source: palm/trunk/DOC/app/chapter_4.2.html @ 531

Last change on this file since 531 was 531, checked in by heinze, 12 years ago

call of subsidence added in prognostic equations for humidity/passive scalar, some bugfixes

  • Property svn:keywords set to Id
File size: 289.2 KB
Line 
1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
2<html><head>
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13 
14 
15 
16 
17  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head><body>
18
19
20
21
22<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
23parameters</a>, <a href="#particle_parameters">particle parameters</a>, and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
24parameters</a></h3>
25
26
27
28
29
30<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
31
32
33
34
35
36<br>
37
38
39
40
41<br>
42
43
44
45
46<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
47
48
49
50
51 <tbody>
52
53
54
55
56
57    <tr>
58
59
60
61
62
63      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
64name</b></font></td>
65
66
67
68
69 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
70
71
72
73
74
75      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
76     
77     
78     
79     
80      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
81
82
83
84
85 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
86
87
88
89
90 </td>
91
92
93
94
95
96      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
97
98
99
100
101
102    </tr>
103
104
105
106
107 <tr>
108
109
110
111
112 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
113
114
115
116
117
118      </td>
119
120
121
122
123 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
124
125
126
127
128 </td>
129
130
131
132
133
134      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
135
136
137
138
139 </td>
140
141
142
143
144
145      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
146all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br>
147
148
149
150
151      <br>
152
153
154
155
156This
157parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
158(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
159default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
160interval
161length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
162In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
163&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
164must hold.<br>
165
166
167
168
169      <br>
170
171
172
173
174If
175an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
176the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
177of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
178parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br>
179
180
181
182
183      <br>
184
185
186
187
188If
189an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
190will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
191restart runs, averaging intervals do not
192necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br>
193
194
195
196
197      <br>
198
199
200
201
202Parameters
203      <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
204and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
205can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
206profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
207
208
209
210
211 </td>
212
213
214
215
216 </tr>
217
218
219
220
221
222    <tr>
223
224
225
226
227 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
228     
229     
230     
231     
232      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
233
234
235
236
237
238      </td>
239
240
241
242
243 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
244
245
246
247
248 </td>
249
250
251
252
253
254      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
255
256
257
258
259
260interval</a><br>
261
262
263
264
265
266      </span> </td>
267
268
269
270
271 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
272     
273     
274     
275     
276      <p>Averaging
277interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
278local
279file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
280      </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
281(in s).&nbsp; </p>
282
283
284
285
286 
287     
288     
289     
290     
291      <p>If
292this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
293averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
294data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
295limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
296In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
297      </b>must
298hold.</p>
299
300
301
302
303If an interval is defined, then by default the average
304is calculated
305from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
306number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
307parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
308     
309     
310     
311     
312      <p>If
313an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
314be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
315runs, averaging intervals do not
316necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
317
318
319
320
321 </td>
322
323
324
325
326 </tr>
327
328
329
330
331
332    <tr>
333
334
335
336
337 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
338
339
340
341
342
343substeps</span></td>
344
345
346
347
348 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
349
350
351
352
353
354      </td>
355
356
357
358
359 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
360
361
362
363
364 </td>
365
366
367
368
369
370      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
371to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
372
373
374
375
376 <br>
377
378
379
380
381
382In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
383pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
384be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
385timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
386by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
387= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
388In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
389field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
390case and in case
391of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
392= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
393should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
394
395
396
397
398
399    </tr>
400
401
402
403
404 <tr>
405
406
407
408
409 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
410     
411     
412     
413     
414      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
415
416
417
418
419
420      </td>
421
422
423
424
425 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
426
427
428
429
430 </td>
431
432
433
434
435
436      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
437     
438     
439     
440     
441      <p><i>0.1,
4420.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
443
444
445
446
447 <i>(see right)</i></p>
448
449
450
451
452
453      </td>
454
455
456
457
458 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
459     
460     
461     
462     
463      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
464
465
466
467
468
469     
470     
471     
472     
473      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
474allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
475diffusion-criterion
476dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
477dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
478in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
479the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
480&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
481&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
482
483
484
485
486 </span></p>
487
488
489
490
491
492     
493     
494     
495     
496      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
497cfl_factor depends on
498the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
499
500
501
502
503 </span></p>
504
505
506
507
508 
509     
510     
511     
512     
513      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
514is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
515
516
517
518
519 </span></p>
520
521
522
523
524 
525     
526     
527     
528     
529      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
530restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
531= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
532divergence
533significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
534be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
535appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
536
537
538
539
540
541      </span></span></p>
542
543
544
545
546 <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
547scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
548= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
549
550
551
552
553
554    </tr>
555
556
557
558
559    <tr>
560
561
562
563
564 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
565     
566     
567     
568     
569      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
570
571
572
573
574
575      </td>
576
577
578
579
580 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
581
582
583
584
585 </td>
586
587
588
589
590
591      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
592
593
594
595
596 </td>
597
598
599
600
601
602      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
603     
604     
605     
606     
607      <p>Switch to
608impose random perturbations to the horizontal
609velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
610
611
612
613
614 
615     
616     
617     
618     
619      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
620= <i>.T.,</i> random
621perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
622certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
623etc..<br>
624
625
626
627
628 </p>
629
630
631
632
633 
634     
635     
636     
637     
638      <p>The temporal interval between
639these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
640the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
641and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
642and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
643In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
644and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
645the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
646and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
647A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
648determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
649distributed random number.
650After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
651Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
652solver.<br>
653
654
655
656
657 </p>
658
659
660
661
662 
663     
664     
665     
666     
667      <p>The random number generator to
668be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
669
670
671
672
673
674      </p>
675
676
677
678
679 
680     
681     
682     
683     
684      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
685developed
686(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
687perturbations
688is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
689lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
690an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
691energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
692using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
693As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
694more random perturbations are assigned<br>
695
696
697
698
699
700.&nbsp; <br>
701
702
703
704
705
706Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
707the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
708by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
709velocities. </p>
710
711
712
713
714 </td>
715
716
717
718
719 </tr>
720
721
722
723
724 <tr>
725
726
727
728
729 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
730     
731     
732     
733     
734      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
735
736
737
738
739
740      </td>
741
742
743
744
745 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
746      <br>
747
748
749
750
751&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
752
753
754
755
756 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
757
758
759
760
761
762      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
763     
764     
765     
766     
767      <p>Type of
768normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
769profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
770
771
772
773
774
775     
776     
777     
778     
779      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
780= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
781
782
783
784
785     
786     
787     
788     
789      <p>If
790vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
791local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
792parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
793the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
794certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
795a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
796profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
797are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
798temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
799then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
800accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
801then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
802is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
803
804
805
806
807 </p>
808
809
810
811
812
813     
814     
815     
816     
817      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
818horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
819used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
820Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
821subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
822(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
823domain).&nbsp; </p>
824
825
826
827
828 
829     
830     
831     
832     
833      <p>The user can choose between
834the following normalization
835quantities: <br>
836
837
838
839
840 </p>
841
842
843
844
845 
846     
847     
848     
849     
850      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
851
852
853
854
855 <tbody>
856
857
858
859
860 <tr>
861
862
863
864
865 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
866
867
868
869
870
871            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
872respect
873to the total surface sensible heat
874flux (k=0 ).</td>
875
876
877
878
879 </tr>
880
881
882
883
884 <tr>
885
886
887
888
889 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
890
891
892
893
894
895            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
896respect
897to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
898(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
899
900
901
902
903
904          </tr>
905
906
907
908
909 <tr>
910
911
912
913
914 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
915
916
917
918
919
920            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
921respect
922to the square of the characteristic
923temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
924as ratio of
925the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
926
927
928
929
930 </tr>
931
932
933
934
935
936          <tr>
937
938
939
940
941 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
942
943
944
945
946
947            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
948respect
949to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
950
951
952
953
954 </tr>
955
956
957
958
959
960          <tr>
961
962
963
964
965 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
966
967
968
969
970
971            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
972respect
973to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
974(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
975
976
977
978
979
980          </tr>
981
982
983
984
985 <tr>
986
987
988
989
990 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
991
992
993
994
995
996            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
997respect
998to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
999(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005          </tr>
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010 
1011       
1012       
1013       
1014       
1015        </tbody> 
1016     
1017     
1018     
1019     
1020      </table>
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025 
1026     
1027     
1028     
1029     
1030      <p>For each
1031coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
1032an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
1033      <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
1034then the
1035x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
1036and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
1037Data
1038of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
1039normalized.&nbsp; </p>
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044 
1045     
1046     
1047     
1048     
1049      <p>Using a normalization
1050leaves all vertical profile data on
1051local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
1052unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
1053normalization is steered
1054by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
1055which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
1056(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062&nbsp;<br>
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
1069respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075      </td>
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080 </tr>
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085 <tr>
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1091     
1092     
1093     
1094     
1095      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101      </td>
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
1107      <br>
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1124     
1125     
1126     
1127     
1128      <p>Type of
1129normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
1130profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136     
1137     
1138     
1139     
1140      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1141= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146     
1147     
1148     
1149     
1150      <p>If
1151vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
1152local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
1153parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1154the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
1155certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
1156the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
1157comparability. </p>
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162 
1163     
1164     
1165     
1166     
1167      <p>The user can choose between the
1168following normalization
1169quantities: <br>
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174 </p>
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179 
1180     
1181     
1182     
1183     
1184      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189 <tbody>
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194 <tr>
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
1206respect
1207to the boundary layer height
1208(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
1209value).</td>
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214 </tr>
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219 
1220       
1221       
1222       
1223       
1224        </tbody> 
1225     
1226     
1227     
1228     
1229      </table>
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234 
1235     
1236     
1237     
1238     
1239      <p>For
1240further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246      </td>
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251 </tr>
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256 <tr>
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1262     
1263     
1264     
1265     
1266      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272      </td>
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
1278      <br>
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293 </td>
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1300     
1301     
1302     
1303     
1304      <p>Determines
1305which vertical profiles are to be presented in
1306which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
1307&nbsp; </p>
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312 
1313     
1314     
1315     
1316     
1317      <p>This parameter only applies for
1318&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1319= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324     
1325     
1326     
1327     
1328      <p>The
1329default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334 
1335     
1336     
1337     
1338     
1339      <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
1340=&nbsp; </p>
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345 
1346     
1347     
1348     
1349     
1350      <ul>
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355 
1356       
1357       
1358       
1359       
1360        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1361u v ',</span><br>
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
1367',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1373w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1379w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
1385kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
1391,</span><br>
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
139714 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1398'</span></p>
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403 
1404     
1405     
1406     
1407     
1408      </ul>
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413 
1414     
1415     
1416     
1417     
1418      <p>If plot output of
1419vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
1420the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
1421Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1422which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
1423program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
1424The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
1425determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
1426which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
1427expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
1428coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
1429drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
1430names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1431The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
1432must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
1433string.&nbsp; </p>
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438 
1439     
1440     
1441     
1442     
1443      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448 
1449     
1450     
1451     
1452     
1453      <ul>
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459       
1460       
1461       
1462       
1463        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
1464' pt '</span></p>
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469 
1470     
1471     
1472     
1473     
1474      </ul>
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479 
1480     
1481     
1482     
1483     
1484      <p>In this case the
1485plot consists of two coordinate systems
1486(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
1487velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
1488and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
1489of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
1490and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
1491(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497      </p>
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502 
1503     
1504     
1505     
1506     
1507      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
1508depends on
1509whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
1510(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1511For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
1512then
1513the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
1514temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
1515to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
1516then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
1517but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522 </p>
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
1529with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
1530and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1531Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
1532distributed on several pages).</td>
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537 </tr>
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542 <tr>
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1548     
1549     
1550     
1551     
1552      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558      </td>
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
1564      <br>
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579 </td>
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1586     
1587     
1588     
1589     
1590      <p>x-axis labels
1591of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
1592plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1593      </p>
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598 
1599     
1600     
1601     
1602     
1603      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1604= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609     
1610     
1611     
1612     
1613      <p>The
1614default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619 
1620     
1621     
1622     
1623     
1624      <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
1625=&nbsp; </p>
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630 
1631     
1632     
1633     
1634     
