source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 1823

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of PALM.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
6! of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation,
7! either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8!
9! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
10! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
11! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
12!
13! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
14! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
15!
16! Copyright 1997-2016 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
17!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
18!
19! Current revisions:
20! ------------------
21!
22!
23! Former revisions:
24! -----------------
25! $Id: time_integration.f90 1823 2016-04-07 08:57:52Z hoffmann $
26!
27! 1822 2016-04-07 07:49:42Z hoffmann
28! icloud_scheme replaced by microphysics_*
29!
30! 1808 2016-04-05 19:44:00Z raasch
31! output message in case unscheduled radiation calls removed
32!
33! 1797 2016-03-21 16:50:28Z raasch
34! introduction of different datatransfer modes
35!
36! 1791 2016-03-11 10:41:25Z raasch
37! call of pmci_update_new removed
38!
39! 1786 2016-03-08 05:49:27Z raasch
40! +module spectrum
41!
42! 1783 2016-03-06 18:36:17Z raasch
43! switch back of netcdf data format for mask output moved to the mask output
44! routine
45!
46! 1781 2016-03-03 15:12:23Z raasch
47! some pmc calls removed at the beginning (before timeloop),
48! pmc initialization moved to the main program
49!
50! 1764 2016-02-28 12:45:19Z raasch
51! PMC_ACTIVE flags removed,
52! bugfix: nest synchronization after first call of timestep
53!
54! 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea
55! Introduction of nested domain feature
56!
57! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
58! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
59!
60! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
61! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
62! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
63!
64! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
65! Code annotations made doxygen readable
66!
67! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
68! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
69! for particles
70!
71! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
72! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
73!
74! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
75! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
76!
77! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
78! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
79!
80! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
81! location messages modified
82!
83! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
84! location messages added
85!
86! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
87! CALL of nudge_ref added
88! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
89!
90! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
91! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
92! +sums_ls_l
93! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
94
95! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
96! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
97!
98! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
99! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
100! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
101! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
102! old module precision_kind is removed,
103! revision history before 2012 removed,
104! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
105! all variable declaration statements
106! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
107! module interfaces removed
108!
109! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
110! +netcdf_data_format_save
111! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
112! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
113!
114! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
115! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
116!
117! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
118! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
119!
120! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
121! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
122! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
123! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
124! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
125! host update of arrays before timestep is called
126!
127! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
128! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
129! small bugfix for background communication
130!
131! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
132! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
133!
134! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
135! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
136! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
137! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
138! remaining points,
139! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
140! here
141!
142! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
143! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
144!
145! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
146! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
147! openACC directives updated
148! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
149!
150! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
151! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
152! openACC directives updated
153!
154! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
155! unused variables removed
156!
157! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
158! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
159!
160! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
161! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
162!
163! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
164! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
165!
166! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
167! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
168!
169! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
170! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
171!
172! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
173! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
174!
175! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
176! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
177!
178! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
179! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
180!
181! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
182! Initial revision
183!
184!
185! Description:
186! ------------
187!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
188!> output
189!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
190 SUBROUTINE time_integration
191 
192
193    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
194        ONLY:  ws_statistics
195
196    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
197        ONLY:  diss, dzu, e, e_p, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, q_init, q,    &
198               ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr_p, q_p, ref_state, rho, sa_p, tend,   &
199               u, u_p, v, vpt, v_p, w, w_p
200
201    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
202        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
203
204    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
205        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, average_count_3d,     &
206               average_count_sp, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
207               averaging_interval_sp, bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val,       &
208               bc_q_t_val, call_psolver_at_all_substeps, cloud_droplets,       &
209               cloud_physics, constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,          &
210               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
211               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
212               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
213               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
214               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
215               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
216               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dosp, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control,     &
217               end_time, first_call_lpm, galilei_transformation, humidity,     &
218               intermediate_timestep_count,                                    &
219               intermediate_timestep_count_max, large_scale_forcing,           &
220               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks,                   &
221               microphysics_seifert, mid, nest_domain,                         &
222               neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,                        &
223               ocean, on_device, passive_scalar,                               &
224               prho_reference, pt_reference, pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, &
225               run_coupled, simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,                &
226               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
227               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
228               skip_time_dosp, skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface,      &
229               stop_dt, terminate_coupled, terminate_run, timestep_scheme,     &
230               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
231               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
232               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
233               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
234               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
235               turbulence,                                                     &
236               turbulent_inflow, use_initial_profile_as_reference,             &
237               use_single_reference_value, u_gtrans, v_gtrans, ws_scheme_mom,  &
238               ws_scheme_sca
239
240    USE cpulog,                                                                &
241        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
242
243    USE indices,                                                               &
244        ONLY:  i_left, i_right, j_north, j_south, nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr,    &
245               nxrg, nyn, nys, nzb, nzt, nzb_u_inner, nzb_v_inner
246
247    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
248        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
249
250    USE kinds
251
252    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
253        ONLY:  land_surface, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,               &
254               skip_time_do_lsm
255
256    USE ls_forcing_mod,                                                        &
257        ONLY:  ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert
258
259    USE nudge_mod,                                                             &
260        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, nudge_ref
261
262    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
263        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
264               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
265
266    USE pegrid
267
268    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
269        ONLY:  client_to_server, nested_run, nesting_mode,                     &
270               pmci_client_synchronize, pmci_datatrans,                        &
271               pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation,                             &
272               pmci_server_synchronize, server_to_client
273
274    USE production_e_mod,                                                      &
275        ONLY:  production_e_init
276
277    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
278        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
279
280    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
281        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_acc, prognostic_equations_cache,           &
282               prognostic_equations_vector
283
284    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
285        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation,                   &
286              radiation_clearsky, radiation_rrtmg, radiation_scheme,           &
287              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
288
289    USE spectrum,                                                              &
290        ONLY: calc_spectra
291
292    USE statistics,                                                            &
293        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
294
295    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
296        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
297
298    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
299        ONLY:  user_actions
300
301    IMPLICIT NONE
302
303    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string          !<
304
305!
