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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
2<html><head>
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15  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head><body>
16
17
18
19
20<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
21parameters</a>, <a href="#particle_parameters">particle parameters</a>, and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
22parameters</a></h3>
23
24
25
26
27
28<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
29
30
31
32
33
34<br>
35
36
37
38
39<br>
40
41
42
43
44<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
45
46
47
48
49 <tbody>
50
51
52
53
54
55    <tr>
56
57
58
59
60
61      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
62name</b></font></td>
63
64
65
66
67 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
68
69
70
71
72
73      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
74     
75     
76     
77     
78      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
79
80
81
82
83 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
84
85
86
87
88 </td>
89
90
91
92
93
94      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
95
96
97
98
99
100    </tr>
101
102
103
104
105 <tr>
106
107
108
109
110 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
111
112
113
114
115
116      </td>
117
118
119
120
121 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
122
123
124
125
126 </td>
127
128
129
130
131
132      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
133
134
135
136
137 </td>
138
139
140
141
142
143      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
144all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br>
145
146
147
148
149      <br>
150
151
152
153
154This
155parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
156(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
157default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
158interval
159length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
160In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
161&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
162must hold.<br>
163
164
165
166
167      <br>
168
169
170
171
172If
173an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
174the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
175of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
176parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br>
177
178
179
180
181      <br>
182
183
184
185
186If
187an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
188will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
189restart runs, averaging intervals do not
190necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br>
191
192
193
194
195      <br>
196
197
198
199
200Parameters
201      <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
202and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
203can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
204profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
205
206
207
208
209 </td>
210
211
212
213
214 </tr>
215
216
217
218
219
220    <tr>
221
222
223
224
225 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
226     
227     
228     
229     
230      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
231
232
233
234
235
236      </td>
237
238
239
240
241 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
242
243
244
245
246 </td>
247
248
249
250
251
252      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
253
254
255
256
257
258interval</a><br>
259
260
261
262
263
264      </span> </td>
265
266
267
268
269 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
270     
271     
272     
273     
274      <p>Averaging
275interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
276local
277file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
278      </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
279(in s).&nbsp; </p>
280
281
282
283
284 
285     
286     
287     
288     
289      <p>If
290this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
291averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
292data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
293limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
294In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
295      </b>must
296hold.</p>
297
298
299
300
301If an interval is defined, then by default the average
302is calculated
303from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
304number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
305parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
306     
307     
308     
309     
310      <p>If
311an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
312be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
313runs, averaging intervals do not
314necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
315
316
317
318
319 </td>
320
321
322
323
324 </tr>
325
326
327
328
329
330    <tr>
331
332
333
334
335 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
336
337
338
339
340
341substeps</span></td>
342
343
344
345
346 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
347
348
349
350
351
352      </td>
353
354
355
356
357 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
358
359
360
361
362 </td>
363
364
365
366
367
368      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
369to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
370
371
372
373
374 <br>
375
376
377
378
379
380In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
381pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
382be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
383timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
384by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
385= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
386In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
387field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
388case and in case
389of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
390= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
391should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
392
393
394
395
396
397    </tr>
398
399
400
401
402 <tr>
403
404
405
406
407 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
408     
409     
410     
411     
412      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
413
414
415
416
417
418      </td>
419
420
421
422
423 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
424
425
426
427
428 </td>
429
430
431
432
433
434      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
435     
436     
437     
438     
439      <p><i>0.1,
4400.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
441
442
443
444
445 <i>(see right)</i></p>
446
447
448
449
450
451      </td>
452
453
454
455
456 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
457     
458     
459     
460     
461      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
462
463
464
465
466
467     
468     
469     
470     
471      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
472allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
473diffusion-criterion
474dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
475dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
476in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
477the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
478&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
479&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
480
481
482
483
484 </span></p>
485
486
487
488
489
490     
491     
492     
493     
494      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
495cfl_factor depends on
496the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
497
498
499
500
501 </span></p>
502
503
504
505
506 
507     
508     
509     
510     
511      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
512is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
513
514
515
516
517 </span></p>
518
519
520
521
522 
523     
524     
525     
526     
527      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
528restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
529= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
530divergence
531significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
532be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
533appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
534
535
536
537
538
539      </span></span></p>
540
541
542
543
544 <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
545scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
546= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
547
548
549
550
551
552    </tr>
553
554
555
556
557    <tr>
558
559
560
561
562 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
563     
564     
565     
566     
567      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
568
569
570
571
572
573      </td>
574
575
576
577
578 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
579
580
581
582
583 </td>
584
585
586
587
588
589      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
590
591
592
593
594 </td>
595
596
597
598
599
600      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
601     
602     
603     
604     
605      <p>Switch to
606impose random perturbations to the horizontal
607velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
608
609
610
611
612 
613     
614     
615     
616     
617      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
618= <i>.T.,</i> random
619perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
620certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
621etc..<br>
622
623
624
625
626 </p>
627
628
629
630
631 
632     
633     
634     
635     
636      <p>The temporal interval between
637these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
638the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
639and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
640and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
641In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
642and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
643the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
644and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
645A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
646determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
647distributed random number.