1635      <ul>
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640 
1641       
1642       
1643       
1644       
1645        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
1646ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
1652K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
1659ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664 <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
1665m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670 <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
1671m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676 <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
1677        <br>
1678
1679
1680
1681
168214 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688     
1689     
1690     
1691     
1692      </ul>
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697 
1698     
1699     
1700     
1701     
1702      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
1703labels to vertical
1704profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
1705of vertical
1706profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
1713      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
1714according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
1715and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720 
1721     
1722     
1723     
1724     
1725      <p>Umlauts
1726are possible (write &#8220; in front of, similar to TeX), as
1727well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
1728each
1729character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
1730plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736      </td>
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741 </tr>
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746 <tr>
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1752     
1753     
1754     
1755     
1756      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762      </td>
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1780     
1781     
1782     
1783     
1784      <p>Type of cycle
1785to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790 
1791     
1792     
1793     
1794     
1795      <p>This
1796parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
1797the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1798perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1799It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
1800grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
1801may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
1802The
1803computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
1804however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809 </td>
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815    </tr>
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820 <tr>
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1826     
1827     
1828     
1829     
1830      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836      </td>
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847      </td>
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858      </td>
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
1864for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br>
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869      <br>
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874PALM
1875allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
1876averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
1877parameter (see below).<br>
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882      <br>
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887By default, cross section
1888data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
1889below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
1890      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
1891and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
1892Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
1893If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
1894these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1895      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1896      <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1897and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1898respectively.<br>
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903      <br>
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908The
1909filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
1910Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
1911dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
1912format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
1913"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
1914the PALM NetCDF data.<br>
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919      <br>
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924The following quantities are
1925available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br>
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930      <br>
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935     
1936     
1937     
1938     
1939      <table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944        <tbody>
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949          <tr>
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
1955name</span></td>
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960            <td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td>
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td>
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td>
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975          </tr>
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980          <tr>
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td>
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990            <td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td>
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995            <td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td>
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000            <td><br>
2001</td>
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006          </tr>
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011          <tr>
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td>
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td>
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2032is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2033= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038          </tr>
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043          <tr>
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td>
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
2054pressure</td>
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059            <td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
2060Pa</td>
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2066</td>
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071          </tr>
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076          <tr>
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td>
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
2087concentration</td>
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092            <td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td>
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2098advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2099"-p particles"</td>
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104          </tr>
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109          <tr>
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td>
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
2120particle/droplet radius </td>
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2131advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2132"-p particles"</td>
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137          </tr>
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142          <tr>
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td>
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td>
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td>
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2163is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2164= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td>
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169          </tr>
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174          <tr>
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td>
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td>
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td>
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2195is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2196= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201          </tr>
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206          <tr>
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td>
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
2217temperature<br>
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222            </td>
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2233</td>
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238          </tr>
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243          <tr>
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td>
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
2254(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td>
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269          </tr>
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274          <tr>
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td>
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
2285content</td>
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2296= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
2297or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2298= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303          </tr>
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308          <tr>
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td>
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
2319water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td>
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2330= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335          </tr>
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340          <tr>
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td>
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
2351water</td>
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td>
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2362= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367          </tr>
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372          <tr>
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td>
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td>
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2388</td>
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2394= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399          </tr>
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404          <tr>
2405
2406            <td>qsws*</td>
2407
2408            <td>latent&nbsp;surface heatflux</td>
2409
2410            <td>kg/kg * m/s</td>
2411
2412            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed, requires humidity = .TRUE. </td>
2413
2414          </tr>
2415
2416          <tr>
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td>
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
2427content (specific humidity)</td>
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2438= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443          </tr>
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448          <tr>
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td>
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td>
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2469= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474          </tr>
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479          <tr>
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td>
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
2490the scalar</td>
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495            <td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
2501= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506          </tr>
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511          <tr>
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td>
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td>
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td>
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2532= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537          </tr>
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542          <tr>
2543
2544            <td>shf*</td>
2545
2546            <td>sensible surface heatflux</td>
2547
2548            <td>K m/s</td>
2549
2550            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed</td>
2551
2552          </tr>
2553
2554          <tr>
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td>
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2565characteristic temperature</td>
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2576is allowed</td>
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581          </tr>
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586          <tr>
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td>
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
2597the velocity</td>
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2608</td>
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613          </tr>
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618          <tr>
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td>
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2629friction velocity</td>
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2640is allowed</td>
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645          </tr>
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650          <tr>
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td>
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
2661the velocity</td>
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2672</td>
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677          </tr>
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682          <tr>
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td>
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
2693temperature</td>
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708          </tr>
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713          <tr>
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td>
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
2724the velocity</td>
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2735</td>
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740          </tr>
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745          <tr>
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td>
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755            <td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td>
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765            <td><br>
2766</td>
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771          </tr>
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776       
2777       
2778       
2779       
2780        </tbody>
2781     
2782     
2783     
2784     
2785      </table>
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790      <br>
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795Multiple
2796quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
2797= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br>
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802      <br>
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807By
2808assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
2809output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
2810respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
2811appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
2812      </span>(for
2813cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
2814section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
2815along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
2816Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
2817order:<br>
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822      <br>
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827Example:<br>
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832      <br>
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837     
2838     
2839     
2840     
2841      <div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br>
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846      </div>
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851      <br>
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856This
2857example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
2858of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
2859averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
2860DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
2861w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
2862temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
2863temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br>
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868      <br>
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873The
2874user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
2875own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br>
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880      <br>
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885The
2886time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
2887This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
2888time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
2889be
2890declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br>
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895      <br>
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900Also,
2901an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
2902be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
2903This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
2904the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br>
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909      <br>
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914The
2915parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
2916can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
2917Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
2918      <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923     
2924     
2925     
2926     
2927      <p>With
2928the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
2929the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
2930grid point.<br>
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935 </p>
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940 Cross sections extend through the
2941total model
2942domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
2943&lt;= i
2944&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
2945&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
2946the
2947complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
2948sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
2949      <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2950causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
2951normal to the respective section.<br>
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956      <br>
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961      <br>
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br>
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971      <br>
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976Beside
2977the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
2978other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
2979user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
2980They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
2981for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
2982Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
2983selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
2984listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
2985quantities.<br>
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990      <br>
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995     
2996     
2997     
2998     
2999      <p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
3000on parallel machines:</p>
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005     
3006     
3007     
3008     
3009      <p>
3010By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
3011of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
3012are
3013constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
3014&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
3015After PALM has
3016finished, the contents of these individual
3017files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
3018using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3019(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3020configuration file).</p>
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025 
3026     
3027     
3028     
3029     
3030      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
3031collect all grid points of a
3032cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
3033one&nbsp;
3034output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3035does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
3036gridpoints, sufficient
3037memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
3038assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
3039= <i>.F.</i>.</p>
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044     
3045     
3046     
3047     
3048      <p>3d volume data output is
3049always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
3050has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p>
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055     
3056     
3057     
3058     
3059      <p><br>
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070     
3071     
3072     
3073     
3074      <p>Beside
3075the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
3076can
3077also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
3078using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p>
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083     
3084     
3085     
3086     
3087      <p>By
3088assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
3089      </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
3090the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
3091Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3092the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
3093The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
3094for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3095= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
3096means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
3097v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
3098averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
3099creates
3100a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
3101with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
3102As third and
3103fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
3104and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
3105which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
3106and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
3107one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
3108the file
3109PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3110configuration file: &#8220;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3111PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&#8221;)
3112after PALM has
3113finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
3114can be done
3115in
3116compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
3117Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
3118      <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
31194.5.5</a>.</p>
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
3125      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
3126the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
3127Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3128the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
3129The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
3130for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3131= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
3132means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
3133with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
3134temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
3135instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
3136file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
3137creates NAMELIST parameter files
3138(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
3139      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
3140      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3141      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
3142      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3143      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
3144which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
3145That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
3146respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
3147suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3148configuration file, e.g.: &#8220;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3149PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&#8221;)
3150after PALM has
3151finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
3152respective data and
3153parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
3154file.
