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
307! location messages modified
308!
309! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
310! location messages added
311!
312! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
313! CALL of nudge_ref added
314! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
315!
316! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
317! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
318! +sums_ls_l
319! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
320
321! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
322! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
323!
324! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
325! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
326! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
327! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
328! old module precision_kind is removed,
329! revision history before 2012 removed,
330! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
331! all variable declaration statements
332! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
333! module interfaces removed
334!
335! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
336! +netcdf_data_format_save
337! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
338! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
339!
340! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
341! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
342!
343! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
344! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
345!
346! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
347! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
348! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
349! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
350! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
351! host update of arrays before timestep is called
352!
353! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
354! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
355! small bugfix for background communication
356!
357! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
358! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
359!
360! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
361! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
362! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
363! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
364! remaining points,
365! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
366! here
367!
368! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
369! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
370!
371! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
372! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
373! openACC directives updated
374! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
375!
376! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
377! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
378! openACC directives updated
379!
380! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
381! unused variables removed
382!
383! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
384! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
385!
386! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
387! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
388!
389! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
390! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
391!
392! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
393! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
394!
395! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
396! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
397!
398! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
399! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
400!
401! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
402! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
403!
404! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
405! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
406!
407! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
408! Initial revision
409!
410!
411! Description:
412! ------------
413!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
414!> output
415!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
416 SUBROUTINE time_integration
417 
418
419    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
420        ONLY:  ws_statistics
421
422    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
423        ONLY:  diss, diss_p, dzu, e, e_p, nc, nc_p, nr, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, &
424               q_init, q, qc, qc_p, ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr, qr_p, q_p,      &
425               ref_state, rho_ocean, s, s_p, sa_p, tend, u, u_p, v, vpt,       &
426               v_p, w, w_p
427
428    USE biometeorology_mod,                                                    &
429        ONLY:  bio_calculate_thermal_index_maps, time_bio_results,             &
430               thermal_comfort, uvem_calc_exposure, uv_exposure
431
432    USE bulk_cloud_model_mod,                                                  &
433        ONLY: bulk_cloud_model, calc_liquid_water_content,                     &
434              collision_turbulence, microphysics_morrison, microphysics_seifert
435
436    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
437        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
438
439    USE chem_emissions_mod,                                                    &
440        ONLY:  chem_emissions_setup
441
442    USE chem_modules,                                                          &
443        ONLY:  bc_cs_t_val, cs_name, do_emis, nspec, nspec_out
444
445    USE chemistry_model_mod,                                                   &
446        ONLY:  chem_boundary_conds, chem_species
447
448    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
449        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, air_chemistry,        &
450               average_count_3d, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
451               bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val, bc_q_t_val, biometeorology,  &
452               call_psolver_at_all_substeps,  child_domain, cloud_droplets,    &
453               constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,                         &
454               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
455               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
456               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
457               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
458               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
459               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
460               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control, end_time,    &
461               first_call_lpm, first_call_mas, galilei_transformation,         &
462               humidity, indoor_model, intermediate_timestep_count,            &
463               intermediate_timestep_count_max,                                &
464               land_surface, large_scale_forcing,                              &
465               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks, mid,              &
466               multi_agent_system_end, multi_agent_system_start,               &
467               nesting_offline, neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,       &
468               ocean_mode, passive_scalar, pt_reference,                       &
469               pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, rans_mode,                    &
470               rans_tke_e, run_coupled, salsa,                                 &
471               simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,                             &
472               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
473               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
474               skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface, stop_dt,             &
