source: palm/trunk/SOURCE/time_integration.f90 @ 1787

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1!> @file time_integration.f90
2!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
3! This file is part of PALM.
4!
5! PALM is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
6! of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation,
7! either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8!
9! PALM is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
10! WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
11! A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
12!
13! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
14! PALM. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
15!
16! Copyright 1997-2015 Leibniz Universitaet Hannover
17!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
18!
19! Current revisions:
20! ------------------
21!
22!
23! Former revisions:
24! -----------------
25! $Id: time_integration.f90 1787 2016-03-08 06:57:00Z raasch $
26!
27! 1786 2016-03-08 05:49:27Z raasch
28! +module spectrum
29!
30! 1783 2016-03-06 18:36:17Z raasch
31! switch back of netcdf data format for mask output moved to the mask output
32! routine
33!
34! 1781 2016-03-03 15:12:23Z raasch
35! some pmc calls removed at the beginning (before timeloop),
36! pmc initialization moved to the main program
37!
38! 1764 2016-02-28 12:45:19Z raasch
39! PMC_ACTIVE flags removed,
40! bugfix: nest synchronization after first call of timestep
41!
42! 1762 2016-02-25 12:31:13Z hellstea
43! Introduction of nested domain feature
44!
45! 1736 2015-12-04 08:56:33Z raasch
46! no perturbations added to total domain if energy limit has been set zero
47!
48! 1691 2015-10-26 16:17:44Z maronga
49! Added option for spin-ups without land surface and radiation models. Moved calls
50! for radiation and lan surface schemes.
51!
52! 1682 2015-10-07 23:56:08Z knoop
53! Code annotations made doxygen readable
54!
55! 1671 2015-09-25 03:29:37Z raasch
56! bugfix: ghostpoint exchange for array diss in case that sgs velocities are used
57! for particles
58!
59! 1585 2015-04-30 07:05:52Z maronga
60! Moved call of radiation scheme. Added support for RRTM
61!
62! 1551 2015-03-03 14:18:16Z maronga
63! Added interface for different radiation schemes.
64!
65! 1496 2014-12-02 17:25:50Z maronga
66! Added calls for the land surface model and radiation scheme
67!
68! 1402 2014-05-09 14:25:13Z raasch
69! location messages modified
70!
71! 1384 2014-05-02 14:31:06Z raasch
72! location messages added
73!
74! 1380 2014-04-28 12:40:45Z heinze
75! CALL of nudge_ref added
76! bc_pt_t_val and bc_q_t_val are updated in case nudging is used
77!
78! 1365 2014-04-22 15:03:56Z boeske
79! Reset sums_ls_l to zero at each timestep
80! +sums_ls_l
81! Calculation of reference state (previously in subroutine calc_mean_profile)
82
83! 1342 2014-03-26 17:04:47Z kanani
84! REAL constants defined as wp-kind
85!
86! 1320 2014-03-20 08:40:49Z raasch
87! ONLY-attribute added to USE-statements,
88! kind-parameters added to all INTEGER and REAL declaration statements,
89! kinds are defined in new module kinds,
90! old module precision_kind is removed,
91! revision history before 2012 removed,
92! comment fields (!:) to be used for variable explanations added to
93! all variable declaration statements
94! 1318 2014-03-17 13:35:16Z raasch
95! module interfaces removed
96!
97! 1308 2014-03-13 14:58:42Z fricke
98! +netcdf_data_format_save
99! For masked data, parallel netcdf output is not tested so far, hence
100! netcdf_data_format is switched back to non-paralell output.
101!
102! 1276 2014-01-15 13:40:41Z heinze
103! Use LSF_DATA also in case of Dirichlet bottom boundary condition for scalars
104!
105! 1257 2013-11-08 15:18:40Z raasch
106! acc-update-host directive for timestep removed
107!
108! 1241 2013-10-30 11:36:58Z heinze
109! Generalize calc_mean_profile for wider use
110! Determine shf and qsws in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
111! Determine ug and vg in dependence on data from LSF_DATA
112! 1221 2013-09-10 08:59:13Z raasch
113! host update of arrays before timestep is called
114!
115! 1179 2013-06-14 05:57:58Z raasch
116! mean profiles for reference state are only calculated if required,
117! small bugfix for background communication
118!
119! 1171 2013-05-30 11:27:45Z raasch
120! split of prognostic_equations deactivated (comment lines), for the time being
121!
122! 1128 2013-04-12 06:19:32Z raasch
123! asynchronous transfer of ghost point data realized for acc-optimized version:
124! prognostic_equations are first called two times for those points required for
125! the left-right and north-south exchange, respectively, and then for the
126! remaining points,
127! those parts requiring global communication moved from prognostic_equations to
128! here
129!
130! 1115 2013-03-26 18:16:16Z hoffmann
131! calculation of qr and nr is restricted to precipitation
132!
133! 1113 2013-03-10 02:48:14Z raasch
134! GPU-porting of boundary conditions,
135! openACC directives updated
136! formal parameter removed from routine boundary_conds
137!
138! 1111 2013-03-08 23:54:10Z raasch
139! +internal timestep counter for cpu statistics added,
140! openACC directives updated
141!