3155The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3156parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
3157(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
3158All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
3159file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
3160in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
31614.5.4</a>.<br>
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166      <br>
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176There
3177is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
3178PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td>
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183 </tr>
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188 <tr>
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199      </td>
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br>
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221      <br>
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226By
3227default, all data (profiles, time
3228series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
3229in NetCDF 64bit-offset format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
3230Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
3231      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
3232are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br>
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237      <br>
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242The
3243numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br>
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248      <br>Other NetCDF formats (classic, NetCDF4/HDF5) can be selected with parameter <a href="#netcdf_data_format">netcdf_data_format</a>.<br>
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253      <br>
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258For historical
3259reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
3260may be assigned the following values:<br>
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265      <br>
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270     
3271     
3272     
3273     
3274      <table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279        <tbody>
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284          <tr>
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td>
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294            <td>output
3295of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
3296read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
3297            </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
3298            <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td>
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303          </tr>
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308          <tr>
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td>
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318            <td>output
3319of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3320software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3321(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td>
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326          </tr>
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331          <tr>
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td>
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341            <td>output
3342of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3343software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
3344(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td>
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349          </tr>
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354       
3355       
3356       
3357       
3358        </tbody>
3359     
3360     
3361     
3362     
3363      </table>
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368      <br>
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373Multiple
3374values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
3375i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
3376cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
3377      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
3378assigned.<br>
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383      <br>
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
3389There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
3390future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395 </td>
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400 </tr>
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405 <tr>
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3412     
3413     
3414     
3415     
3416      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422      </td>
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
342810&nbsp; <br>
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434(100)</td>
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
3440* ' '</i></td>
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3446     
3447     
3448     
3449     
3450      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
3451are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456 
3457     
3458     
3459     
3460     
3461      <p>By default vertical
3462profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
3463The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
3464NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469     
3470     
3471     
3472     
3473      <p>For
3474historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
3475file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
3476which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
3477parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3478for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483 </p>
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489     
3490     
3491     
3492     
3493      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
3494profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
3495vertical
3496grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
3497profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
3498also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
3499      </p>
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504 
3505     
3506     
3507     
3508     
3509      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
3510profiles is
3511assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
3512Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
3513the profiles are ordered with respect to their
3514output times.</p>
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519     
3520     
3521     
3522     
3523      <p>Profiles can also be temporally
3524averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).<br>
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530      </p>
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535 
3536     
3537     
3538     
3539     
3540      <p>The following list shows the values which can be
3541assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
3542The profile data is either defined on
3543u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
3544or
3545on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
3546According to this,
3547the
3548z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
3549Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
3550the lowest output
3551level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
3552u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
3553. Turbulence quantities such as&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">w*u* &nbsp;</span>or <span style="font-style: italic;">u*2</span> are calculated from turbulent fluctuations that are defined as deviations from the instantaneous horizontal average.
3554
3555
3556 </p>
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561 
3562     
3563     
3564     
3565     
3566      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571 <tbody>
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576 <tr>
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3588velocity (in m/s).</td>
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593 </tr>
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598 <tr>
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
3610velocity (in m/s).</td>
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615 </tr>
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620 <tr>
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
3632velocity (in m/s).</td>
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637 </tr>
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642 <tr>
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
3654K).</td>
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659 </tr>
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664 <tr>
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
3676temperature (in K).</td>
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681 </tr>
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686 <tr>
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
3698temperature (in K).</td>
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703 </tr>
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708 <tr>
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
3720(in kg/kg).</td>
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725 </tr>
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730 <tr>
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
3742kg/kg).</td>
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747 </tr>
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752 <tr>
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
3764(in kg/kg).</td>
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769 </tr>
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774 <tr>
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td>
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789          </tr>
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794          <tr>
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799 <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
3806kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811 </tr>
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816 <tr>
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td>
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td>
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831          </tr>
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836          <tr>
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
3848(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854          </tr>
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859 <tr>
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
3871(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877          </tr>
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882 <tr>
3883
3884            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">p</span></td>
3885
3886            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Perturbation pressure (in Pa)</td>
3887
3888          </tr>
3889
3890          <tr>
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
3902momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907 </tr>
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912 <tr>
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
3925(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930 </tr>
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935 <tr>
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952          </tr>
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957 <tr>
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3969subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975          </tr>
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980 <tr>
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3992resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998          </tr>
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003 <tr>
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
4015vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
4016(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021 </tr>
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027          <tr>
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4039subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045          </tr>
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050 <tr>
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4062resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068          </tr>
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073 <tr>
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
4085vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
4086(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091 </tr>
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097          <tr>
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4109sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114 </tr>
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119 <tr>
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4131sensible
4132heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137 </tr>
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142 <tr>
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4154heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
4155(in K
4156m/s).</td>
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161 </tr>
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166 <tr>
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4178sensible heat flux using the
4179Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184 </tr>
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189 <tr>
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4201heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
4202(<i>w"pt"</i>
4203+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208 </tr>
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213 <tr>
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4226buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231 </tr>
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236 <tr>
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*vpt*</i></font></td>
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4248buoyancy
4249flux (in K m/s).</td>
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254 </tr>
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259 <tr>
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
4271flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276 </tr>
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281 <tr>
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4293water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298 </tr>
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303 <tr>
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
4315flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320 </tr>
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325 <tr>
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
4337(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342 </tr>
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347 <tr>
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4359latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364 </tr>
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369 <tr>
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
4381heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386 </tr>
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391 <tr>
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
4403heat
4404flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409 </tr>
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414 <tr>
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4427scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433          </tr>
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438 <tr>
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
4450concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td>
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455 </tr>
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461          <tr>
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
4473concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479          </tr>
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484 <tr>
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td>
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
4495salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500          </tr>
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505          <tr>
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td>
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td>
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520          </tr>
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525          <tr>
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td>
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540          </tr>
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545          <tr>
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
4557perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562 </tr>
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567 <tr>
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4579u-velocity
4580component (resolved)</td>
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585 </tr>
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590 <tr>
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4602v-velocity
4603component (resolved)</td>
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608 </tr>
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613 <tr>
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the w-velocity
4625component (resolved)</td>
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630 </tr>
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635 <tr>
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
4647temperature (resolved)</td>
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652 </tr>
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657 <tr>
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
4669w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674 </tr>
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679 <tr>
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
4691w-velocity
4692component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
4693= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699          </tr>
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704 <tr>