648After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
649Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
650solver.<br>
651
652
653
654
655 </p>
656
657
658
659
660 
661     
662     
663     
664     
665      <p>The random number generator to
666be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
667
668
669
670
671
672      </p>
673
674
675
676
677 
678     
679     
680     
681     
682      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
683developed
684(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
685perturbations
686is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
687lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
688an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
689energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
690using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
691As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
692more random perturbations are assigned<br>
693
694
695
696
697
698.&nbsp; <br>
699
700
701
702
703
704Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
705the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
706by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
707velocities. </p>
708
709
710
711
712 </td>
713
714
715
716
717 </tr>
718
719
720
721
722 <tr>
723
724
725
726
727 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
728     
729     
730     
731     
732      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
733
734
735
736
737
738      </td>
739
740
741
742
743 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
744      <br>
745
746
747
748
749&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
750
751
752
753
754 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
755
756
757
758
759
760      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
761     
762     
763     
764     
765      <p>Type of
766normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
767profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
768
769
770
771
772
773     
774     
775     
776     
777      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
778= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
779
780
781
782
783     
784     
785     
786     
787      <p>If
788vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
789local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
790parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
791the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
792certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
793a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
794profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
795are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
796temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
797then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
798accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
799then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
800is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
801
802
803
804
805 </p>
806
807
808
809
810
811     
812     
813     
814     
815      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
816horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
817used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
818Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
819subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
820(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
821domain).&nbsp; </p>
822
823
824
825
826 
827     
828     
829     
830     
831      <p>The user can choose between
832the following normalization
833quantities: <br>
834
835
836
837
838 </p>
839
840
841
842
843 
844     
845     
846     
847     
848      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
849
850
851
852
853 <tbody>
854
855
856
857
858 <tr>
859
860
861
862
863 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
864
865
866
867
868
869            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
870respect
871to the total surface sensible heat
872flux (k=0 ).</td>
873
874
875
876
877 </tr>
878
879
880
881
882 <tr>
883
884
885
886
887 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
888
889
890
891
892
893            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
894respect
895to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
896(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
897
898
899
900
901
902          </tr>
903
904
905
906
907 <tr>
908
909
910
911
912 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
913
914
915
916
917
918            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
919respect
920to the square of the characteristic
921temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
922as ratio of
923the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
924
925
926
927
928 </tr>
929
930
931
932
933
934          <tr>
935
936
937
938
939 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
940
941
942
943
944
945            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
946respect
947to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
948
949
950
951
952 </tr>
953
954
955
956
957
958          <tr>
959
960
961
962
963 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
964
965
966
967
968
969            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
970respect
971to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
972(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
973
974
975
976
977
978          </tr>
979
980
981
982
983 <tr>
984
985
986
987
988 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
989
990
991
992
993
994            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
995respect
996to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
997(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003          </tr>
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008 
1009       
1010       
1011       
1012       
1013        </tbody> 
1014     
1015     
1016     
1017     
1018      </table>
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023 
1024     
1025     
1026     
1027     
1028      <p>For each
1029coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
1030an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
1031      <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
1032then the
1033x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
1034and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
1035Data
1036of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
1037normalized.&nbsp; </p>
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042 
1043     
1044     
1045     
1046     
1047      <p>Using a normalization
1048leaves all vertical profile data on
1049local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
1050unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
1051normalization is steered
1052by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
1053which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
1054(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060&nbsp;<br>
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
1067respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073      </td>
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078 </tr>
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083 <tr>
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1089     
1090     
1091     
1092     
1093      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099      </td>
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
1105      <br>
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1122     
1123     
1124     
1125     
1126      <p>Type of
1127normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
1128profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134     
1135     
1136     
1137     
1138      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1139= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144     
1145     
1146     
1147     
1148      <p>If
1149vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
1150local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
1151parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1152the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
1153certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
1154the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
1155comparability. </p>
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160 
1161     
1162     
1163     
1164     
1165      <p>The user can choose between the
1166following normalization
1167quantities: <br>
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172 </p>
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177 
1178     
1179     
1180     
1181     
1182      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187 <tbody>
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192 <tr>
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
1204respect
1205to the boundary layer height
1206(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
1207value).</td>
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212 </tr>
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217 
1218       
1219       
1220       
1221       
1222        </tbody> 
1223     
1224     
1225     
1226     
1227      </table>
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232 
1233     
1234     
1235     
1236     
1237      <p>For
1238further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244      </td>
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249 </tr>
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254 <tr>
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1260     
1261     
1262     
1263     
1264      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270      </td>
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
1276      <br>
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291 </td>
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1298     
1299     
1300     
1301     
1302      <p>Determines
1303which vertical profiles are to be presented in
1304which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
1305&nbsp; </p>
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310 
1311     
1312     
1313     
1314     
1315      <p>This parameter only applies for
1316&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1317= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322     
1323     
1324     
1325     
1326      <p>The
1327default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332 
1333     
1334     
1335     
1336     
1337      <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
1338=&nbsp; </p>
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343 
1344     
1345     
1346     
1347     
1348      <ul>
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353 
1354       
1355       
1356       
1357       
1358        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1359u v ',</span><br>
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
1365',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1371w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1377w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
1383kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
1389,</span><br>
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
139514 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1396'</span></p>
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401 
1402     
1403     
1404     
1405     
1406      </ul>
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411 
1412     
1413     
1414     
1415     
1416      <p>If plot output of
1417vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
1418the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
1419Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1420which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