142! 1092 2013-02-02 11:24:22Z raasch
143! unused variables removed
144!
145! 1065 2012-11-22 17:42:36Z hoffmann
146! exchange of diss (dissipation rate) in case of turbulence = .TRUE. added
147!
148! 1053 2012-11-13 17:11:03Z hoffmann
149! exchange of ghost points for nr, qr added
150!
151! 1036 2012-10-22 13:43:42Z raasch
152! code put under GPL (PALM 3.9)
153!
154! 1019 2012-09-28 06:46:45Z raasch
155! non-optimized version of prognostic_equations removed
156!
157! 1015 2012-09-27 09:23:24Z raasch
158! +call of prognostic_equations_acc
159!
160! 1001 2012-09-13 14:08:46Z raasch
161! all actions concerning leapfrog- and upstream-spline-scheme removed
162!
163! 849 2012-03-15 10:35:09Z raasch
164! advec_particles renamed lpm, first_call_advec_particles renamed first_call_lpm
165!
166! 825 2012-02-19 03:03:44Z raasch
167! wang_collision_kernel renamed wang_kernel
168!
169! Revision 1.1  1997/08/11 06:19:04  raasch
170! Initial revision
171!
172!
173! Description:
174! ------------
175!> Integration in time of the model equations, statistical analysis and graphic
176!> output
177!------------------------------------------------------------------------------!
178 SUBROUTINE time_integration
179 
180
181    USE advec_ws,                                                              &
182        ONLY:  ws_statistics
183
184    USE arrays_3d,                                                             &
185        ONLY:  diss, dzu, e, e_p, nr_p, prho, pt, pt_p, pt_init, q_init, q,    &
186               ql, ql_c, ql_v, ql_vp, qr_p, q_p, ref_state, rho, sa_p, tend,   &
187               u, u_p, v, vpt, v_p, w, w_p
188
189    USE calc_mean_profile_mod,                                                 &
190        ONLY:  calc_mean_profile
191
192    USE control_parameters,                                                    &
193        ONLY:  advected_distance_x, advected_distance_y, average_count_3d,     &
194               average_count_sp, averaging_interval, averaging_interval_pr,    &
195               averaging_interval_sp, bc_lr_cyc, bc_ns_cyc, bc_pt_t_val,       &
196               bc_q_t_val, call_psolver_at_all_substeps, cloud_droplets,       &
197               cloud_physics, constant_flux_layer, constant_heatflux,          &
198               create_disturbances, dopr_n, constant_diffusion, coupling_mode, &
199               coupling_start_time, current_timestep_number,                   &
200               disturbance_created, disturbance_energy_limit, dist_range,      &
201               do_sum, dt_3d, dt_averaging_input, dt_averaging_input_pr,       &
202               dt_coupling, dt_data_output_av, dt_disturb, dt_do2d_xy,         &
203               dt_do2d_xz, dt_do2d_yz, dt_do3d, dt_domask,dt_dopts, dt_dopr,   &
204               dt_dopr_listing, dt_dosp, dt_dots, dt_dvrp, dt_run_control,     &
205               end_time, first_call_lpm, galilei_transformation, humidity,     &
206               icloud_scheme, intermediate_timestep_count,                     &
207               intermediate_timestep_count_max, large_scale_forcing,           &
208               loop_optimization, lsf_surf, lsf_vert, masks, mid, nest_domain, &
209               neutral, nr_timesteps_this_run, nudging,                        &
210               ocean, on_device, passive_scalar, precipitation,                &
211               prho_reference, pt_reference, pt_slope_offset, random_heatflux, &
212               run_coupled, simulated_time, simulated_time_chr,                &
213               skip_time_do2d_xy, skip_time_do2d_xz, skip_time_do2d_yz,        &
214               skip_time_do3d, skip_time_domask, skip_time_dopr,               &
215               skip_time_dosp, skip_time_data_output_av, sloping_surface,      &
216               stop_dt, terminate_coupled, terminate_run, timestep_scheme,     &
217               time_coupling, time_do2d_xy, time_do2d_xz, time_do2d_yz,        &
218               time_do3d, time_domask, time_dopr, time_dopr_av,                &
219               time_dopr_listing, time_dopts, time_dosp, time_dosp_av,         &
220               time_dots, time_do_av, time_do_sla, time_disturb, time_dvrp,    &
221               time_run_control, time_since_reference_point,                   &
222               turbulence,                                                     &
223               turbulent_inflow, use_initial_profile_as_reference,             &
224               use_single_reference_value, u_gtrans, v_gtrans, ws_scheme_mom,  &
225               ws_scheme_sca
226
227    USE cpulog,                                                                &
228        ONLY:  cpu_log, log_point, log_point_s
229
230    USE indices,                                                               &
231        ONLY:  i_left, i_right, j_north, j_south, nbgp, nx, nxl, nxlg, nxr,    &
232               nxrg, nyn, nys, nzb, nzt, nzb_u_inner, nzb_v_inner
233
234    USE interaction_droplets_ptq_mod,                                          &
235        ONLY:  interaction_droplets_ptq
236
237    USE kinds
238
239    USE land_surface_model_mod,                                                &
240        ONLY:  land_surface, lsm_energy_balance, lsm_soil_model,               &
241               skip_time_do_lsm
242
243    USE ls_forcing_mod,                                                        &
244        ONLY:  ls_forcing_surf, ls_forcing_vert
245
246    USE nudge_mod,                                                             &
247        ONLY:  calc_tnudge, nudge_ref
248
249    USE particle_attributes,                                                   &