475               surface_data_output, terminate_coupled, terminate_run,          &
476               timestep_scheme,                                                &
477               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
478               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
479               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
480               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
481               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
482               turbulent_inflow, turbulent_outflow, urban_surface,             &
483               use_initial_profile_as_reference,                               &
484               use_single_reference_value, u_gtrans, v_gtrans,                 &
485               virtual_flight, virtual_measurement, wind_turbine,              &
486               ws_scheme_mom, ws_scheme_sca
487
488    USE cpulog,                                                                &
489        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
490
491    USE date_and_time_mod,                                                     &
492        ONLY:  calc_date_and_time, hour_call_emis, hour_of_year
493
494    USE flight_mod,                                                            &
495        ONLY:  flight_measurement
496
497    USE gust_mod,                                                              &
498        ONLY:  gust_actions, gust_module_enabled
499
500    USE indices,                                                               &
501        ONLY:  nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr, nxrg, nzb, nzt
502
503    USE indoor_model_mod,                                                      &
504        ONLY:  dt_indoor, im_main_heatcool, skip_time_do_indoor, time_indoor
505
506    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
507        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
508
509    USE interfaces
510
511    USE kinds
512
513    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
514        ONLY:  lsm_boundary_condition, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,     &
515               skip_time_do_lsm
516
517    USE lsf_nudging_mod,                                                       &
518        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert, nudge_ref
519
520    USE multi_agent_system_mod,                                                &
521        ONLY:  agents_active, multi_agent_system
522
523    USE nesting_offl_mod,                                                      &
524        ONLY:  nesting_offl_bc, nesting_offl_mass_conservation
525       
526    USE netcdf_data_input_mod,                                                 &
527        ONLY:  chem_emis, chem_emis_att, nest_offl,                            &
528               netcdf_data_input_offline_nesting
529
530    USE ocean_mod,                                                             &
531        ONLY:  prho_reference
532
533    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
534        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
535               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
536
537    USE pegrid
538
539    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
540        ONLY:  nested_run, nesting_mode, pmci_boundary_conds, pmci_datatrans,  &
541               pmci_synchronize
542
543    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
544        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
545
546    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
547        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_cache, prognostic_equations_vector
548
549    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
550        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation, radiation_control,&
551              radiation_interaction, radiation_interactions,                   &
552              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
553         
554    USE salsa_mod,                                                             &
555        ONLY: aerosol_number, aerosol_mass, nbins, ncc_tot, ngast,             &
556              salsa_boundary_conds, salsa_gas, salsa_gases_from_chem,          &
557              skip_time_do_salsa                     
558
559    USE spectra_mod,                                                           &
560        ONLY: average_count_sp, averaging_interval_sp, calc_spectra, dt_dosp,  &
561              skip_time_dosp
562
563    USE statistics,                                                            &
564        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
565
566    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
567        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
568
569    USE surface_mod,                                                           &
570        ONLY:  surf_def_h, surf_lsm_h, surf_usm_h
571
572    USE surface_output_mod,                                                    &
573        ONLY:  average_count_surf, averaging_interval_surf, dt_dosurf,         &
574               dt_dosurf_av, surface_output, surface_output_averaging,         &
575               skip_time_dosurf, skip_time_dosurf_av, time_dosurf,             &
576               time_dosurf_av
577
578    USE turbulence_closure_mod,                                                &
579        ONLY:  tcm_diffusivities, production_e_init
580
581    USE urban_surface_mod,                                                     &
582        ONLY:  usm_boundary_condition, usm_material_heat_model,                &
583               usm_material_model,                                             &
584               usm_surface_energy_balance, usm_green_heat_model
585
586    USE synthetic_turbulence_generator_mod,                                    &
587        ONLY:  dt_stg_call, dt_stg_adjust, parametrize_inflow_turbulence,      &
588               stg_adjust, stg_main, time_stg_adjust, time_stg_call,           &
589               use_syn_turb_gen   
590
591    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
592        ONLY:  user_actions
593
594
595    USE wind_turbine_model_mod,                                                &
596        ONLY:  wtm_forces
597
598    USE lpm_mod,                                                               &
599        ONLY:  lpm
600
601    USE vertical_nesting_mod,                                                  &
602        ONLY:  vnested, vnest_anterpolate, vnest_anterpolate_e,                &
603               vnest_boundary_conds, vnest_boundary_conds_khkm,                & 
604               vnest_deallocate, vnest_init, vnest_init_fine,                  &
605               vnest_start_time
606               
607    USE virtual_measurement_mod,                                               &
608        ONLY:  vm_sampling, vm_time_start
609
610    IMPLICIT NONE
611
612    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string   !<
613   
614    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  b !< index for aerosol size bins   
615    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  c !< index for chemical compounds in aerosol size bins
616    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  g !< index for gaseous compounds
617    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  lsp
618    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  lsp_usr   !<
619    INTEGER(iwp)      ::  n         !< loop counter for chemistry species
620
621    REAL(wp) ::  dt_3d_old  !< temporary storage of timestep to be used for
622                            !< steering of run control output interval
623    REAL(wp) ::  time_since_reference_point_save  !< original value of
624                                                  !< time_since_reference_point
625
626!
627!-- At beginning determine the first time step
628    CALL timestep
629!
630!-- Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
631    IF ( nested_run )  THEN
632!
633!--    Synchronization by unifying the time step.
634!--    Global minimum of all time-steps is used for all.
635       CALL pmci_synchronize
636    ENDIF
637
638!