1421program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
1422The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
1423determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
1424which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
1425expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
1426coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
1427drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
1428names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1429The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
1430must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
1431string.&nbsp; </p>
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436 
1437     
1438     
1439     
1440     
1441      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446 
1447     
1448     
1449     
1450     
1451      <ul>
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457       
1458       
1459       
1460       
1461        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
1462' pt '</span></p>
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467 
1468     
1469     
1470     
1471     
1472      </ul>
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477 
1478     
1479     
1480     
1481     
1482      <p>In this case the
1483plot consists of two coordinate systems
1484(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
1485velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
1486and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
1487of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
1488and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
1489(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495      </p>
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500 
1501     
1502     
1503     
1504     
1505      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
1506depends on
1507whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
1508(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1509For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
1510then
1511the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
1512temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
1513to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
1514then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
1515but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520 </p>
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
1527with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
1528and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1529Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
1530distributed on several pages).</td>
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535 </tr>
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540 <tr>
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1546     
1547     
1548     
1549     
1550      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556      </td>
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
1562      <br>
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577 </td>
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1584     
1585     
1586     
1587     
1588      <p>x-axis labels
1589of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
1590plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1591      </p>
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596 
1597     
1598     
1599     
1600     
1601      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1602= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607     
1608     
1609     
1610     
1611      <p>The
1612default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617 
1618     
1619     
1620     
1621     
1622      <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
1623=&nbsp; </p>
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628 
1629     
1630     
1631     
1632     
1633      <ul>
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638 
1639       
1640       
1641       
1642       
1643        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
1644ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
1650K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
1657ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662 <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
1663m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668 <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
1669m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674 <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
1675        <br>
1676
1677
1678
1679
168014 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686     
1687     
1688     
1689     
1690      </ul>
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695 
1696     
1697     
1698     
1699     
1700      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
1701labels to vertical
1702profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
1703of vertical
1704profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
1711      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
1712according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
1713and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718 
1719     
1720     
1721     
1722     
1723      <p>Umlauts
1724are possible (write &#8220; in front of, similar to TeX), as
1725well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
1726each
1727character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
1728plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734      </td>
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739 </tr>
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744 <tr>
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1750     
1751     
1752     
1753     
1754      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760      </td>
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1778     
1779     
1780     
1781     
1782      <p>Type of cycle
1783to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788 
1789     
1790     
1791     
1792     
1793      <p>This
1794parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
1795the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1796perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1797It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
1798grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
1799may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
1800The
1801computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
1802however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807 </td>
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813    </tr>
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818 <tr>
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1824     
1825     
1826     
1827     
1828      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834      </td>
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845      </td>
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856      </td>
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
1862for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br>
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867      <br>
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872PALM
1873allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
1874averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
1875parameter (see below).<br>
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880      <br>
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885By default, cross section
1886data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
1887below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
1888      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
1889and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
1890Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
1891If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
1892these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1893      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1894      <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1895and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1896respectively.<br>
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901      <br>
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906The
1907filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
1908Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
1909dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
1910format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
1911"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
1912the PALM NetCDF data.<br>
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917      <br>
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922The following quantities are
1923available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br>
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928      <br>
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933     
1934     
1935     
1936     
1937      <table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942        <tbody>
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947          <tr>
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
1953name</span></td>
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958            <td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td>
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td>
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td>
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973          </tr>
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978          <tr>
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td>
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988            <td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td>
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993            <td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td>
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998            <td><br>
1999</td>
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004          </tr>
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009          <tr>
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td>
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td>
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2030is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2031= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036          </tr>
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041          <tr>
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td>
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
2052pressure</td>
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057            <td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
2058Pa</td>
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2064</td>
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069          </tr>
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074          <tr>
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td>
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
2085concentration</td>
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090            <td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td>
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2096advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2097"-p particles"</td>
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102          </tr>
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107          <tr>
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td>
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
2118particle/droplet radius </td>
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2129advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2130"-p particles"</td>