250        ONLY:  particle_advection, particle_advection_start,                   &
251               use_sgs_for_particles, wang_kernel
252
253    USE pegrid
254
255    USE pmc_interface,                                                         &
256        ONLY:  client_to_server, nested_run, nesting_mode,                     &
257               pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation, pmci_client_datatrans,      &
258               pmci_client_synchronize, pmci_server_datatrans,                 &
259               pmci_server_synchronize, pmci_update_new, server_to_client
260
261    USE production_e_mod,                                                      &
262        ONLY:  production_e_init
263
264    USE progress_bar,                                                          &
265        ONLY:  finish_progress_bar, output_progress_bar
266
267    USE prognostic_equations_mod,                                              &
268        ONLY:  prognostic_equations_acc, prognostic_equations_cache,           &
269               prognostic_equations_vector
270
271    USE radiation_model_mod,                                                   &
272        ONLY: dt_radiation, force_radiation_call, radiation,                   &
273              radiation_clearsky, radiation_rrtmg, radiation_scheme,           &
274              skip_time_do_radiation, time_radiation
275
276    USE spectrum,                                                              &
277        ONLY: calc_spectra
278
279    USE statistics,                                                            &
280        ONLY:  flow_statistics_called, hom, pr_palm, sums_ls_l
281
282    USE surface_layer_fluxes_mod,                                              &
283        ONLY:  surface_layer_fluxes
284
285    USE user_actions_mod,                                                      &
286        ONLY:  user_actions
287
288    IMPLICIT NONE
289
290    CHARACTER (LEN=9) ::  time_to_string          !<
291
292!
293!-- At the beginning of a simulation determine the time step as well as
294!-- determine and print out the run control parameters
295    IF ( simulated_time == 0.0_wp )  CALL timestep
296
297!
298!-- Synchronize the timestep in case of nested run.
299!-- The server side must be called first
300    IF ( nested_run )  THEN
301       CALL pmci_server_synchronize
302       CALL pmci_client_synchronize
303    ENDIF
304
305    CALL run_control
306
307!
308!-- Data exchange between coupled models in case that a call has been omitted
309!-- at the end of the previous run of a job chain.
310    IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
311!
312!--    In case of model termination initiated by the local model the coupler
313!--    must not be called because this would again cause an MPI hang.
314       DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
315          CALL surface_coupler
316          time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
317       ENDDO
318       IF (time_coupling == 0.0_wp .AND. time_since_reference_point < dt_coupling)&
319       THEN
320          time_coupling = time_since_reference_point
321       ENDIF
322    ENDIF
323
324#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
325!
326!-- Time measurement with dvrp software 
327    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
328#endif
329
330    CALL location_message( 'start with time-stepping', .TRUE. )
331!
332!-- Start of the time loop
333    DO  WHILE ( simulated_time < end_time  .AND.  .NOT. stop_dt  .AND. &
334                .NOT. terminate_run )
335
336       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'start' )
337
338!
339!--    Determine size of next time step
340       IF ( simulated_time /= 0.0_wp )  THEN
341          CALL timestep
342
343          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
344!
345!--          TO_DO: try to give more detailed and meaningful comments here
346!--          Server side must be called first
347             CALL pmci_server_synchronize
348             CALL pmci_client_synchronize
349          ENDIF
350       ENDIF
351
352
353!
354!--    Determine ug, vg and w_subs in dependence on data from external file
355!--    LSF_DATA
356       IF ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_vert )  THEN
357           CALL ls_forcing_vert ( simulated_time )
358           sums_ls_l = 0.0_wp
359       ENDIF
360
361!
362!--    Set pt_init and q_init to the current profiles taken from
363!--    NUDGING_DATA
364       IF ( nudging )  THEN
365           CALL nudge_ref ( simulated_time )
366!
367!--        Store temperature gradient at the top boundary for possible Neumann
368!--        boundary condition
369           bc_pt_t_val = ( pt_init(nzt+1) - pt_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
370           bc_q_t_val  = ( q_init(nzt+1) - q_init(nzt) ) / dzu(nzt+1)
371       ENDIF
372
373!
374!--    Execute the user-defined actions
375       CALL user_actions( 'before_timestep' )
376
377!
378!--    Start of intermediate step loop
379       intermediate_timestep_count = 0
380       DO  WHILE ( intermediate_timestep_count < &
381                   intermediate_timestep_count_max )
382
383          intermediate_timestep_count = intermediate_timestep_count + 1
384
385!
386!--       Set the steering factors for the prognostic equations which depend
387!--       on the timestep scheme
388          CALL timestep_scheme_steering
389
390!
391!--       Calculate those variables needed in the tendency terms which need
392!--       global communication
393          IF ( .NOT. use_single_reference_value  .AND. &
394               .NOT. use_initial_profile_as_reference )  THEN
395!