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721          </tr>
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726 <tr>
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743          </tr>
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748 <tr>
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*:dz</i></font></td>
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4760shear
4761(resolved)</td>
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766 </tr>
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771 <tr>
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*:dz</i></font></td>
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4783turbulent transport of pressure
4784fluctuations (resolved)</td>
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789 </tr>
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794 <tr>
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e:dz</i></font></td>
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4806transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811 </tr><tr>
4812            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>hyp</i></font></td>
4813            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Hydrostatic pressure (in dbar)<br>
4814            </td>
4815          </tr>
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821 
4822       
4823       
4824       
4825       
4826        </tbody>
4827     
4828     
4829     
4830     
4831      </table>
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836 <br>
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
4842variables can additionally be
4843output (this output is only done once
4844with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
4845later
4846times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
4847above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852 
4853     
4854     
4855     
4856     
4857      <ul>
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863       
4864       
4865       
4866       
4867        <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
4868        <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l, #lpt, #q, #qv, #s, #sa, #vpt</i></p>
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874     
4875     
4876     
4877     
4878      </ul>
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883 
4884     
4885     
4886     
4887     
4888      <p>Profile names preceded by a hash automatically imply that
4889profiles for these variables are also output at later times. It is not
4890necessary and not allowed to specify the same profile name with and
4891without hash simultaneously(this would lead to an NetCDF error). </p>
4892
4893
4894     
4895     
4896      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
4897the user or
4898have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903The
4904user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
4905own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br>
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910      <br>
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915In case
4916of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
4917PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
4918which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
4919Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
4920using these two files. The
4921plot layout is
4922steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
4923are determined by
4924a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
4925      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
4926      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
4927      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
4928etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
4929input
4930file. <br>
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935      <br>
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940Further details about plotting vertical
4941profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
4942be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
49434.5.2</a></td>
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948 </tr>
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953 <tr>
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4959     
4960     
4961     
4962     
4963      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
4964      <br>
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969 <b>_each_pe</b></p>
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974 </td>
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984 </td>
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994 </td>
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
5001data by one or
5002all processors.&nbsp; 
5003     
5004     
5005     
5006     
5007      <p>In runs with several processors, by
5008default, each processor
5009outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
5010file. After PALM
5011has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
5012file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
5013the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019     
5020     
5021     
5022     
5023      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
5024= <i>.F.,</i>
5025the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
5026into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
5027have to be
5028called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
5029gridpoints, sufficient
5030memory is required on PE0. </p>
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035 </td>
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040 </tr>
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046    <tr>
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5052     
5053     
5054     
5055     
5056      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062_amplitude</b></p>
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067 </td>
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5084     
5085     
5086     
5087     
5088      <p>Maximum
5089perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
5090imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096     
5097     
5098     
5099     
5100      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
5101describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
5102field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
5103the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
5104only an
5105approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110 </td>
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116    </tr>
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121 <tr>
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5127     
5128     
5129     
5130     
5131      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
5132      <br>
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137 <b>_limit</b></p>
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142 </td>
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5159     
5160     
5161     
5162     
5163      <p lang="en-GB">Upper
5164limit value of the perturbation energy of
5165the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
5166perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
5167      </p>
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172 
5173     
5174     
5175     
5176     
5177      <p><span lang="en-GB">The parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5178describes how to impose
5179random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
5180energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
5181of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
5182mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
5183assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
5184velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
5185must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
5186number of grid points).</span>  </p>
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191 </td>
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197    </tr>
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202 <tr>
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5208     
5209     
5210     
5211     
5212      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218      </td>
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234zu(nz*2/3)<br>
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239see right</i></td>
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5246     
5247     
5248     
5249     
5250      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Lower
5251limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5252imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5253      </font> </p>
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258 
5259     
5260     
5261     
5262     
5263      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5264parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5265&lt;= zu(</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span><span lang="en-GB">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5266&lt;= </span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_t</span></a>
5267      <span lang="en-GB">must
5268also hold.</span></p>
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273     
5274     
5275     
5276     
5277      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz * 2 / 3) </span>(negative).</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282 
5283     
5284     
5285     
5286     
5287      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5288parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5289describes how to impose
5290random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5291       </p>
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296 </td>
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301 </tr>
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306 <tr>
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5312     
5313     
5314     
5315     
5316      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322      </td>
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338zu(nzt-3)<br>
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343see right</i></td>
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5350     
5351     
5352     
5353     
5354      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Upper
5355limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5356imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5357      </font> </p>
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362 
5363     
5364     
5365     
5366     
5367      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5368parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5369&lt;= zu<i>(</i></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span></i><span lang="en-GB">.
5370Additionally, </span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_b</span></a>
5371      <span lang="en-GB">&lt;=
5372      <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5373must also hold.</span></p>
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378      <span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nzt - 3</span>)</span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>(negative)</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5379     
5380     
5381     
5382     
5383      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5384parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5385describes how to impose
5386random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5387       </p>
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392 </td>
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397 </tr>
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402 <tr>
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5408     
5409     
5410     
5411     
5412      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418      </td>
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428 </td>
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439 </td>
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5446     
5447     
5448     
5449     
5450      <p>Output of 2d
5451cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456 
5457     
5458     
5459     
5460     
5461      <p>The
5462temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5463are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
5464and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
5465By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5466an additional output
5467will be made at the
5468beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5469starting times of restart runs).</p>
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474 </td>
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479 </tr>
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484 <tr>
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5491     
5492     
5493     
5494     
5495      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501      </td>
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511 </td>
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522 </td>
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
5529at the beginning
5530of a run.<br>
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535      <br>
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540The temporal intervals of output times of
55413d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5542is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
5543By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5544an additional output
5545will be made at the
5546beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5547starting times of restart runs).</td>
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552 </tr>
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557 <tr>
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5563     
5564     
5565     
5566     
5567      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573      </td>
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583 </td>
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594 </td>
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5601     
5602     
5603     
5604     
5605      <p>Output of data
5606for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611 
5612     
5613     
5614     
5615     
5616      <p>This
5617parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5618= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623     
5624     
5625     
5626     
5627      <p>Output
5628of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
5629(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
5630reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
5631form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
5632= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
5633assigned. This
5634yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
5635parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_comp_prec">do3d_comp_prec</a>
5636can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
5637each quantity.<br>
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642 </p>
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647 
5648     
5649     
5650     
5651     
5652      <p>So far compressed data
5653output is only possible for Cray-T3E
5654machines. Additional information for
5655handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
56564.5.6</a>.</p>
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661 </td>
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666 </tr>
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671 <tr>
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5677     
5678     
5679     
5680     
5681      <p><a name="do3d_comp_prec"></a><b>do3d_comp_prec</b></p>
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687      </td>
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
56937&nbsp; <br>
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699&nbsp; (100)</td>
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">see
5705right<br>
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710 </td>
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5716     
5717     
5718     
5719     
5720      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
5721output.&nbsp; </p>
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726 
5727     
5728     
5729     
5730     
5731      <p>This parameter only applies for
5732&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5733= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738     
5739     
5740     
5741     
5742      <p>In
5743case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
5744(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
5745this parameter determines the number of significant digits
5746which are to be output.<br>
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751 </p>
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756 
5757     
5758     
5759     
5760     
5761      <p>Fewer digits
5762clearly reduce the amount
5763of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
5764quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
5765name&gt;&lt;number of
5766significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
5767Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
5768are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
5769are not very reasonable
5770because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775 </p>
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5781     
5782     
5783     
5784     
5785      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_comp_prec</span>
5786= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791 </td>
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797    </tr>
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802 <tr>
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5808     
5809     
5810     
5811     
5812      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818      </td>
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5836     
5837     
5838      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
5839step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">in </span><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
5840      </font></font> 
5841
5842
5843 
5844     
5845     
5846     
5847     
5848      <p style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><span lang="en-GB">This parameter</span>
5849      <span lang="en-GB">is
5850described in
5851detail with the initialization parameters (see</span><span lang="en-GB"> </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a><span lang="en-GB">).