306!-- At the beginning of a simulation determine the time step as well as
307!-- determine and print out the run control parameters
308    IF ( simulated_time == 0.0_wp )  CALL timestep
309
310!
311!-- Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
312!-- The server side must be called first
313    IF ( nested_run )  THEN
314       CALL pmci_server_synchronize
315       CALL pmci_client_synchronize
316    ENDIF
317
318    CALL run_control
319
320!
321!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
322!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
323    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
324!
325!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
326!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
327       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
328          CALL surface_coupler
329          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
330       ENDDO
331       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp .AND. time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling)&
332       THEN
333          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
334       ENDIF
335    ENDIF
336
337#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
338!
339!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
340    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
341#endif
342
343    CALL location_message( 'start with time-stepping', .TRUE. )
344!
345!-- Start of the time loop
346    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
347                .NOT. terminate_run )
348
349       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
350
351!
352!--    Determine size of next time step
353       IF ( simulated_time /= 0.0_wp )  THEN
354          CALL timestep
355
356          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
357!
358!--          TO_DO: try to give more detailed and meaningful comments here
359!--          Server side must be called first
360             CALL pmci_server_synchronize
361             CALL pmci_client_synchronize
362          ENDIF
363       ENDIF
364
365
366!
367!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
368!--    LSF_DATA
369       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
370           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
371           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
372       ENDIF
373
374!
375!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
376!--    NUDGING_DATA
377       IF ( nudging )  THEN
378           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
379!
380!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
381!--        boundary condition
382           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
383           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
384       ENDIF
385
386!
387!--    Execute the user-defined actions
388       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
389
390!
391!--    Start of intermediate step loop
392       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
393       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
394                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
395
396          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
397
398!
399!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
400!--       on the timestep scheme
401          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
402
403!
404!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
405!--       global communication
406          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
407               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
408!
409!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
410!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
411!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
412             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
413                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
414                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
415             ENDIF
416             IF ( ocean )  THEN
417                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho, 64 )
418                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
419             ENDIF
420             IF ( humidity )  THEN
421                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
422                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
423             ENDIF
424
425          ENDIF
426
427          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
428          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
429               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
430!
431!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
432!--       means of u, v, pt and q
433          IF ( nudging )  THEN
434             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
435             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
436             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
437             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
438             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
439          ENDIF
440
441!
442!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
443!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
444!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
445!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
446!--       inlining problems.
447          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
448             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
449          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
450             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
451          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'acc' )  THEN
452             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxr
453             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
454             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
455
456!             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxl+nbgp-1
457!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
458!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
459!             i_left  = nxr-nbgp+1;  i_right = nxr
460!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
461!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
462
463!