396!--          Horizontally averaged profiles to be used as reference state in
397!--          buoyancy terms (WARNING: only the respective last call of
398!--          calc_mean_profile defines the reference state!)
399             IF ( .NOT. neutral )  THEN
400                CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
401                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,4,0) ! this is used in the buoyancy term
402             ENDIF
403             IF ( ocean )  THEN
404                CALL calc_mean_profile( rho, 64 )
405                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,64,0)
406             ENDIF
407             IF ( humidity )  THEN
408                CALL calc_mean_profile( vpt, 44 )
409                ref_state(:)  = hom(:,1,44,0)
410             ENDIF
411
412          ENDIF
413
414          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL production_e_init
415          IF ( ( ws_scheme_mom .OR. ws_scheme_sca )  .AND.  &
416               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  CALL ws_statistics
417!
418!--       In case of nudging calculate current nudging time scale and horizontal
419!--       means of u, v, pt and q
420          IF ( nudging )  THEN
421             CALL calc_tnudge( simulated_time )
422             CALL calc_mean_profile( u, 1 )
423             CALL calc_mean_profile( v, 2 )
424             CALL calc_mean_profile( pt, 4 )
425             CALL calc_mean_profile( q, 41 )
426          ENDIF
427
428!
429!--       Solve the prognostic equations. A fast cache optimized version with
430!--       only one single loop is used in case of Piascek-Williams advection
431!--       scheme. NEC vector machines use a different version, because
432!--       in the other versions a good vectorization is prohibited due to
433!--       inlining problems.
434          IF ( loop_optimization == 'cache' )  THEN
435             CALL prognostic_equations_cache
436          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'vector' )  THEN
437             CALL prognostic_equations_vector
438          ELSEIF ( loop_optimization == 'acc' )  THEN
439             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxr
440             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
441             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
442
443!             i_left  = nxl;         i_right = nxl+nbgp-1
444!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
445!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
446!             i_left  = nxr-nbgp+1;  i_right = nxr
447!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nyn
448!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
449
450!
451!--          Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
452             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
453
454                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
455               
456                send_receive = 'lr'
457                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
458                req          = 0
459                req_count    = 0
460
461                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
462                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
463                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
464                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
465                ENDIF
466
467                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
468                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
469                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
470                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
471                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
472                IF ( ocean )  THEN
473                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
474                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
475                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
476                ENDIF
477                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
478                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
479                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
480                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
481                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
482                   ENDIF
483                ENDIF
484                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
485                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
486                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
487                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
488                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
489                ENDIF
490                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
491                THEN
492                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
493                ENDIF
494
495                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
496                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
497                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
498                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
499                ENDIF
500
501                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
502
503                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'pause' )
504
505             ENDIF
506
507!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
508!             j_south = nys;         j_north = nys+nbgp-1
509!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
510!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
511!             j_south = nyn-nbgp+1;  j_north = nyn
512!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
513
514             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
515                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'start' )
516#if defined( __parallel )
517                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
518#endif
519                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'pause' )
520
521                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'continue' )
522
523                send_receive = 'ns'
524                sendrecv_in_background = .TRUE.
525                req          = 0
526                req_count    = 0
527
528                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
529                   on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
530                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
531                   !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
532                ENDIF
533
534                CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
535                CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
536                CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
537                CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
538                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
539                IF ( ocean )  THEN
540                   CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
541                   CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
542                  CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
543                ENDIF
544                IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
545                   CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
546                   IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0 )  THEN
547                      CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
548                      CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
549                   ENDIF
550                ENDIF
551                IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
552                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
553                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
554                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
555                   CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
556                ENDIF
557                IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
558                THEN
559                   CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
560                ENDIF
561
562                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
563                   on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
564                ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
565                   !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
566                ENDIF
567
568                sendrecv_in_background = .FALSE.
569
570                CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
571
572             ENDIF
573
574!             i_left  = nxl+nbgp;    i_right = nxr-nbgp
575!             j_south = nys+nbgp;    j_north = nyn-nbgp
576!             CALL prognostic_equations_acc
577
578             IF ( background_communication )  THEN
579                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'continue' )
580#if defined( __parallel )
581                CALL MPI_WAITALL( req_count, req, wait_stat, ierr )
582#endif
583                send_receive = 'al'
584                CALL cpu_log( log_point(41), 'exchange-horiz-wait', 'stop' )
585             ENDIF
586
587          ENDIF
588
589!
590!--       Particle transport/physics with the Lagrangian particle model
591!--       (only once during intermediate steps, because it uses an Euler-step)
592!--       ### particle model should be moved before prognostic_equations, in order
593!--       to regard droplet interactions directly
594          IF ( particle_advection  .AND.                         &
595               simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
596               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 )  THEN
597             CALL lpm
598             first_call_lpm = .FALSE.
599          ENDIF
600
601!
602!--       Interaction of droplets with temperature and specific humidity.
603!--       Droplet condensation and evaporation is calculated within
604!--       advec_particles.
605          IF ( cloud_droplets  .AND.  &
606               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
607          THEN
608             CALL interaction_droplets_ptq
609          ENDIF
610
611!