5852Additionally, it may be
5853used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
5854is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
5855time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span></p>
5856
5857      <font face="Thorndale, serif">
5858      </font> 
5859
5860
5861 </td>
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866 </tr>
5867
5868
5869
5870
5871 <tr>
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
5877
5878
5879
5880
5881
5882      </td>
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892 </td>
5893
5894
5895
5896
5897
5898      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903 </td>
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
5910of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br>
5911
5912
5913
5914
5915      <br>
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920By
5921default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
5922are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
5923&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
5924the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
5925reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
5926average's statistics.<br>
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931      <br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
5937variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
5938the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
5939averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB">averaging_interval</span></a>)</font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
5940is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
5941MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
5942      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
5943gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
5944this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">&nbsp;
5945      </span><br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950      <br>
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960With
5961an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
5962      <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
5963the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
5964s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
5965larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
5966(maximum) 10 time levels.<br>
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971      <br>
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
5977is allowed
5978to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
5979the last averaging
5980interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
5981has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
5982spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
5983averaging interval.<br>
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988      <br>
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993      </span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
5994be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
5995vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000 </td>
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005 </tr>
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011    <tr>
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6017     
6018     
6019     
6020     
6021      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027      </td>
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043averaging_<br>
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048input</a></span></td>
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6055     
6056     
6057     
6058     
6059      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
6060interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
6061profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
6062      </font></font> </p>
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067 
6068     
6069     
6070     
6071     
6072      <p>By default, data from
6073each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
6074used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
6075&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
6076the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
6077reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
6078average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083 </p>
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088     
6089     
6090     
6091     
6092      <p>For
6093more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p>
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098      </td>
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104    </tr>
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109 <tr>
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_coupling"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span></td>
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval for the data exchange in case of <a href="chapter_3.8.html">runs with coupled models</a> (e.g. atmosphere - ocean) (in s).<br>
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134      <br>
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139This parameter has an effect only in case of a run with coupled models. It is available starting from version 3.3a. <br>
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144      <br>
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149This parameter specifies the temporal interval at which data are
6150exchanged at the interface between coupled models (currently: interface
6151between atmosphere and ocean). If this parameter is not explicitly
6152specified in the parameter files for both coupled models, or if there
6153is an inconsistency between its values for both coupled models,
6154the&nbsp;execution will terminate and an informative error message will
6155be given.&nbsp;In order to ensure synchronous coupling throughout the simulation, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span> should be chosen larger than
6156      <a href="#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</td>
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161    </tr>
6162
6163
6164
6165
6166    <tr>
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177      </td>
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6183
6184
6185
6186
6187 </td>
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199      </td>
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6205     
6206     
6207     
6208     
6209      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6210at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
6211averaged),
6212cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
6213spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
6220data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6221parameter can be used to
6222assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
6223output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6224simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
6225which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6226time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6227takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
6228dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6229+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6230+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
6231etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6232the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6233deviate
6234from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6235
6236
6237
6238
6239      <br>
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244Individual temporal
6245intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
6246parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
6247and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
6248      </td>
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253 </tr>
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258 <tr>
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6269      </td>
6270
6271
6272
6273
6274 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279 </td>
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6286&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6287
6288
6289
6290
6291output</a></i>
6292      </td>
6293
6294
6295
6296
6297 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6298     
6299     
6300     
6301     
6302      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6303at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
6304shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
6310output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6311parameter can be used to
6312assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
6313output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6314simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
6315which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6316time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6317takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
6318dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6319+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6320+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
6321etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6322the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6323deviate from
6324these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6325
6326
6327
6328
6329      <br>
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334      </font></span>The
6335length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
6336
6337
6338
6339
6340
6341    </tr>
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346    <tr>
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6352     
6353     
6354     
6355     
6356      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
6357
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362      </td>
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6379      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6380     
6381     
6382     
6383     
6384      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6385interval</font> at which random
6386perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
6387(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
6388      </p>
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393 
6394     
6395     
6396     
6397     
6398      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
6399describes how to impose
6400random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
6401      </font> </p>
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406 </td>
6407
6408
6409
6410
6411 </tr>
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416 <tr>
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6422     
6423     
6424     
6425     
6426      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432      </td>
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6443      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6444&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449output</a></i></td>
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6456     
6457     
6458     
6459     
6460      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
6461interval at
6462which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
6463file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
6464or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6465      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
6466      </font></span> </p>
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471 
6472     
6473     
6474     
6475     
6476      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6477horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
6478parameter can be used to
6479assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
6480be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
6481zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6482time is the beginning
6483of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
6484takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6485      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
6486+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6487etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
6488profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6489interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6490If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6491example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6492the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
6493model uses a variable time step, these
6494deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6495different for each output time.<br>
6496
6497
6498
6499
6500 </font></span></p>
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506     
6507     
6508     
6509     
6510      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6511order to
6512guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6513      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6514should be equal or a little bit
6515larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
6516= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6517      </span>and 3600.0
6518seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
6519&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
6520      </p>
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525 
6526     
6527     
6528     
6529     
6530      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
6531profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
6532      </p>
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537 </td>
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542 </tr>
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547 <tr>
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558      </td>
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568 </td>
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6581     
6582     
6583     
6584     
6585      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6586interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
6587vertical
6588profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6589      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
6590      </p>
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595 
6596     
6597     
6598     
6599     
6600      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
6601parameter can be used to
6602assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
6603time is the beginning
6604of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6605= 1800.0,
6606then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
6607profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6608interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6609If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6610example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6611the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
6612are related to
6613the
6614example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
6615deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6616different for each output time.<br>
6617
6618
6619
6620
6621 </font></span></p>
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627     
6628     
6629     
6630     
6631      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6632order to
6633guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6634      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6635should be a little bit
6636larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6637= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6638      </span>and 3600.0
6639seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
6640&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
6641variable time steps are used
6642(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
6643should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6649     
6650     
6651     
6652     
6653      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
6654and output
6655format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
6656      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
6657internally fixed. In this file
6658the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
6659adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664 </td>
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669 </tr>
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675    <tr>
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6681     
6682     
6683     
6684     
6685      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691      </td>
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701
6702      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6709     
6710     
6711     
6712     
6713      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6714interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
6715output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
6716      </p>
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721 
6722     
6723     
6724     
6725     
6726      <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
6727is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
6728calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p>
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733     
6734     
6735     
6736     
6737      <p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6738IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6739== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6745      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6746MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6747
6748
6749
6750
6751&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6752ELSE<br>
6753
6754
6755
6756
6757&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6758      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6759MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6760)<br>
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6766ENDIF</p>
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771     
6772     
6773     
6774     
6775      <p>This parameter can be used to
6776assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6777time is the beginning of