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135          </tr>
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140          <tr>
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td>
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td>
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td>
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2161is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2162= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td>
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167          </tr>
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172          <tr>
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td>
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td>
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td>
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2193is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2194= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199          </tr>
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204          <tr>
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td>
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
2215temperature<br>
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220            </td>
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2231</td>
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236          </tr>
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241          <tr>
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td>
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
2252(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td>
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267          </tr>
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272          <tr>
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td>
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
2283content</td>
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2294= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
2295or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2296= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301          </tr>
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306          <tr>
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td>
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
2317water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td>
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2328= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333          </tr>
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338          <tr>
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td>
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
2349water</td>
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td>
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2360= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365          </tr>
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370          <tr>
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td>
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td>
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2386</td>
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2392= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397          </tr>
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402          <tr>
2403
2404            <td>qsws*</td>
2405
2406            <td>latent&nbsp;surface heatflux</td>
2407
2408            <td>kg/kg * m/s</td>
2409
2410            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed, requires humidity = .TRUE. </td>
2411
2412          </tr>
2413
2414          <tr>
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td>
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
2425content (specific humidity)</td>
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2436= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441          </tr>
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446          <tr>
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td>
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td>
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2467= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472          </tr>
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477          <tr>
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td>
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
2488the scalar</td>
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493            <td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
2499= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504          </tr>
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509          <tr>
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td>
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td>
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td>
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2530= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535          </tr>
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540          <tr>
2541
2542            <td>shf*</td>
2543
2544            <td>sensible surface heatflux</td>
2545
2546            <td>K m/s</td>
2547
2548            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed</td>
2549
2550          </tr>
2551
2552          <tr>
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td>
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2563characteristic temperature</td>
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2574is allowed</td>
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579          </tr>
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584          <tr>
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td>
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
2595the velocity</td>
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2606</td>
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611          </tr>
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616          <tr>
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td>
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2627friction velocity</td>
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2638is allowed</td>
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643          </tr>
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648          <tr>
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td>
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
2659the velocity</td>
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2670</td>
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675          </tr>
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680          <tr>
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td>
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
2691temperature</td>
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706          </tr>
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711          <tr>
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td>
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
2722the velocity</td>
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
2733</td>
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738          </tr>
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743          <tr>
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td>
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753            <td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td>
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763            <td><br>
2764</td>
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769          </tr>
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774       
2775       
2776       
2777       
2778        </tbody>
2779     
2780     
2781     
2782     
2783      </table>
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788      <br>
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793Multiple
2794quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
2795= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br>
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800      <br>
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805By
2806assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
2807output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
2808respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
2809appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
2810      </span>(for
2811cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
2812section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
2813along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
2814Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
2815order:<br>
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820      <br>
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825Example:<br>
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830      <br>
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835     
2836     
2837     
2838     
2839      <div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br>
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844      </div>
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849      <br>
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854This
2855example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
2856of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
2857averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
2858DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
2859w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
2860temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
2861temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br>
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866      <br>
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871The
2872user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
2873own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br>
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878      <br>
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883The
2884time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
2885This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
2886time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
2887be
2888declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br>
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893      <br>
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898Also,
2899an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
2900be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
2901This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
2902the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br>
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907      <br>
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912The
2913parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
2914can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
2915Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
2916      <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921     
2922     
2923     
2924     
2925      <p>With
2926the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
2927the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
2928grid point.<br>
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933 </p>
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938 Cross sections extend through the
2939total model
2940domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
2941&lt;= i
2942&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
2943&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
2944the
2945complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
2946sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
2947      <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2948causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