612!--       Exchange of ghost points (lateral boundary conditions)
613          IF ( .NOT. background_communication )  THEN
614
615             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'start' )
616
617             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
618                on_device = .TRUE.         ! to be removed after complete porting
619             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
620                !$acc update host( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
621             ENDIF
622
623             CALL exchange_horiz( u_p, nbgp )
624             CALL exchange_horiz( v_p, nbgp )
625             CALL exchange_horiz( w_p, nbgp )
626             CALL exchange_horiz( pt_p, nbgp )
627             IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e_p, nbgp )
628             IF ( ocean )  THEN
629                CALL exchange_horiz( sa_p, nbgp )
630                CALL exchange_horiz( rho, nbgp )
631                CALL exchange_horiz( prho, nbgp )
632             ENDIF
633             IF (humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar)  THEN
634                CALL exchange_horiz( q_p, nbgp )
635                IF ( cloud_physics .AND. icloud_scheme == 0  .AND.  &
636                     precipitation )  THEN
637                   CALL exchange_horiz( qr_p, nbgp )
638                   CALL exchange_horiz( nr_p, nbgp )
639                ENDIF
640             ENDIF
641             IF ( cloud_droplets )  THEN
642                CALL exchange_horiz( ql, nbgp )
643                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_c, nbgp )
644                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_v, nbgp )
645                CALL exchange_horiz( ql_vp, nbgp )
646             ENDIF
647             IF ( wang_kernel  .OR.  turbulence  .OR.  use_sgs_for_particles ) &
648             THEN
649                CALL exchange_horiz( diss, nbgp )
650             ENDIF
651
652             IF ( numprocs == 1 )  THEN    ! workaround for single-core GPU runs
653                on_device = .FALSE.        ! to be removed after complete porting
654             ELSE                          ! of ghost point exchange
655                !$acc update device( e_p, pt_p, u_p, v_p, w_p )
656             ENDIF
657
658             CALL cpu_log( log_point(26), 'exchange-horiz-progn', 'stop' )
659
660          ENDIF
661
662!
663!--       Boundary conditions for the prognostic quantities (except of the
664!--       velocities at the outflow in case of a non-cyclic lateral wall)
665          CALL boundary_conds
666
667!
668!--       Swap the time levels in preparation for the next time step.
669          CALL swap_timelevel
670
671          IF ( nested_run )  THEN
672!
673!--          TO_DO: try to give more meaningful comments here
674!--          Domain nesting
675!--          Note that the nesting operations are omitted intentionally on the
676!--          first two RK-substeps.
677             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'start' )
678!
679!--          From server to client commmunication ( direction=SERVER_TO_CLIENT )
680             CALL pmci_server_datatrans( server_to_client )
681             CALL pmci_client_datatrans( server_to_client )
682
683             IF ( nesting_mode == 'two-way' )  THEN
684!
685!--             From client to server commmunication ( direction=CLIENT_TO_SERVER )
686                CALL pmci_server_datatrans( client_to_server )
687                CALL pmci_client_datatrans( client_to_server )
688!
689!--             Exchange_horiz is needed for all server-domains after the
690!--             anterpolation
691                CALL exchange_horiz( u, nbgp )
692                CALL exchange_horiz( v, nbgp )
693                CALL exchange_horiz( w, nbgp )
694                CALL exchange_horiz( pt, nbgp )
695                IF ( humidity  .OR.  passive_scalar )  THEN
696                   CALL exchange_horiz( q, nbgp )
697                ENDIF
698                IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  CALL exchange_horiz( e, nbgp )
699             ENDIF
700!
701!--          Correct the w top-BC in nest domains to ensure mass conservation.
702!--          This action must never be done for the root domain.
703             IF ( nest_domain )  THEN
704                CALL pmci_ensure_nest_mass_conservation
705!
706!--             pmc_update_new is not necessary if nesting is made at each
707!--             substep
708                CALL pmci_update_new
709             ENDIF
710
711             CALL cpu_log( log_point(60), 'nesting', 'stop' )
712
713          ENDIF
714
715!
716!--       Temperature offset must be imposed at cyclic boundaries in x-direction
717!--       when a sloping surface is used
718          IF ( sloping_surface )  THEN
719             IF ( nxl ==  0 )  pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) = pt(:,:,nxlg:nxl-1) - &
720                                                    pt_slope_offset
721             IF ( nxr == nx )  pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) = pt(:,:,nxr+1:nxrg) + &
722                                                    pt_slope_offset
723          ENDIF
724
725!
726!--       Impose a turbulent inflow using the recycling method
727          IF ( turbulent_inflow )  CALL  inflow_turbulence
728
729!
730!--       Impose a random perturbation on the horizontal velocity field
731          IF ( create_disturbances  .AND.                                      &
732               ( call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                           &
733               intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
734          .OR. ( .NOT. call_psolver_at_all_substeps  .AND.                     &
735               intermediate_timestep_count == 1 ) )                            &
736          THEN
737             time_disturb = time_disturb + dt_3d
738             IF ( time_disturb >= dt_disturb )  THEN
739                !$acc update host( u, v )
740                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .FALSE.  ! workaround, remove later
741                IF ( disturbance_energy_limit /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                 &
742                     hom(nzb+5,1,pr_palm,0) < disturbance_energy_limit )  THEN
743                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
744                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
745                ELSEIF ( .NOT. bc_lr_cyc  .OR.  .NOT. bc_ns_cyc )  THEN
746!