6778&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
67792*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
6780actual output times can
6781deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
6782Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
6783of the time series are
6784written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
6785= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p>
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790     
6791     
6792     
6793     
6794      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
6795value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
6796is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6802IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6803== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6809      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6810MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6816ELSE<br>
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6822      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6823MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
6824      <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6825)<br>
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6831ENDIF<br>
6832
6833
6834
6835
6836      <br>
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841(which minimizes the number of calls of
6842routine flow_statistics).<br>
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847     
6848     
6849     
6850     
6851      <p>By default time series data
6852is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
6853Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
6854it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
6855format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
6856data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861The
6862file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
6863gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br>
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868     
6869     
6870     
6871     
6872      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877 <tbody>
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882 <tr>
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893            </td>
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
6899kinetic energy of
6900the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
6901(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
6902
6903
6904
6905
6906
6907          </tr>
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912 <tr>
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
6918
6919
6920
6921
6922
6923            </td>
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
6929kinetic
6930energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
6931            </sup>(normalized
6932with respect to the total number of grid
6933points)</td>
6934
6935
6936
6937
6938 </tr>
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943 <tr>
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
6949
6950
6951
6952
6953
6954            </td>
6955
6956
6957
6958
6959 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
6960size (in s).</td>
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965 </tr>
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970 <tr>
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
6976
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
6982m/s)
6983(horizontal average).</td>
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988 </tr>
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993 <tr>
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
6999
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
7005of
7006the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
7007
7008
7009
7010
7011 </tr>
7012
7013
7014
7015
7016 <tr>
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
7023
7024
7025
7026
7027
7028            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
7029scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
7030/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
7031(horizontal
7032average) (in K).</td>
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037 </tr>
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042 <tr>
7043
7044
7045
7046
7047 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
7048
7049
7050
7051
7052
7053            </td>
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7059u-component of the
7060velocity (in m/s).</td>
7061
7062
7063
7064
7065 </tr>
7066
7067
7068
7069
7070 <tr>
7071
7072
7073
7074
7075 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
7076
7077
7078
7079
7080
7081            </td>
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7087v-component of the
7088velocity (in m/s).</td>
7089
7090
7091
7092
7093 </tr>
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098 <tr>
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
7104
7105
7106
7107
7108
7109            </td>
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7115w-component of the
7116velocity (in m/s).</td>
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121 </tr>
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126 <tr>
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137            </td>
7138
7139
7140
7141
7142 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
7143of the velocity
7144field before the pressure
7145solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7146grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151 </tr>
7152
7153
7154
7155
7156 <tr>
7157
7158
7159
7160
7161 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
7168velocity
7169field after the pressure
7170solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7171grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176 </tr>
7177
7178
7179
7180
7181 <tr>
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7193boundary layer (horizontal average)
7194determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
7195
7196
7197
7198
7199
7200          </tr>
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205 <tr>
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
7211
7212
7213
7214
7215
7216            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7217boundary layer (horizontal average)
7218determined by the temperature profile, following the criterion of Sullivan et al. (1998) (in m).</td>
7219
7220
7221
7222
7223 </tr>
7224
7225
7226
7227
7228 <tr>
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233
7234            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
7241heat flux at k=0 (horizontal
7242average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in K m/s).</td>
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247 </tr>
7248
7249
7250
7251
7252 <tr>
7253
7254
7255
7256
7257 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
7258
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
7264(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
7265m/s).</td>
7266
7267
7268
7269
7270 </tr>
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275 <tr>
7276
7277
7278
7279
7280 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
7287(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292 </tr>
7293
7294
7295
7296
7297 <tr>
7298
7299            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"u"0</span></td>
7300
7301            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (u-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7302
7303          </tr>
7304
7305          <tr>
7306
7307            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"v"0</span></td>
7308
7309            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (v-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7310
7311          </tr>
7312
7313          <tr>
7314
7315            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"q"0</span></td>
7316
7317            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale
7318humidity flux at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within
7319Prandtl-layer (in kg/kg m/s). Zero values are output if humidity is not
7320used.</td>
7321
7322          </tr>
7323
7324          <tr>
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329
7330            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335
7336            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
7337the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7338
7339
7340
7341
7342 </tr>
7343
7344
7345
7346
7347 <tr>
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352
7353            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358
7359            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
7360z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7361
7362
7363
7364
7365 </tr>
7366
7367
7368
7369
7370 
7371
7372
7373 
7374
7375
7376 
7377
7378
7379 <tr>
7380
7381
7382
7383
7384 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389
7390            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
7391
7392
7393
7394
7395
7396          </tr>
7397
7398
7399
7400
7401 
7402       
7403       
7404       
7405       
7406        </tbody> 
7407     
7408     
7409     
7410     
7411      </table>
7412
7413
7414
7415
7416      <br>
7417
7418
7419
7420
7421Additionally, the
7422user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
7423user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
7424These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
7425this.<br>
7426
7427
7428
7429
7430      <br>
7431
7432
7433
7434
7435Time series data refers to the total
7436domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
7437However, the following time series always present the values of the
7438total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
7439      <i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
7440      <i>div_new</i>.</td>
7441
7442
7443
7444
7445 </tr>
7446
7447
7448
7449
7450 <tr>
7451
7452
7453
7454
7455 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7456     
7457     
7458     
7459     
7460      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
7461
7462
7463
7464
7465
7466      </td>
7467
7468
7469
7470
7471 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7477      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7478&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7479
7480
7481
7482
7483output</a></i></td>
7484
7485
7486
7487
7488
7489      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7490     
7491     
7492     
7493     
7494      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7495interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
7496shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7497      </font> </p>
7498
7499
7500
7501
7502 
7503     
7504     
7505     
7506     
7507      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7508horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7509      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7510      </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
7511parameter can be used to
7512assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
7513output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
7514simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
7515which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7516time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
7517takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7518      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7519+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7520+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7521etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
7522(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7523
7524
7525
7526
7527
7528      </font></span></p>
7529
7530
7531
7532
7533 
7534     
7535     
7536     
7537     
7538      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7539has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7540the time t = 0 or at the
7541respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7542
7543
7544
7545
7546
7547      </td>
7548
7549
7550
7551
7552 </tr>
7553
7554
7555
7556
7557 <tr>
7558
7559
7560
7561
7562 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7563     
7564     
7565     
7566     
7567      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
7568
7569
7570
7571
7572
7573      </td>
7574
7575
7576
7577
7578 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7579
7580
7581
7582
7583
7584      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7585&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7586
7587
7588
7589
7590output</a></i></td>
7591
7592
7593
7594
7595
7596      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7597     
7598     
7599     
7600     
7601      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7602interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
7603(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7604      </font> </p>
7605
7606
7607
7608
7609 
7610     
7611     
7612     
7613     
7614      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7615horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7616      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7617      </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7618this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7619cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7620be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
7621has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
7622the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
7623+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
7624      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7625+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7626+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
7627can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7628
7629
7630
7631
7632
7633      </font></span></p>
7634
7635
7636
7637
7638 
7639     
7640     
7641     
7642     
7643      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7644has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7645the time t = 0 or at the
7646respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7647
7648
7649
7650
7651
7652      </td>
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657 </tr>
7658
7659
7660
7661
7662 <tr>
7663
7664
7665
7666
7667 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7668     
7669     
7670     
7671     
7672      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
7673
7674
7675
7676
7677
7678      </td>
7679
7680
7681
7682
7683 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688
7689      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7690&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7691
7692
7693
7694
7695output</a></i></td>
7696
7697
7698
7699
7700
7701      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7702     
7703     
7704     
7705     
7706      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7707interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
7708(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
7709      </font> </p>
7710
7711
7712
7713
7714 
7715     
7716     
7717     
7718     
7719      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7720horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7721      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7722      </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7723this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7724cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7725be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
7726has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7727time is the beginning of
7728the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
7729+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
7730      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
7731+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
7732      </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
7733times
7734can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7735
7736
7737
7738
7739
7740      </font></span></p>
7741
7742
7743
7744
7745 
7746     
7747     
7748     
7749     
7750      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7751has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7752the time t = 0 or at the
7753respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7754
7755
7756
7757
7758
7759      </td>
7760
7761
7762
7763
7764 </tr>
7765
7766
7767
7768
7769 <tr>
7770
7771
7772
7773
7774 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7775     
7776     
7777     
7778     
7779      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
7780
7781
7782
7783
7784
7785      </td>
7786
7787
7788
7789
7790 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7791
7792
7793
7794
7795
7796      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7797&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7798
7799
7800
7801
7802output</a></i></td>
7803
7804
7805
7806
7807
7808      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7809     
7810     
7811     
7812     
7813      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7814interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
7815      <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
7816
7817
7818
7819
7820
7821     
7822     
7823     
7824     
7825      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
7826output of
78273d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
7828to assign
7829th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
7830interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7831be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
7832zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7833time is the
7834beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
7835+ dt_do3d</b>,
7836      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7837+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7838+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
7839deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
7840
7841
7842
7843
7844
7845      </font></span></p>
7846
7847
7848
7849
7850 
7851     
7852     
7853     
7854     
7855      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7856has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7857the time t = 0 or at the