464!--          Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
465             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
466
467                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
468               
469                send_receive = 'lr'
470                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
471                req          = 0
472                req_count    = 0
473
474                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
475                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
476                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
477                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
478                ENDIF
479
480                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
481                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
482                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
483                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
484                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
485                IF ( ocean )  THEN
486                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
487                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
488                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
489                ENDIF
490                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
491                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
492                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. microphysics_seifert )  THEN
493                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
494                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
495                   ENDIF
496                ENDIF
497                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
498                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
499                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
500                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
501                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
502                ENDIF
503                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
504                THEN
505                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
506                ENDIF
507
508                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
509                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
510                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
511                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
512                ENDIF
513
514                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
515
516                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'pause' )
517
518             ENDIF
519
520!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
521!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nys+nbgp-1
522!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
523!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
524!             j_south = nyn-nbgp+1;  j_north = nyn
525!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
526
527             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
528                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'start' )
529#if defined( __parallel )
530                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
531#endif
532                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'pause' )
533
534                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'continue' )
535
536                send_receive = 'ns'
537                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
538                req          = 0
539                req_count    = 0
540
541                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
542                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
543                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
544                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
545                ENDIF
546
547                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
548                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
549                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
550                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
551                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
552                IF ( ocean )  THEN
553                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
554                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
555                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
556                ENDIF
557                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
558                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
559                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. microphysics_seifert )  THEN
560                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
561                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
562                   ENDIF
563                ENDIF
564                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
565                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
566                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
567                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
568                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
569                ENDIF
570                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
571                THEN
572                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
573                ENDIF
574
575                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
576                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
577                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
578                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
579                ENDIF
580
581                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
582
583                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
584
585             ENDIF
586
587!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
588!             j_south = nys+nbgp;    j_north = nyn-nbgp
589!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
590
591             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
592                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'continue' )
593#if defined( __parallel )
594                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
595#endif
596                send_receive = 'al'
597                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'stop' )
598             ENDIF
599
600          ENDIF
601
602!
603!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
604!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
605!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
606!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
607          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
608               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
609               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
610             CALL lpm
611             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
612          ENDIF
613
614!
615!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and specific humidity.
616!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
617!--       advec_particles.
618          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
619               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
620          THEN
621             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
622          ENDIF
623
624!
625!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
626          IF ( .NOT. background_communication )  THEN
627
628             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
629
630             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
631                on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
632             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
633                !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
634             ENDIF
635
636             CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
637             CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
638             CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
639             CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
640             IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
641             IF ( ocean )  THEN
642                CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
643                CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
644                CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
645             ENDIF
646             IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
647                CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
648                IF ( cloud_physics .AND. microphysics_seifert )  THEN
649                   CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
650                   CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
651                ENDIF
652             ENDIF
653             IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
654                CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
655                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
656                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
657                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
658             ENDIF
659             IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
660             THEN
661                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
662             ENDIF
663
664             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
665                on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
666             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
667                !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
668             ENDIF
669
670             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
671
672          ENDIF
673
674!
675!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
676!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
677          CALL boundary_conds
678
679!
680!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
681          CALL swap_timelevel
682
683          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
684
685             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
686!
687!--          Domain nesting. The data transfer subroutines pmci_server_datatrans
688!--          and pmci_client_datatatrans are called inside the wrapper
689!--          subroutine pmci_datatrans according to the control parameters
690!--          nesting_mode and nesting_datatransfer_mode.
691!--          TO_DO: why is nesting_mode given as a parameter here?
692             CALL pmci_datatrans( nesting_mode )
693
694             IF ( nesting_mode == 'two-way' )  THEN
695!
696!--             Exchange_horiz is needed for all server-domains after the
697!--             anterpolation
698                CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
699                CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
700                CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
701                CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
702                IF ( humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar )  THEN
703                   CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
704                ENDIF
705                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
706             ENDIF
707!
708!--          Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
709!--          This action must never be done for the root domain.
710             IF ( nest_domain )  THEN
711                CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
712             ENDIF
713
714             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
715
716          ENDIF
717
718!
719!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
720!--       when a sloping surface is used
721          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
722             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
723                                                    pt_slope_offset
724             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
725                                                    pt_slope_offset
726          ENDIF
727
728!
729!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
730          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
731
732!
733!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
734          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
735               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
736               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
737          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
738               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
739          THEN
740             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
741             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
742                !$acc update host( u, v )
743                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .FALSE.  ! workaround, remove later
744                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
745                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
746                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
747                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
748                ELSEIF ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )  THEN
749!
750!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
751!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
752                   dist_range = 1
753                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
754                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
755                   dist_range = 0
756                ENDIF
757                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .TRUE.  ! workaround, remove later
758                !$acc update device( u, v )
759                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
760             ENDIF
761          ENDIF
762
763!
764!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
765!--       pressure.
766          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
767                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
768             CALL pres
769          ENDIF
770
771!
772!--       If required, compute liquid water content
773          IF ( cloud_physics )  THEN
774             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
775             !$acc update device( ql )
776          ENDIF
777!
778!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
779          IF ( humidity )  THEN
780             CALL compute_vpt
781             !$acc update device( vpt )
782          ENDIF
783
784!
785!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
786          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
787
788!
789!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
790!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
791!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
792             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
793                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
794             THEN
795                CALL ls_forcing_surf ( simulated_time )
796             ENDIF
797
798!
799!--          First the vertical fluxes in the surface (constant flux) layer are computed
800             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
801                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
802                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
803                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
804             ENDIF
805
806!