747!--                Runs with a non-cyclic lateral wall need perturbations
748!--                near the inflow throughout the whole simulation
749                   dist_range = 1
750                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_u_inner, tend, u )
751                   CALL disturb_field( nzb_v_inner, tend, v )
752                   dist_range = 0
753                ENDIF
754                IF ( numprocs == 1 )  on_device = .TRUE.  ! workaround, remove later
755                !$acc update device( u, v )
756                time_disturb = time_disturb - dt_disturb
757             ENDIF
758          ENDIF
759
760!
761!--       Reduce the velocity divergence via the equation for perturbation
762!--       pressure.
763          IF ( intermediate_timestep_count == 1  .OR. &
764                call_psolver_at_all_substeps )  THEN
765             CALL pres
766          ENDIF
767
768!
769!--       If required, compute liquid water content
770          IF ( cloud_physics )  THEN
771             CALL calc_liquid_water_content
772             !$acc update device( ql )
773          ENDIF
774!
775!--       If required, compute virtual potential temperature
776          IF ( humidity )  THEN
777             CALL compute_vpt
778             !$acc update device( vpt )
779          ENDIF
780
781!
782!--       Compute the diffusion quantities
783          IF ( .NOT. constant_diffusion )  THEN
784
785!
786!--          Determine surface fluxes shf and qsws and surface values
787!--          pt_surface and q_surface in dependence on data from external
788!--          file LSF_DATA respectively
789             IF ( ( large_scale_forcing .AND. lsf_surf ) .AND. &
790                 intermediate_timestep_count == intermediate_timestep_count_max )&
791             THEN
792                CALL ls_forcing_surf ( simulated_time )
793             ENDIF
794
795!
796!--          First the vertical fluxes in the surface (constant flux) layer are computed
797             IF ( constant_flux_layer )  THEN
798                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'start' )
799                CALL surface_layer_fluxes
800                CALL cpu_log( log_point(19), 'surface_layer_fluxes', 'stop' )
801             ENDIF
802
803!
804!--          If required, solve the energy balance for the surface and run soil
805!--          model
806             IF ( land_surface .AND. simulated_time > skip_time_do_lsm)  THEN
807
808                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'start' )
809                CALL lsm_energy_balance
810                CALL lsm_soil_model
811                CALL cpu_log( log_point(54), 'land_surface', 'stop' )
812             ENDIF
813!
814!--          Compute the diffusion coefficients
815             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'start' )
816             IF ( .NOT. humidity ) THEN
817                IF ( ocean )  THEN
818                   CALL diffusivities( prho, prho_reference )
819                ELSE
820                   CALL diffusivities( pt, pt_reference )
821                ENDIF
822             ELSE
823                CALL diffusivities( vpt, pt_reference )
824             ENDIF
825             CALL cpu_log( log_point(17), 'diffusivities', 'stop' )
826
827          ENDIF
828
829!
830!--       If required, calculate radiative fluxes and heating rates
831          IF ( radiation .AND. intermediate_timestep_count                     &
832               == intermediate_timestep_count_max .AND. simulated_time >    &
833               skip_time_do_radiation )  THEN
834
835               time_radiation = time_radiation + dt_3d
836
837             IF ( time_radiation >= dt_radiation .OR. force_radiation_call )   &
838             THEN
839
840                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'start' )
841
842                IF ( .NOT. force_radiation_call )  THEN
843                   time_radiation = time_radiation - dt_radiation
844                ELSE
845                   WRITE(9,*) "Unscheduled radiation call at ", simulated_time
846                   CALL LOCAL_FLUSH ( 9 )
847                ENDIF
848
849                IF ( radiation_scheme == 'clear-sky' )  THEN
850                   CALL radiation_clearsky
851                ELSEIF ( radiation_scheme == 'rrtmg' )  THEN
852                   CALL radiation_rrtmg
853                ENDIF
854
855                CALL cpu_log( log_point(50), 'radiation', 'stop' )
856             ENDIF
857          ENDIF
858
859       ENDDO   ! Intermediate step loop
860
861!