7858respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7859
7860
7861
7862
7863
7864      </td>
7865
7866
7867
7868
7869 </tr>
7870
7871
7872
7873
7874 <tr>
7875
7876
7877
7878
7879      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td>
7880
7881
7882
7883
7884      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7885
7886
7887
7888
7889      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td>
7890
7891
7892
7893
7894      <td>Maximum
7895allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br>
7896
7897
7898
7899
7900      <br>
7901
7902
7903
7904
7905By default,
7906the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
7907simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
7908changed for other situations.</td>
7909
7910
7911
7912
7913    </tr>
7914
7915
7916
7917
7918    <tr>
7919
7920
7921
7922
7923 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7924     
7925     
7926     
7927     
7928      <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
7929
7930
7931
7932
7933
7934      </td>
7935
7936
7937
7938
7939 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7940
7941
7942
7943
7944
7945      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
7946
7947
7948
7949
7950
7951      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7952     
7953     
7954     
7955     
7956      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7957interval</font> at which a new
7958restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p>
7959
7960
7961
7962
7963 
7964     
7965     
7966     
7967     
7968      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
7969description
7970how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
7971does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
7972has not been set.</font></span></p>
7973
7974
7975
7976     
7977     
7978     
7979      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
7980and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
7981
7982
7983
7984
7985 </td>
7986
7987
7988
7989
7990 </tr>
7991
7992
7993
7994
7995
7996    <tr>
7997
7998
7999
8000
8001 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8002     
8003     
8004     
8005     
8006      <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
8007
8008
8009
8010
8011
8012      </td>
8013
8014
8015
8016
8017 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8018
8019
8020
8021
8022
8023      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8030     
8031     
8032     
8033     
8034      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
8035interval</font> at which run control
8036output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
8037      </font> </p>
8038
8039
8040
8041
8042 
8043     
8044     
8045     
8046     
8047      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
8048information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
8049output time, one line
8050with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
8051kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
8052beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
80532*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
8054etc., and always at
8055the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
8056respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
8057deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
8058
8059
8060
8061
8062
8063      </font></span></p>
8064
8065
8066
8067
8068 
8069     
8070     
8071     
8072     
8073      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
8074information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
8075= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
8076
8077
8078
8079
8080 </td>
8081
8082
8083
8084
8085
8086    </tr>
8087
8088
8089
8090
8091 <tr>
8092
8093
8094
8095
8096 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8097     
8098     
8099     
8100     
8101      <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
8102
8103
8104
8105
8106
8107      </td>
8108
8109
8110
8111
8112 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8113
8114
8115
8116
8117
8118      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
8119
8120
8121
8122
8123
8124      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8125     
8126     
8127     
8128     
8129      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
8130model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
8131      </font> </p>
8132
8133
8134
8135
8136 
8137     
8138     
8139     
8140     
8141      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
8142is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
8143starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span></p>
8144
8145
8146
8147     
8148     
8149     
8150      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
8151and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
8152
8153
8154
8155
8156 </td>
8157
8158
8159
8160
8161 </tr>
8162
8163
8164
8165
8166 <tr>
8167
8168
8169
8170
8171 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8172     
8173     
8174     
8175     
8176      <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
8177
8178
8179
8180
8181
8182      </td>
8183
8184
8185
8186
8187 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192
8193      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
8194
8195
8196
8197
8198
8199      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8200     
8201     
8202     
8203     
8204      <p>Steering of
8205header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
8206      </p>
8207
8208
8209
8210
8211 
8212     
8213     
8214     
8215     
8216      <p>By default, informations about the model
8217parameters in use are
8218output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
8219(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
8220file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
8221With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
8222these informations are
8223also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
8224at restart runs.</p>
8225
8226
8227
8228
8229 </td>
8230
8231
8232
8233
8234 </tr>
8235
8236
8237
8238
8239 <tr>
8240
8241
8242
8243
8244 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8245     
8246     
8247     
8248     
8249      <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
8250
8251
8252
8253
8254
8255      </td>
8256
8257
8258
8259
8260 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8261
8262
8263
8264
8265
8266      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
8267
8268
8269
8270
8271
8272      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8273     
8274     
8275     
8276     
8277      <p>Number of
8278cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
8279
8280
8281
8282
8283 <br>
8284
8285
8286
8287
8288
8289This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
8290multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
8291perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
8292The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
8293
8294
8295
8296
8297
8298      </p>
8299
8300
8301
8302
8303 <br>
8304
8305
8306
8307
8308By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>-
83091</i>), the
8310number of cycles
8311depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
8312and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
8313for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
8314the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
8315
8316
8317
8318
8319 <br>
8320
8321
8322
8323
8324
8325By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
8326cycles can be
8327fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
8328
8329
8330
8331
8332 <br>
8333
8334
8335
8336
8337
8338      <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
8339must
8340examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
8341regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
8342sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
8343least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
8344both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
8345and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
8346good choice, for
8347non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
8348= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
8349sufficient.</td>
8350
8351
8352
8353
8354 </tr>
8355
8356
8357
8358
8359 <tr>
8360
8361
8362
8363
8364 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
8365
8366
8367
8368
8369
8370level</b></td>
8371
8372
8373
8374
8375 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8376
8377
8378
8379
8380
8381      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8382
8383
8384
8385
8386 </td>
8387
8388
8389
8390
8391 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
8392level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
8393
8394
8395
8396
8397 <br>
8398
8399
8400
8401
8402
8403In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
8404the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
8405the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
8406gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
8407The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
8408gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
8409It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
8410determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
8411this level.<br>
8412
8413      <br>
8414
8415Setting of <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span> prevents that data are collected on PE0 at all, i.e. coarsening of grids is limited by the subdomains.</td>
8416
8417
8418
8419
8420 </tr>
8421
8422
8423
8424
8425 <tr>
8426      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="netcdf_data_format"></a>netcdf_data_format</span><br>
8427      </td>
8428      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I<br>
8429      </td>
8430      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">2</span><br>
8431      </td>
8432      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Data format for NetCDF files.<br>
8433      <br>
8434This variable defines the format of the NetCDF files. Following values are allowed:<br>
8435      <br>
8436      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
8437        <tbody>
8438          <tr>
8439            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1</span><br>
8440            </td>
8441            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF classic format (filesize limited to 2GB)<br>
8442            </td>
8443          </tr>
8444          <tr>
8445            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">2</span><br>
8446            </td>
8447            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF 64-bit-offset format (large file support, but single variable still limited to 2GB)<br>
8448            </td>
8449          </tr>
8450          <tr>
8451            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">3</span><br>
8452            </td>
8453            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF-4 (HDF5) format (files can be as large as file system supports; unlimited variable size; allows parallel I/O)<br>
8454            </td>
8455          </tr>
8456          <tr>
8457            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">4</span><br>
8458            </td>
8459            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF-4 format, but with NF90_CLASSIC_MODEL bit set (some new features of NetCDF4 are not available)<br>
8460            </td>
8461          </tr>
8462        </tbody>
8463      </table>
8464      <br>
8465      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
8466Setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_data_format </span>&gt; <span style="font-style: italic;">2 </span>requires a NetCDF4 library (set <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">-I</span>, <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">-L</span>, and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> -l </span>options for compiling and linking appropriately in configuration file). Also, preprocessor switch <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">__netcdf4 </span>has to be set (see line starting with <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">%cpp_opts </span>in the configuration file).<br>
8467      <br>
8468Files with NetCDF4 format cannot be read with NetCDF3 libraries.<br>
8469      </td>
8470    </tr>
8471
8472
8473
8474
8475
8476   
8477
8478
8479
8480
8481    <tr>
8482
8483
8484
8485
8486
8487      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8488     
8489     
8490     
8491     
8492      <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
8493
8494
8495
8496
8497 </td>
8498
8499
8500
8501
8502
8503      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8504
8505
8506
8507
8508 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
8509
8510
8511
8512
8513
8514      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
8515level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
8516
8517
8518
8519
8520 <br>
8521
8522
8523
8524
8525
8526In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
8527the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
8528the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
8529gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
8530The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
8531gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
8532It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
8533determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
8534this level.</td>
8535
8536
8537
8538
8539 </tr>
8540
8541
8542
8543
8544 <tr>
8545
8546
8547
8548
8549 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8550     
8551     
8552     
8553     
8554      <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
8555
8556
8557
8558
8559
8560      </td>
8561
8562
8563
8564
8565 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8566
8567
8568
8569
8570
8571      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
8572
8573
8574
8575
8576 </td>
8577
8578
8579
8580
8581
8582      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8583     
8584     
8585     
8586     
8587      <p>Determines the
8588subdomain from which the normalization
8589quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
8590
8591
8592
8593
8594 
8595     
8596     
8597     
8598     
8599      <p>If output
8600data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
8601(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
8602is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
8603      <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
8604the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
8605the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
8606= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
8607domain. Instead
8608of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
8609subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
8610where <i>1</i>
8611&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
8612hold. These
8613quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
8614of the total domain).</p>
8615
8616
8617
8618
8619 </td>
8620
8621
8622
8623
8624 </tr>
8625
8626
8627
8628
8629 <tr>
8630
8631      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a href="npex"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></a><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="npex"></a>npex</span></td>
8632
8633      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8634
8635      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8636</td>
8637
8638      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8639     
8640      <p>Number of processors
8641along x-direction of the virtual
8642processor
8643net.&nbsp; </p>
8644
8645
8646
8647
8648
8649
8650
8651
8652 
8653     
8654     
8655     
8656     
8657     
8658     
8659     
8660     
8661      <p>For parallel runs, the total
8662number of processors to be used
8663is given by
8664the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
8665option <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/software/mrun_beschreibung.html#Opt-X">-X</a>.
8666By default, depending on the type of the parallel computer, PALM
8667generates a 1d processor
8668net (domain decomposition along x, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8669= <span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>) or a
86702d-net (this is
8671favored on machines with fast communication network and/or large number of processors (&gt;256)). In case of a
86722d-net, it is tried to make it more or less square-shaped. If, for
8673example, 16 processors are assigned (-X 16), a 4 * 4 processor net is
8674generated (<span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
8675= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8676= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>).
8677This choice is optimal for square total domains (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#nx">nx</a>
8678= <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ny">ny</a>),
8679since then the number of ghost points at the lateral boundarys of
8680the subdomains reaches a minimum. If <span style="font-weight: bold;">nx</span>
8681and <span style="font-weight: bold;">ny</span>
8682differ extremely, the
8683processor net should be manually adjusted using adequate values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>.&nbsp; </p>
8684
8685
8686
8687
8688
8689
8690
8691
8692
8693     
8694     
8695     
8696     
8697     
8698     
8699     
8700     
8701      <p><b>Important:</b> The value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> * <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span> must exactly match the
8702value assigned by the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
8703      <tt>-X</tt>.
8704Otherwise the model run will abort with a corresponding error
8705message.&nbsp; <br>
8706
8707
8708
8709
8710
8711
8712
8713
8714
8715Additionally, the specification of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
8716and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8717may of course
8718override the default setting for the domain decomposition (1d or 2d)
8719which may have a significant (negative) effect on the code performance.