807!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
808!--          model
809             IF ( land_surface .AND. simulated_time > skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
810
811                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
812                CALL lsm_energy_balance
813                CALL lsm_soil_model
814                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
815             ENDIF
816!
817!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
818             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
819             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
820                IF ( ocean )  THEN
821                   CALL diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
822                ELSE
823                   CALL diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
824                ENDIF
825             ELSE
826                CALL diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
827             ENDIF
828             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
829
830          ENDIF
831
832!
833!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
834          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
835               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. simulated_time >    &
836               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
837
838               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
839
840             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
841             THEN
842
843                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
844
845                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
846                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
847                ENDIF
848
849                IF ( radiation_scheme == 'clear-sky' )  THEN
850                   CALL radiation_clearsky
851                ELSEIF ( radiation_scheme == 'rrtmg' )  THEN
852                   CALL radiation_rrtmg
853                ENDIF
854
855                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
856             ENDIF
857          ENDIF
858
859       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
860
861!
862!--    Increase simulation time and output times
863       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
864       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
865       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
866       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( simulated_time )
867       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
868
869       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
870          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
871       ENDIF
872       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
873          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
874       ENDIF
875       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
876          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
877       ENDIF
878       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
879          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
880       ENDIF
881       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
882          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
883       ENDIF
884       DO  mid = 1, masks
885          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
886             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
887          ENDIF
888       ENDDO
889       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
890       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
891          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
892       ENDIF
893       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
894       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
895          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
896       ENDIF
897       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
898          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
899       ENDIF
900       time_dopr_listing          = time_dopr_listing        + dt_3d
901       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
902
903!
904!--    Data exchange between coupled models
905       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
906          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
907
908!
909!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
910!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
911!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
912!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
913!--       next restart run.
914          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
915             CALL surface_coupler
916             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
917          ENDDO
918       ENDIF
919
920!
921!--    Execute user-defined actions
922       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
923
924!
925!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
926!--    model has moved so far
927       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
928          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
929          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
930       ENDIF
931
932!
933!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
934!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
935!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
936       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
937
938!
939!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
940!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
941!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
942!--    interval in case of restart runs
943
944!
945!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
946!--    for this time step
947       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
948
949!
950!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
951       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
952            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
953            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
954          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
955          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
956             do_sum = .TRUE.
957             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
958                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
959          ENDIF
960       ENDIF
961       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
962
963!
964!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
965       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
966            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
967            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
968       THEN
969          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
970          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
971             CALL sum_up_3d_data
972             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
973             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
974          ENDIF
975       ENDIF
976
977!
978!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
979       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
980            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
981            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
982          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
983          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
984             CALL calc_spectra
985             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
986                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
987          ENDIF
988       ENDIF
989
990!
991!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
992!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
993       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
994            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
995       THEN
996          CALL run_control
997          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
998             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
999                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d ) )
1000          ENDIF
1001       ENDIF
1002
1003!
1004!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
1005       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1006          CALL print_1d
1007          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1008                                                           dt_3d ) )
1009       ENDIF
1010
1011!
1012!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1013       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1014          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1015          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1016          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1017       ENDIF
1018
1019!
1020!--    Graphic output for time series
1021       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1022          CALL data_output_tseries
1023          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1024       ENDIF
1025
1026!
1027!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1028!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1029       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1030          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1031          CALL data_output_spectra
1032          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1033       ENDIF
1034
1035!
1036!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1037       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1038          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1039          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1040       ENDIF
1041       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1042          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1043          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1044       ENDIF
1045       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1046          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1047          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1048       ENDIF
1049
1050!
1051!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1052       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1053          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1054          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1055       ENDIF
1056
1057!
1058!--    Masked data output
1059       DO  mid = 1, masks
1060          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1061             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1062             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1063                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1064          ENDIF
1065       ENDDO
1066
1067!
1068!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1069       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1070          CALL average_3d_data
1071          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1072          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1073          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1074          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1075          DO  mid = 1, masks
1076             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1077          ENDDO
1078          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1079       ENDIF
1080
1081!
1082!--    Output of particle time series
1083       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1084          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1085               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1086                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1087             CALL data_output_ptseries
1088             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1089          ENDIF
1090       ENDIF
1091
1092!
1093!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1094#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1095       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1096#endif
1097       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1098          CALL data_output_dvrp
1099          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1100       ENDIF
1101#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1102       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1103#endif
1104
1105!
1106!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1107       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  CALL disturb_heatflux
1108
1109!
1110!--    Execute user-defined actions
1111       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1112
1113!
1114!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1115       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1116
1117       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1118
1119
1120    ENDDO   ! time loop
1121
1122    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1123
1124#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1125    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1126#endif
1127
1128    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1129
1130 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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