862!--    Increase simulation time and output times
863       nr_timesteps_this_run      = nr_timesteps_this_run + 1
864       current_timestep_number    = current_timestep_number + 1
865       simulated_time             = simulated_time   + dt_3d
866       simulated_time_chr         = time_to_string( simulated_time )
867       time_since_reference_point = simulated_time - coupling_start_time
868
869       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )  THEN
870          time_do_av         = time_do_av       + dt_3d
871       ENDIF
872       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xy )  THEN
873          time_do2d_xy       = time_do2d_xy     + dt_3d
874       ENDIF
875       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_xz )  THEN
876          time_do2d_xz       = time_do2d_xz     + dt_3d
877       ENDIF
878       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do2d_yz )  THEN
879          time_do2d_yz       = time_do2d_yz     + dt_3d
880       ENDIF
881       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_do3d    )  THEN
882          time_do3d          = time_do3d        + dt_3d
883       ENDIF
884       DO  mid = 1, masks
885          IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_domask(mid) )  THEN
886             time_domask(mid)= time_domask(mid) + dt_3d
887          ENDIF
888       ENDDO
889       time_dvrp          = time_dvrp        + dt_3d
890       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
891          time_dosp       = time_dosp        + dt_3d
892       ENDIF
893       time_dots          = time_dots        + dt_3d
894       IF ( .NOT. first_call_lpm )  THEN
895          time_dopts      = time_dopts       + dt_3d
896       ENDIF
897       IF ( simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
898          time_dopr       = time_dopr        + dt_3d
899       ENDIF
900       time_dopr_listing          = time_dopr_listing        + dt_3d
901       time_run_control   = time_run_control + dt_3d
902
903!
904!--    Data exchange between coupled models
905       IF ( coupling_mode /= 'uncoupled'  .AND.  run_coupled )  THEN
906          time_coupling = time_coupling + dt_3d
907
908!
909!--       In case of model termination initiated by the local model
910!--       (terminate_coupled > 0), the coupler must be skipped because it would
911!--       cause an MPI intercomminucation hang.
912!--       If necessary, the coupler will be called at the beginning of the
913!--       next restart run.
914          DO WHILE ( time_coupling >= dt_coupling .AND. terminate_coupled == 0 )
915             CALL surface_coupler
916             time_coupling = time_coupling - dt_coupling
917          ENDDO
918       ENDIF
919
920!
921!--    Execute user-defined actions
922       CALL user_actions( 'after_integration' )
923
924!
925!--    If Galilei transformation is used, determine the distance that the
926!--    model has moved so far
927       IF ( galilei_transformation )  THEN
928          advected_distance_x = advected_distance_x + u_gtrans * dt_3d
929          advected_distance_y = advected_distance_y + v_gtrans * dt_3d
930       ENDIF
931
932!
933!--    Check, if restart is necessary (because cpu-time is expiring or
934!--    because it is forced by user) and set stop flag
935!--    This call is skipped if the remote model has already initiated a restart.
936       IF ( .NOT. terminate_run )  CALL check_for_restart
937
938!
939!--    Carry out statistical analysis and output at the requested output times.
940!--    The MOD function is used for calculating the output time counters (like
941!--    time_dopr) in order to regard a possible decrease of the output time
942!--    interval in case of restart runs
943
944!
945!--    Set a flag indicating that so far no statistics have been created
946!--    for this time step
947       flow_statistics_called = .FALSE.
948
949!
950!--    If required, call flow_statistics for averaging in time
951       IF ( averaging_interval_pr /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
952            ( dt_dopr - time_dopr ) <= averaging_interval_pr  .AND.  &
953            simulated_time >= skip_time_dopr )  THEN
954          time_dopr_av = time_dopr_av + dt_3d
955          IF ( time_dopr_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
956             do_sum = .TRUE.
957             time_dopr_av = MOD( time_dopr_av, &
958                                    MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
959          ENDIF
960       ENDIF
961       IF ( do_sum )  CALL flow_statistics
962
963!
964!--    Sum-up 3d-arrays for later output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
965       IF ( averaging_interval /= 0.0_wp  .AND.                                &
966            ( dt_data_output_av - time_do_av ) <= averaging_interval  .AND. &
967            simulated_time >= skip_time_data_output_av )                    &
968       THEN
969          time_do_sla = time_do_sla + dt_3d
970          IF ( time_do_sla >= dt_averaging_input )  THEN
971             CALL sum_up_3d_data
972             average_count_3d = average_count_3d + 1
973             time_do_sla = MOD( time_do_sla, MAX( dt_averaging_input, dt_3d ) )
974          ENDIF
975       ENDIF
976
977!
978!--    Calculate spectra for time averaging
979       IF ( averaging_interval_sp /= 0.0_wp  .AND.  &
980            ( dt_dosp - time_dosp ) <= averaging_interval_sp  .AND.  &
981            simulated_time >= skip_time_dosp )  THEN
982          time_dosp_av = time_dosp_av + dt_3d
983          IF ( time_dosp_av >= dt_averaging_input_pr )  THEN
984             CALL calc_spectra
985             time_dosp_av = MOD( time_dosp_av, &
986                                 MAX( dt_averaging_input_pr, dt_3d ) )
987          ENDIF
988       ENDIF
989
990!
991!--    Computation and output of run control parameters.
992!--    This is also done whenever perturbations have been imposed
993       IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control  .OR.                     &
994            timestep_scheme(1:5) /= 'runge'  .OR.  disturbance_created ) &
995       THEN
996          CALL run_control
997          IF ( time_run_control >= dt_run_control )  THEN
998             time_run_control = MOD( time_run_control, &
999                                     MAX( dt_run_control, dt_3d ) )
1000          ENDIF
1001       ENDIF
1002
1003!
1004!--    Profile output (ASCII) on file
1005       IF ( time_dopr_listing >= dt_dopr_listing )  THEN
1006          CALL print_1d
1007          time_dopr_listing = MOD( time_dopr_listing, MAX( dt_dopr_listing, &
1008                                                           dt_3d ) )
1009       ENDIF
1010
1011!