639!-- Determine and print out the run control quantities before the first time
640!-- step of this run. For the initial run, some statistics (e.g. divergence)
641!-- need to be determined first --> CALL flow_statistics at the beginning of
642!-- run_control
643    CALL run_control
644!
645!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
646!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
647    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled .AND. .NOT. vnested)  THEN
648!
649!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
650!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
651       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling  .AND.  terminate_coupled == 0 )
652          CALL surface_coupler
653          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
654       ENDDO
655       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp  .AND.                                      &
656           time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling )                          &
657       THEN
658          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
659       ENDIF
660    ENDIF
661
662#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
663!
664!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
665    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
666#endif
667
668    CALL location_message( 'starting timestep-sequence', .TRUE. )
669!
670!-- Start of the time loop
671    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
672                .NOT. terminate_run )
673
674       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
675!
676!--    Vertical nesting: initialize fine grid
677       IF ( vnested ) THEN
678          IF ( .NOT. vnest_init  .AND.  simulated_time >= vnest_start_time )  THEN
679             CALL cpu_log( log_point(80), 'vnest_init', 'start' )
680             CALL vnest_init_fine
681             vnest_init = .TRUE.
682             CALL cpu_log( log_point(80), 'vnest_init', 'stop' )
683          ENDIF
684       ENDIF
685!
686!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
687!--    LSF_DATA
688       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
689           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
690           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
691       ENDIF
692
693!
694!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
695!--    NUDGING_DATA
696       IF ( nudging )  THEN
697           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
698!
699!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
700!--        boundary condition
701           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
702           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
703           IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
704              DO  lsp = 1, nspec
705                 bc_cs_t_val = (  chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init(nzt+1)       &
706                                - chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init(nzt) )       &
707                               / dzu(nzt+1)
708              ENDDO
709           ENDIF
710       ENDIF
711!
712!--    If forcing by larger-scale models is applied, check if new data
713!--    at domain boundaries need to be read.
714       IF ( nesting_offline )  THEN
715          IF ( nest_offl%time(nest_offl%tind_p) <= time_since_reference_point )&
716             CALL netcdf_data_input_offline_nesting
717       ENDIF
718
719!
720!--    Execute the gust module actions
721       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
722          CALL gust_actions( 'before_timestep' )
723       ENDIF
724
725!
726!--    Execute the user-defined actions
727       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
728
729!
730!--    Calculate forces by wind turbines
731       IF ( wind_turbine )  THEN
732
733          CALL cpu_log( log_point(55), 'wind_turbine', 'start' )
734
735          CALL wtm_forces
736
737          CALL cpu_log( log_point(55), 'wind_turbine', 'stop' )
738
739       ENDIF   
740       
741!
742!--    Start of intermediate step loop
743       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
744       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
745                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
746
747          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
748
749!
750!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
751!--       on the timestep scheme
752          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
753
754!
755!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
756!--       global communication
757          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
758               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
759!
760!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
761!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
762!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
763             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
764                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
765                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
766             ENDIF
767             IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
768                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho_ocean, 64 )
769                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
770             ENDIF
771             IF ( humidity )  THEN
772                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
773                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
774             ENDIF
775!
776!--          Assure that ref_state does not become zero at any level
777!--          ( might be the case if a vertical level is completely occupied
778!--            with topography ).
779             ref_state = MERGE( MAXVAL(ref_state), ref_state,                  &
780                                ref_state == 0.0_wp )
781          ENDIF
782
783          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
784          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
785               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
786!
787!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
788!--       means of u, v, pt and q
789          IF ( nudging )  THEN
790             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
791             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
792             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
793             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
794             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
795          ENDIF
796
797!
798!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
799!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
800!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
801!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
802!--       inlining problems.
803          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
804             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
805          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
806             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
807          ENDIF
808
809!
810!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
811!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
812!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
813!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
814          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
815               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
816               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
817             CALL lpm
818             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
819          ENDIF
820
821!
822!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and mixing ratio.
823!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
824!--       advec_particles.
825          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
826               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
827          THEN
828             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
829          ENDIF
830
831!
832!--       Movement of agents in multi agent system
833          IF ( agents_active  .AND.                                            &
834               time_since_reference_point >= multi_agent_system_start  .AND.   &
835               time_since_reference_point <= multi_agent_system_end    .AND.   &
836               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
837             CALL multi_agent_system
838             first_call_mas = .FALSE.
839          ENDIF
840
841!