8720      </p>
8721
8722      </td>
8723
8724    </tr>
8725
8726    <tr>
8727
8728      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="npey"></a>npey</span></td>
8729
8730      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8731
8732      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8733</td>
8734
8735      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8736     
8737      <p>Number of processors
8738along y-direction of the virtual
8739processor
8740net.&nbsp; </p>
8741
8742
8743
8744
8745
8746
8747
8748
8749 
8750     
8751     
8752     
8753     
8754     
8755     
8756     
8757     
8758      <p>For further information see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#npex">npex</a>.</p>
8759
8760      </td>
8761
8762    </tr>
8763
8764    <tr>
8765
8766
8767
8768
8769 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8770     
8771     
8772     
8773     
8774      <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
8775
8776
8777
8778
8779
8780      </td>
8781
8782
8783
8784
8785 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8786
8787
8788
8789
8790
8791      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
8792
8793
8794
8795
8796
8797      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8798     
8799     
8800     
8801     
8802      <p>Number of
8803iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
8804
8805
8806
8807
8808 
8809     
8810     
8811     
8812     
8813      <p>This
8814parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
8815as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
8816= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
8817The number of
8818iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
8819on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
8820runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
8821point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
8822SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
8823
8824
8825
8826
8827
8828      </td>
8829
8830
8831
8832
8833 </tr>
8834
8835
8836
8837
8838 <tr>
8839
8840
8841
8842
8843 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8844     
8845     
8846     
8847     
8848      <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
8849
8850
8851
8852
8853
8854      </td>
8855
8856
8857
8858
8859 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8860
8861
8862
8863
8864
8865      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
8866
8867
8868
8869
8870
8871      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
8872volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br>
8873
8874
8875
8876
8877      <br>
8878
8879
8880
8881
8882By
8883default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
8884can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
8885(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
8886output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
8887for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
8888see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
8889
8890
8891
8892
8893
8894    </tr>
8895
8896
8897
8898
8899 <tr>
8900
8901
8902
8903
8904 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8905     
8906     
8907     
8908     
8909      <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
8910
8911
8912
8913
8914
8915      </td>
8916
8917
8918
8919
8920 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8921
8922
8923
8924
8925
8926      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
8927
8928
8929
8930
8931
8932      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8933     
8934     
8935     
8936     
8937      <p>Convergence
8938factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
8939
8940
8941
8942
8943 
8944     
8945     
8946     
8947     
8948      <p>If
8949the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
8950= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
8951this parameter
8952determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
8953&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
8954The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
8955depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
8956space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
8957appropriate test runs.</p>
8958
8959
8960
8961
8962 </td>
8963
8964
8965
8966
8967 </tr>
8968
8969
8970
8971
8972 <tr>
8973
8974
8975
8976
8977 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8978     
8979     
8980     
8981     
8982      <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
8983
8984
8985
8986
8987
8988      </td>
8989
8990
8991
8992
8993 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8994
8995
8996
8997
8998
8999      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
9000
9001
9002
9003
9004
9005      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9006     
9007     
9008     
9009     
9010      <p>Ratio of the
9011eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
9012      </p>
9013
9014
9015
9016
9017 
9018     
9019     
9020     
9021     
9022      <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
9023this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
9024/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
9025
9026
9027
9028
9029 </td>
9030
9031
9032
9033
9034 </tr>
9035
9036
9037
9038
9039 <tr>
9040
9041
9042
9043
9044      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="precipitation_amount_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">precipitation_amount_</span><br style="font-weight: bold;">
9045
9046
9047
9048
9049      <span style="font-weight: bold;">interval</span></td>
9050
9051
9052
9053
9054      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9055
9056
9057
9058
9059      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
9060&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_<br>
9061
9062
9063
9064
9065xy</a></i></td>
9066
9067
9068
9069
9070      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9071     
9072     
9073     
9074     
9075      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
9076interval</font> for which the precipitation amount (in mm) shall be calculated and output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
9077      </font> </p>
9078
9079
9080
9081
9082 
9083     
9084     
9085     
9086     
9087      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">This
9088parameter requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>The interval must be smaller or equal than the output interval for 2d horizontal cross sections given by </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_do2d_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). The output of the precipitation amount also requires setting of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> =<span style="font-style: italic;"> 'pra*'</span>.<br>
9089
9090
9091
9092
9093
9094      </font></span></p>
9095
9096
9097
9098
9099 <span lang="en-GB"></span></td>
9100
9101
9102
9103
9104    </tr>
9105
9106
9107
9108
9109    <tr>
9110
9111
9112
9113
9114
9115      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9116     
9117     
9118     
9119     
9120      <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
9121
9122
9123
9124
9125
9126      </td>
9127
9128
9129
9130
9131 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
9132
9133
9134
9135
9136
9137      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
9138
9139
9140
9141
9142
9143      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9144     
9145     
9146     
9147     
9148      <p>Number of
9149coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
9150in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
9151      </p>
9152
9153
9154
9155
9156 
9157     
9158     
9159     
9160     
9161      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
9162= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
9163
9164
9165
9166
9167     
9168     
9169     
9170     
9171      <p>It
9172determines the layout of plots of
9173horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
9174when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
9175Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
9176plotted on one page are
9177determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
9178      <b>profile_columns</b>
9179determines how many panels are to be
9180arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
9181respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
9182According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
9183the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
9184then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
9185&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
9186the remaining
9187panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
9188then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
9189If
9190row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
9191is reduced automatically.</p>
9192
9193
9194
9195
9196 </td>
9197
9198
9199
9200
9201 </tr>
9202
9203
9204
9205
9206 <tr>
9207
9208
9209
9210
9211
9212      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9213     
9214     
9215     
9216     
9217      <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
9218
9219
9220
9221
9222
9223      </td>
9224
9225
9226
9227
9228 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
9229
9230
9231
9232
9233
9234      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
9235
9236
9237
9238
9239
9240      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9241     
9242     
9243     
9244     
9245      <p>Number of rows
9246of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
9247by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
9248      </p>
9249
9250
9251
9252
9253 
9254     
9255     
9256     
9257     
9258      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
9259= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
9260
9261
9262
9263
9264     
9265     
9266     
9267     
9268      <p>It
9269determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
9270profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
9271
9272
9273
9274
9275
9276      </td>
9277
9278
9279
9280
9281 </tr>
9282
9283
9284
9285
9286 <tr>
9287
9288
9289
9290
9291 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9292     
9293     
9294     
9295     
9296      <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
9297
9298
9299
9300
9301
9302      </td>
9303
9304
9305
9306
9307 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
9308
9309
9310
9311
9312
9313      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
9314
9315
9316
9317
9318
9319      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9320     
9321     
9322     
9323     
9324      <p>Scheme to be
9325used to solve the Poisson equation for the
9326perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
9327
9328
9329
9330
9331 <br>
9332
9333
9334
9335
9336
9337The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
9338
9339
9340
9341
9342 
9343     
9344     
9345     
9346     
9347      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
9348
9349
9350
9351
9352 <tbody>
9353
9354
9355
9356
9357 <tr>
9358
9359
9360
9361
9362 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
9363
9364
9365
9366
9367
9368            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
9369along x and y, solution of a
9370tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
9371FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
9372used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
9373
9374
9375
9376
9377
9378This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
9379Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
9380
9381
9382
9383
9384
9385          </tr>
9386
9387
9388
9389
9390 <tr>
9391
9392
9393
9394
9395 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9396           
9397           
9398           
9399           
9400            <p><i>poisfft_</i>
9401            <br>
9402
9403
9404
9405
9406 <i>hybrid</i></p>
9407
9408
9409
9410
9411
9412            </td>
9413
9414
9415
9416
9417 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
9418method using FFT
9419along x and y, solution of a
9420tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
9421FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
9422used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
9423
9424
9425
9426
9427
9428This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
9429Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
9430
9431
9432
9433
9434
9435          </tr>
9436
9437
9438
9439
9440 <tr>
9441
9442
9443
9444
9445 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
9446
9447
9448
9449
9450
9451            <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9452           
9453           
9454           
9455           
9456            <p>Multi-grid
9457scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
9458and
9459w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
9460are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
9461steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
9462the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
9463and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
9464to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
9465can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
9466            <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
9467The
9468smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
9469case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
9470
9471
9472
9473
9474
9475            <br>
9476
9477
9478
9479
9480If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
9481is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
9482multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
9483the number of
9484grid points in the three directions
9485of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
9486where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
9487            </i>the
9488multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
9489its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
9490affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
9491always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
9492for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
9493because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
9494parameter.
9495           
9496           
9497           
9498           
9499            <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
9500points of
9501the
9502subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
9503of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
9504
9505
9506
9507
9508
9509With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
9510data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
9511for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
9512be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
9513
9514
9515
9516
9517
9518           
9519           
9520           
9521           
9522            <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
9523identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
9524
9525
9526
9527
9528
9529            </td>
9530
9531
9532
9533
9534 </tr>
9535
9536
9537
9538
9539 <tr>
9540
9541
9542
9543
9544 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
9545
9546
9547
9548
9549
9550            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
9551relaxation
9552method (SOR). The convergence of
9553this
9554iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
9555            <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
9556and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
9557            <br>
9558
9559
9560
9561
9562Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
9563scheme
9564needs substantially
9565more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
9566errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
9567
9568
9569
9570
9571 </tr>
9572
9573
9574
9575
9576
9577       
9578       
9579       
9580       
9581        </tbody> 
9582     
9583     
9584     
9585     
9586      </table>
9587
9588
9589
9590
9591 <br>
9592
9593
9594
9595
9596In order to speed-up
9597performance, the Poisson equation is by default
9598only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
9599at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
9600      </td>
9601
9602
9603
9604
9605 </tr>
9606
9607
9608
9609
9610 <tr>
9611
9612
9613
9614
9615 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9616     
9617     
9618     
9619     
9620      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
9621      <br>
9622
9623
9624
9625
9626 <b>_factor</b></p>
9627
9628
9629
9630
9631 </td>
9632
9633
9634
9635
9636 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9637
9638
9639
9640
9641 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
9642
9643
9644
9645
9646
9647      <i>0.01</i></td>
9648
9649
9650
9651
9652 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9653     
9654     
9655     
9656     
9657      <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
9658
9659
9660
9661
9662 
9663     
9664     
9665     
9666     
9667      <p>A
9668so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
9669variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
9670If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
9671respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
9672damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9673is assigned to.
9674The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
9675and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
9676maximum value
9677at
9678the top (ocean: bottom) boundary. </p>
9679
9680
9681
9682
9683 
9684     
9685     
9686     
9687     
9688      <p>This method
9689effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
9690which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
9691reflected&nbsp;at the top (ocean: bottom)
9692boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
9693switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
9694or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
9695Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9696= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
9697off.&nbsp; </p>
9698
9699
9700
9701
9702 
9703     
9704     
9705     
9706     
9707      <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
9708hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
9709&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9710&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
9711numerical instabilities.</p>
9712
9713
9714
9715
9716 </td>
9717
9718
9719
9720
9721 </tr>
9722
9723
9724
9725
9726 <tr>
9727
9728
9729
9730
9731
9732      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9733     
9734     
9735     
9736     
9737      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
9738      <br>
9739
9740
9741
9742
9743 <b>_height</b></p>
9744
9745
9746
9747
9748 </td>
9749
9750
9751
9752
9753 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9754
9755
9756
9757
9758 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9759     
9760     
9761     
9762     
9763      <p><i>2/3 *</i>
9764      <br>
9765
9766
9767