1012!--    Graphic output for PROFIL
1013       IF ( time_dopr >= dt_dopr )  THEN
1014          IF ( dopr_n /= 0 )  CALL data_output_profiles
1015          time_dopr = MOD( time_dopr, MAX( dt_dopr, dt_3d ) )
1016          time_dopr_av = 0.0_wp    ! due to averaging (see above)
1017       ENDIF
1018
1019!
1020!--    Graphic output for time series
1021       IF ( time_dots >= dt_dots )  THEN
1022          CALL data_output_tseries
1023          time_dots = MOD( time_dots, MAX( dt_dots, dt_3d ) )
1024       ENDIF
1025
1026!
1027!--    Output of spectra (formatted for use with PROFIL), in case of no
1028!--    time averaging, spectra has to be calculated before
1029       IF ( time_dosp >= dt_dosp )  THEN
1030          IF ( average_count_sp == 0 )  CALL calc_spectra
1031          CALL data_output_spectra
1032          time_dosp = MOD( time_dosp, MAX( dt_dosp, dt_3d ) )
1033       ENDIF
1034
1035!
1036!--    2d-data output (cross-sections)
1037       IF ( time_do2d_xy >= dt_do2d_xy )  THEN
1038          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 0 )
1039          time_do2d_xy = MOD( time_do2d_xy, MAX( dt_do2d_xy, dt_3d ) )
1040       ENDIF
1041       IF ( time_do2d_xz >= dt_do2d_xz )  THEN
1042          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 0 )
1043          time_do2d_xz = MOD( time_do2d_xz, MAX( dt_do2d_xz, dt_3d ) )
1044       ENDIF
1045       IF ( time_do2d_yz >= dt_do2d_yz )  THEN
1046          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 0 )
1047          time_do2d_yz = MOD( time_do2d_yz, MAX( dt_do2d_yz, dt_3d ) )
1048       ENDIF
1049
1050!
1051!--    3d-data output (volume data)
1052       IF ( time_do3d >= dt_do3d )  THEN
1053          CALL data_output_3d( 0 )
1054          time_do3d = MOD( time_do3d, MAX( dt_do3d, dt_3d ) )
1055       ENDIF
1056
1057!
1058!--    Masked data output
1059       DO  mid = 1, masks
1060          IF ( time_domask(mid) >= dt_domask(mid) )  THEN
1061             CALL data_output_mask( 0 )
1062             time_domask(mid) = MOD( time_domask(mid),  &
1063                                     MAX( dt_domask(mid), dt_3d ) )
1064          ENDIF
1065       ENDDO
1066
1067!
1068!--    Output of time-averaged 2d/3d/masked data
1069       IF ( time_do_av >= dt_data_output_av )  THEN
1070          CALL average_3d_data
1071          CALL data_output_2d( 'xy', 1 )
1072          CALL data_output_2d( 'xz', 1 )
1073          CALL data_output_2d( 'yz', 1 )
1074          CALL data_output_3d( 1 )
1075          DO  mid = 1, masks
1076             CALL data_output_mask( 1 )
1077          ENDDO
1078          time_do_av = MOD( time_do_av, MAX( dt_data_output_av, dt_3d ) )
1079       ENDIF
1080
1081!
1082!--    Output of particle time series
1083       IF ( particle_advection )  THEN
1084          IF ( time_dopts >= dt_dopts  .OR. &
1085               ( simulated_time >= particle_advection_start  .AND. &
1086                 first_call_lpm ) )  THEN
1087             CALL data_output_ptseries
1088             time_dopts = MOD( time_dopts, MAX( dt_dopts, dt_3d ) )
1089          ENDIF
1090       ENDIF
1091
1092!
1093!--    Output of dvrp-graphics (isosurface, particles, slicer)
1094#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1095       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number-1 )
1096#endif
1097       IF ( time_dvrp >= dt_dvrp )  THEN
1098          CALL data_output_dvrp
1099          time_dvrp = MOD( time_dvrp, MAX( dt_dvrp, dt_3d ) )
1100       ENDIF
1101#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1102       CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( 2, current_timestep_number )
1103#endif
1104
1105!
1106!--    If required, set the heat flux for the next time step at a random value
1107       IF ( constant_heatflux  .AND.  random_heatflux )  CALL disturb_heatflux
1108
1109!
1110!--    Execute user-defined actions
1111       CALL user_actions( 'after_timestep' )
1112
1113!
1114!--    Output elapsed simulated time in form of a progress bar on stdout
1115       IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL output_progress_bar
1116
1117       CALL cpu_log( log_point_s(10), 'timesteps', 'stop' )
1118
1119
1120    ENDDO   ! time loop
1121
1122    IF ( myid == 0 )  CALL finish_progress_bar
1123
1124#if defined( __dvrp_graphics )
1125    CALL DVRP_LOG_EVENT( -2, current_timestep_number )
1126#endif
1127
1128    CALL location_message( 'finished time-stepping', .TRUE. )
1129
1130 END SUBROUTINE time_integration
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