842!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
843          CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
844
845          CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
846          CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
847          CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
848          CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
849          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
850          IF ( rans_tke_e  .OR.  wang_kernel  .OR.  collision_turbulence       &
851               .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles )  THEN
852             IF ( rans_tke_e )  THEN
853                CALL exchange_horiz( diss_p, nbgp )
854             ELSE
855                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
856             ENDIF
857          ENDIF
858          IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
859             CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
860             CALL exchange_horiz( rho_ocean, nbgp )
861             CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
862          ENDIF
863          IF ( humidity )  THEN
864             CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
865             IF ( bulk_cloud_model .AND. microphysics_morrison )  THEN
866                CALL exchange_horiz( qc_p, nbgp )
867                CALL exchange_horiz( nc_p, nbgp )
868             ENDIF
869             IF ( bulk_cloud_model .AND. microphysics_seifert )  THEN
870                CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
871                CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
872             ENDIF
873          ENDIF
874          IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
875             CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
876             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
877             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
878             CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
879          ENDIF
880          IF ( passive_scalar )  CALL exchange_horiz( s_p, nbgp )
881          IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
882             DO  lsp = 1, nspec
883                CALL exchange_horiz( chem_species(lsp)%conc_p, nbgp )
884!
885!--             kanani: Push chem_boundary_conds after CALL boundary_conds
886                lsp_usr = 1
887                DO WHILE ( TRIM( cs_name( lsp_usr ) ) /= 'novalue' )
888                   IF ( TRIM(chem_species(lsp)%name) == TRIM(cs_name(lsp_usr)) )  THEN
889                      CALL chem_boundary_conds( chem_species(lsp)%conc_p,              &
890                                                chem_species(lsp)%conc_pr_init )
891                   ENDIF
892                   lsp_usr = lsp_usr + 1
893                ENDDO
894             ENDDO
895          ENDIF
896
897          IF ( salsa  .AND.  time_since_reference_point >= skip_time_do_salsa )&
898          THEN
899             CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(91), 'salsa exch-horiz ', 'start' )
900             DO  b = 1, nbins
901                CALL exchange_horiz( aerosol_number(b)%conc_p, nbgp )
902                CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
903                CALL salsa_boundary_conds( aerosol_number(b)%conc_p,           &
904                                           aerosol_number(b)%init )
905                CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
906                DO  c = 1, ncc_tot
907                   CALL exchange_horiz( aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%conc_p,    &
908                                        nbgp )
909                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
910                   CALL salsa_boundary_conds( aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%conc_p,&
911                                              aerosol_mass((c-1)*nbins+b)%init )
912                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
913                ENDDO
914             ENDDO
915             IF ( .NOT. salsa_gases_from_chem )  THEN
916                DO  g = 1, ngast
917                   CALL exchange_horiz( salsa_gas(g)%conc_p, nbgp ) 
918                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'start' )
919                   CALL salsa_boundary_conds( salsa_gas(g)%conc_p,             &
920                                              salsa_gas(g)%init )
921                   CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(93), 'salsa decycle', 'stop' )
922             ENDDO
923             ENDIF
924             CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(91), 'salsa exch-horiz ', 'stop' )
925          ENDIF         
926          CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
927
928!
929!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
930!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
931          CALL boundary_conds
932!
933!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
934          CALL swap_timelevel
935
936!
937!--       Vertical nesting: Interpolate fine grid data to the coarse grid
938          IF ( vnest_init ) THEN
939             CALL cpu_log( log_point(81), 'vnest_anterpolate', 'start' )
940             CALL vnest_anterpolate
941             CALL cpu_log( log_point(81), 'vnest_anterpolate', 'stop' )
942          ENDIF
943
944          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
945
946             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
947!
948!--          Domain nesting. The data transfer subroutines pmci_parent_datatrans
949!--          and pmci_child_datatrans are called inside the wrapper
950!--          subroutine pmci_datatrans according to the control parameters
951!--          nesting_mode and nesting_datatransfer_mode.
952!--          TO_DO: why is nesting_mode given as a parameter here?
953             CALL pmci_datatrans( nesting_mode )
954
955             IF ( TRIM( nesting_mode ) == 'two-way' .OR.                       &
956                  nesting_mode == 'vertical' )  THEN
957!
958!--             Exchange_horiz is needed for all parent-domains after the
959!--             anterpolation
960                CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
961                CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
962                CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
963                IF ( .NOT. neutral )  CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
964
965                IF ( humidity )  THEN
966
967                   CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
968
969                   IF ( bulk_cloud_model  .AND.  microphysics_morrison )  THEN
970                       CALL exchange_horiz( qc, nbgp )
971                       CALL exchange_horiz( nc, nbgp )
972                   ENDIF
973                   IF ( bulk_cloud_model  .AND.  microphysics_seifert )  THEN
974                       CALL exchange_horiz( qr, nbgp )
975                       CALL exchange_horiz( nr, nbgp )
976                   ENDIF
977
978                ENDIF
979
980                IF ( passive_scalar )  CALL exchange_horiz( s, nbgp ) 
981               
982                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
983
984                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion  .AND.  rans_mode  .AND.         &
985                                                      rans_tke_e )             &
986                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
987
988                IF ( air_chemistry )  THEN
989                   DO  n = 1, nspec     
990                      CALL exchange_horiz( chem_species(n)%conc, nbgp ) 
991                   ENDDO
992                ENDIF
993
994             ENDIF
995!
996!--          Set boundary conditions again after interpolation and anterpolation.
997             CALL pmci_boundary_conds
998
999             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
1000
1001          ENDIF
1002
1003!
1004!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
1005!--       when a sloping surface is used
1006          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
1007             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
1008                                                    pt_slope_offset
1009             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
1010                                                    pt_slope_offset
1011          ENDIF
1012
1013!
1014!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
1015          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
1016
1017!
1018!--       Set values at outflow boundary using the special outflow condition
1019          IF ( turbulent_outflow )  CALL  outflow_turbulence
1020
1021!
1022!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
1023          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
1024               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
1025               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
1026          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
1027               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
1028          THEN
1029             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
1030             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
1031                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
1032                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
1033                   CALL disturb_field( 'u', tend, u )
1034                   CALL disturb_field( 'v', tend, v )
1035                ELSEIF ( ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )            &
1036                     .AND. .NOT. child_domain  .AND.  .NOT.  nesting_offline )  &
1037                THEN
1038!
1039!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
1040!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
1041                   dist_range = 1
1042                   CALL disturb_field( 'u', tend, u )
1043                   CALL disturb_field( 'v', tend, v )
1044                   dist_range = 0
1045                ENDIF
1046                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
1047             ENDIF
1048          ENDIF
1049
1050!
1051!--       Map forcing data derived from larger scale model onto domain
1052!--       boundaries.
1053          IF ( nesting_offline  .AND.  intermediate_timestep_count ==          &
1054                                       intermediate_timestep_count_max  )      &
1055             CALL nesting_offl_bc
1056!
1057!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using synthetic generated turbulence,
1058!--       only once per time step.
1059          IF ( use_syn_turb_gen  .AND.  time_stg_call >= dt_stg_call  .AND.    &
1060             intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )  THEN! &
1061             CALL stg_main
1062          ENDIF
1063!
1064!--       Ensure mass conservation. This need to be done after imposing
1065!--       synthetic turbulence and top boundary condition for pressure is set to
1066!--       Neumann conditions.
1067!--       Is this also required in case of Dirichlet?
1068          IF ( nesting_offline )  CALL nesting_offl_mass_conservation
1069!
1070!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
1071!--       pressure.
1072          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
1073                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
1074
1075             IF (  vnest_init ) THEN
1076!
1077!--             Compute pressure in the CG, interpolate top boundary conditions
1078!--             to the FG and then compute pressure in the FG
1079                IF ( coupling_mode == 'vnested_crse' )  CALL pres
1080
1081                CALL cpu_log( log_point(82), 'vnest_bc', 'start' )
1082                CALL vnest_boundary_conds
1083                CALL cpu_log( log_point(82), 'vnest_bc', 'stop' )
1084 
1085                IF ( coupling_mode == 'vnested_fine' )  CALL pres
1086
1087!--             Anterpolate TKE, satisfy Germano Identity
1088                CALL cpu_log( log_point(83), 'vnest_anter_e', 'start' )
1089                CALL vnest_anterpolate_e
1090                CALL cpu_log( log_point(83), 'vnest_anter_e', 'stop' )
1091
1092             ELSE
1093
1094                CALL pres
1095
1096             ENDIF
1097
1098          ENDIF
1099
1100!
1101!--       If required, compute liquid water content
1102          IF ( bulk_cloud_model )  THEN
1103             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
1104          ENDIF
1105!
1106!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
1107          IF ( humidity )  THEN
1108             CALL compute_vpt
1109          ENDIF
1110
1111!
1112!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
1113          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
1114
1115!
1116!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
1117!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
1118!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
1119             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
1120                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
1121             THEN
1122                CALL ls_forcing_surf( simulated_time )
1123             ENDIF
1124
1125!
1126!--          First the vertical (and horizontal) fluxes in the surface
1127!--          (constant flux) layer are computed
1128             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
1129                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
1130                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
1131                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
1132             ENDIF
1133!
1134!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
1135!--          model. Call for horizontal as well as vertical surfaces
1136             IF ( land_surface .AND. time_since_reference_point >= skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
1137
1138                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
1139!
1140!--             Call for horizontal upward-facing surfaces
1141                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .TRUE., -1 )
1142                CALL lsm_soil_model( .TRUE., -1, .TRUE. )
1143!
1144!--             Call for northward-facing surfaces
1145                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 0 )
1146                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 0, .TRUE. )
1147!
1148!--             Call for southward-facing surfaces
1149                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 1 )
1150                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 1, .TRUE. )
1151!
1152!--             Call for eastward-facing surfaces
1153                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 2 )
1154                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 2, .TRUE. )
1155!
1156!--             Call for westward-facing surfaces
1157                CALL lsm_energy_balance( .FALSE., 3 )
1158                CALL lsm_soil_model( .FALSE., 3, .TRUE. )
1159               
1160!
1161!--             At the end, set boundary conditons for potential temperature
1162!--             and humidity after running the land-surface model. This
1163!--             might be important for the nesting, where arrays are transfered.
1164                CALL lsm_boundary_condition
1165
1166               
1167                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
1168             ENDIF
1169!
1170!--          If required, solve the energy balance for urban surfaces and run
1171!--          the material heat model
1172             IF (urban_surface) THEN
1173                CALL cpu_log( log_point(74), 'urban_surface', 'start' )
1174               
1175                CALL usm_surface_energy_balance( .FALSE. )
1176                IF ( usm_material_model )  THEN
1177                   CALL usm_green_heat_model
1178                   CALL usm_material_heat_model ( .FALSE. )
1179                ENDIF
1180
1181!
1182!--             At the end, set boundary conditons for potential temperature
1183!--             and humidity after running the urban-surface model. This
1184!--             might be important for the nesting, where arrays are transfered.
1185                CALL usm_boundary_condition
1186
1187                CALL cpu_log( log_point(74), 'urban_surface', 'stop' )
1188             ENDIF
1189!
1190!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
1191             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
1192             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
1193                IF ( ocean_mode )  THEN
1194                   CALL tcm_diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
1195                ELSE
1196                   CALL tcm_diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
1197                ENDIF
1198             ELSE
1199                CALL tcm_diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
1200             ENDIF
1201             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
1202!
1203!--          Vertical nesting: set fine grid eddy viscosity top boundary condition
1204             IF ( vnest_init )  CALL vnest_boundary_conds_khkm
1205
1206          ENDIF
1207
1208!
1209!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
1210          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
1211               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. time_since_reference_point >    &
1212               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
1213
1214               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
1215
1216             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
1217             THEN
1218
1219                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
1220
1221                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
1222                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
1223                ENDIF
1224
1225!
1226!--             Adjust the current time to the time step of the radiation model.
1227!--             Needed since radiation is pre-calculated and stored only on apparent
1228!--             solar positions
1229                time_since_reference_point_save = time_since_reference_point
1230                time_since_reference_point =                                   &
1231                                    REAL( FLOOR( time_since_reference_point /  &
1232                                                 dt_radiation), wp )           &
1233                                             * dt_radiation
1234
1235                CALL radiation_control
1236
1237                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
1238
1239                IF ( ( urban_surface  .OR.  land_surface )  .AND.               &
1240                     radiation_interactions )  THEN
1241                   CALL cpu_log( log_point(75), 'radiation_interaction', 'start' )
1242                   CALL radiation_interaction
1243                   CALL cpu_log( log_point(75), 'radiation_interaction', 'stop' )
1244                ENDIF
1245   
1246!
1247!--             Return the current time to its original value
1248                time_since_reference_point = time_since_reference_point_save
1249
1250             ENDIF
1251          ENDIF
1252
1253       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
1254!
1255!--    If required, consider chemical emissions
1256       IF ( air_chemistry  .AND.  do_emis )  THEN
1257!
1258!--       Update the time --> kanani: revise location of this CALL
1259          CALL calc_date_and_time
1260!
1261!--       Call emission routine only once an hour
1262          IF (hour_of_year  .GT.  hour_call_emis )  THEN
1263             CALL chem_emissions_setup( chem_emis_att, chem_emis, nspec_out )
1264             hour_call_emis = hour_of_year
1265          ENDIF
1266       ENDIF
1267
1268!
1269!--    If required, calculate indoor temperature, waste heat, heat flux
1270!--    through wall, etc.
1271!--    dt_indoor steers the frequency of the indoor model calculations
1272       IF (       indoor_model                                                    &
1273            .AND. intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max  &
1274            .AND. time_since_reference_point > skip_time_do_indoor )  THEN
1275
1276          time_indoor = time_indoor + dt_3d
1277
1278          IF ( time_indoor >= dt_indoor )  THEN
1279
1280             time_indoor = time_indoor - dt_indoor
1281
1282             CALL cpu_log( log_point(76), 'indoor_model', 'start' )
1283             CALL im_main_heatcool
1284             CALL cpu_log( log_point(76), 'indoor_model', 'stop' )
1285
1286          ENDIF
1287       ENDIF
1288!
1289!--    Increase simulation time and output times
1290       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
1291       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
1292       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
1293       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
1294       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( time_since_reference_point )
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
1300          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
1301       ENDIF
1302       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
1303          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
1304       ENDIF
1305       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
1306          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
1307       ENDIF
1308       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
1309          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
1310       ENDIF
1311       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
1312          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
1313       ENDIF
1314       DO  mid = 1, masks
1315          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
1316             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
1317          ENDIF
1318       ENDDO
1319       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
1320       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
1321          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
1322       ENDIF
1323       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
1324       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
1325          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
1326       ENDIF
1327       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
1328          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
1329       ENDIF
1330       time_dopr_listing  = time_dopr_listing + dt_3d
1331       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
1332!
1333!--    Increment time-counter for surface output
1334       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1335          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf )  THEN
1336             time_dosurf    = time_dosurf + dt_3d
1337          ENDIF
1338          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf_av )  THEN
1339             time_dosurf_av = time_dosurf_av + dt_3d
1340          ENDIF
1341       ENDIF
1342!
1343!--    In case of synthetic turbulence generation and parametrized turbulence
1344!--    information, update the time counter and if required, adjust the
1345!--    STG to new atmospheric conditions.
1346       IF ( use_syn_turb_gen  )  THEN
1347          IF ( parametrize_inflow_turbulence )  THEN
1348             time_stg_adjust = time_stg_adjust + dt_3d
1349             IF ( time_stg_adjust >= dt_stg_adjust )  CALL stg_adjust
1350          ENDIF
1351          time_stg_call = time_stg_call + dt_3d
1352       ENDIF
1353
1354!
1355!--    Data exchange between coupled models
1356       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled                   &
1357                                          .AND. .NOT. vnested )  THEN
1358          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
1359
1360!
1361!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
1362!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
1363!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
1364!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
1365!--       next restart run.
1366          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
1367             CALL surface_coupler
1368             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
1369          ENDDO
1370       ENDIF
1371
1372!
1373!--    Biometeorology calculation of stationary thermal indices
1374       IF ( biometeorology  .AND.  time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1375!
1376!--       If required, do thermal comfort calculations
1377          IF ( thermal_comfort )  THEN
1378             CALL bio_calculate_thermal_index_maps ( .FALSE. )
1379             time_bio_results = time_since_reference_point
1380          ENDIF
1381!
1382!--       If required, do UV exposure calculations
1383          IF ( uv_exposure )  THEN
1384             CALL uvem_calc_exposure
1385          ENDIF
1386       ENDIF
1387
1388!
1389!--    Execute the gust module actions
1390       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
1391          CALL gust_actions( 'after_integration' )
1392       ENDIF
1393
1394!
1395!--    Execute user-defined actions
1396       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
1397
1398!
1399!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
1400!--    model has moved so far
1401       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
1402          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
1403          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
1404       ENDIF
1405
1406!
1407!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
1408!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
1409!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
1410       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
1411
1412!
1413!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
1414!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
1415!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
1416!--    interval in case of restart runs
1417
1418!
1419!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
1420!--    for this time step
1421       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
1422
1423!
1424!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
1425       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
1426            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
1427            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
1428          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
1429          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
1430             do_sum = .TRUE.
1431             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
1432                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
1433          ENDIF
1434       ENDIF
1435       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
1436
1437!
1438!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1439       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
1440            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
1441            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
1442       THEN
1443          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
1444          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
1445             CALL sum_up_3d_data
1446             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
1447             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
1448          ENDIF
1449       ENDIF
1450!
1451!--    Average surface data
1452       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1453          IF ( averaging_interval_surf /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                        & 
1454               ( dt_dosurf_av - time_dosurf_av ) <= averaging_interval_surf    &
1455          .AND.  simulated_time >= skip_time_dosurf_av )  THEN
1456             IF ( time_dosurf_av >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN       
1457                CALL surface_output_averaging
1458                average_count_surf = average_count_surf + 1
1459             ENDIF
1460          ENDIF
1461       ENDIF
1462
1463!
1464!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
1465       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
1466            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
1467            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
1468          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
1469          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
1470             CALL calc_spectra
1471             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
1472                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
1473          ENDIF
1474       ENDIF
1475
1476!
1477!--    Call flight module and output data
1478       IF ( virtual_flight )  THEN
1479          CALL flight_measurement
1480          CALL data_output_flight
1481       ENDIF
1482!
1483!--    Take virtual measurements
1484       IF ( virtual_measurement  .AND.                                         &
1485            vm_time_start <= time_since_reference_point )  CALL vm_sampling
1486
1487!
1488!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
1489       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1490          CALL print_1d
1491          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1492                                                           dt_3d ) )
1493       ENDIF
1494
1495!
1496!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1497       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1498          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1499          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1500          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1501       ENDIF
1502
1503!
1504!--    Graphic output for time series
1505       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1506          CALL data_output_tseries
1507          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1508       ENDIF
1509
1510!
1511!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1512!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1513       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1514          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1515          CALL data_output_spectra
1516          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1517       ENDIF
1518
1519!
1520!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1521       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1522          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1523          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1524       ENDIF
1525       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1526          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1527          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1528       ENDIF
1529       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1530          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1531          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1532       ENDIF
1533
1534!
1535!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1536       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1537          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1538          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1539       ENDIF
1540
1541!
1542!--    Masked data output
1543       DO  mid = 1, masks
1544          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1545             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1546             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1547                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1548          ENDIF
1549       ENDDO
1550
1551!
1552!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1553       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1554          CALL average_3d_data
1555          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1556          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1557          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1558          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1559          DO  mid = 1, masks
1560             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1561          ENDDO
1562          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1563       ENDIF
1564!
1565!--    Output of surface data, instantaneous and averaged data
1566       IF ( surface_data_output )  THEN
1567          IF ( time_dosurf >= dt_dosurf )  THEN
1568             CALL surface_output( 0 )
1569             time_dosurf = MOD( time_dosurf, MAX( dt_dosurf, dt_3d ) )
1570          ENDIF
1571          IF ( time_dosurf_av >= dt_dosurf_av )  THEN
1572             CALL surface_output( 1 )
1573             time_dosurf_av = MOD( time_dosurf_av, MAX( dt_dosurf_av, dt_3d ) )
1574          ENDIF
1575       ENDIF
1576
1577!
1578!--    Output of particle time series
1579       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1580          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1581               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1582                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1583             CALL data_output_ptseries
1584             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1585          ENDIF
1586       ENDIF
1587
1588!
1589!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1590#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1591       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1592#endif
1593       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1594          CALL data_output_dvrp
1595          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1596       ENDIF
1597#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1598       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1599#endif
1600
1601!
1602!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1603       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  THEN
1604          IF ( surf_def_h(0)%ns >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_def_h(0) )
1605          IF ( surf_lsm_h%ns    >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_lsm_h    )
1606          IF ( surf_usm_h%ns    >= 1 )  CALL disturb_heatflux( surf_usm_h    )
1607       ENDIF
1608
1609!
1610!--    Execute the gust module actions
1611       IF ( gust_module_enabled )  THEN
1612          CALL gust_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1613       ENDIF
1614
1615!
1616!--    Execute user-defined actions
1617       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1618
1619!
1620!--    Determine size of next time step. Save timestep dt_3d because it is
1621!--    newly calculated in routine timestep, but required further below for
1622!--    steering the run control output interval
1623       dt_3d_old = dt_3d
1624       CALL timestep
1625
1626!
1627!--    Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
1628       IF ( nested_run )  THEN
1629!
1630!--       Synchronize by unifying the time step.
1631!--       Global minimum of all time-steps is used for all.
1632          CALL pmci_synchronize
1633       ENDIF
1634
1635!
1636!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
1637!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
1638       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
1639            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
1640       THEN
1641          CALL run_control
1642          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
1643             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
1644                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d_old ) )
1645          ENDIF
1646       ENDIF
1647
1648!
1649!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1650       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1651
1652       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1653
1654
1655    ENDDO   ! time loop
1656
1657!
1658!-- Vertical nesting: Deallocate variables initialized for vertical nesting   
1659    IF ( vnest_init )  CALL vnest_deallocate
1660
1661    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1662
1663#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1664    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1665#endif
1666
1667    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1668
1669 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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