2949normal to the respective section.<br>
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954      <br>
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959      <br>
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br>
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969      <br>
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974Beside
2975the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
2976other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
2977user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
2978They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
2979for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
2980Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
2981selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
2982listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
2983quantities.<br>
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988      <br>
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993     
2994     
2995     
2996     
2997      <p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
2998on parallel machines:</p>
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003     
3004     
3005     
3006     
3007      <p>
3008By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
3009of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
3010are
3011constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
3012&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
3013After PALM has
3014finished, the contents of these individual
3015files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
3016using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3017(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3018configuration file).</p>
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023 
3024     
3025     
3026     
3027     
3028      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
3029collect all grid points of a
3030cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
3031one&nbsp;
3032output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3033does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
3034gridpoints, sufficient
3035memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
3036assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
3037= <i>.F.</i>.</p>
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042     
3043     
3044     
3045     
3046      <p>3d volume data output is
3047always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
3048has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p>
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053     
3054     
3055     
3056     
3057      <p><br>
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068     
3069     
3070     
3071     
3072      <p>Beside
3073the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
3074can
3075also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
3076using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p>
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081     
3082     
3083     
3084     
3085      <p>By
3086assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
3087      </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
3088the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
3089Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3090the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
3091The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
3092for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3093= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
3094means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
3095v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
3096averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
3097creates
3098a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
3099with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
3100As third and
3101fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
3102and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
3103which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
3104and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
3105one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
3106the file
3107PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3108configuration file: &#8220;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3109PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&#8221;)
3110after PALM has
3111finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
3112can be done
3113in
3114compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
3115Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
3116      <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
31174.5.5</a>.</p>
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
3123      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
3124the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
3125Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3126the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
3127The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
3128for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3129= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
3130means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
3131with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
3132temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
3133instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
3134file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
3135creates NAMELIST parameter files
3136(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
3137      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
3138      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3139      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
3140      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3141      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
3142which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
3143That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
3144respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
3145suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3146configuration file, e.g.: &#8220;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3147PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&#8221;)
3148after PALM has
3149finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
3150respective data and
3151parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
3152file.
3153The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3154parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
3155(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
3156All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
3157file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
3158in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
31594.5.4</a>.<br>
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164      <br>
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174There
3175is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
3176PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td>
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181 </tr>
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186 <tr>
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197      </td>
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br>
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219      <br>
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224By
3225default, all data (profiles, time
3226series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
3227in NetCDF 64bit-offset format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
3228Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
3229      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
3230are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br>
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235      <br>
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240The
3241numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br>
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246      <br>Other NetCDF formats (classic, NetCDF4/HDF5) can be selected with parameter <a href="#netcdf_data_format">netcdf_data_format</a>.<br>
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251      <br>
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256For historical
3257reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
3258may be assigned the following values:<br>
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263      <br>
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268     
3269     
3270     
3271     
3272      <table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277        <tbody>
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282          <tr>
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td>
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292            <td>output
3293of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
3294read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
3295            </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
3296            <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td>
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301          </tr>
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306          <tr>
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td>
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316            <td>output
3317of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3318software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3319(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td>
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324          </tr>
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329          <tr>
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td>
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339            <td>output
3340of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3341software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
3342(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td>
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347          </tr>
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352       
3353       
3354       
3355       
3356        </tbody>
3357     
3358     
3359     
3360     
3361      </table>
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366      <br>
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371Multiple
3372values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
3373i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
3374cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
3375      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
3376assigned.<br>
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381      <br>
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
3387There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
3388future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393 </td>
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398 </tr>
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403 <tr>
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3410     
3411     
3412     
3413     
3414      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420      </td>
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
342610&nbsp; <br>
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432(100)</td>
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
3438* ' '</i></td>
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3444     
3445     
3446     
3447     
3448      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
3449are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454 
3455     
3456     
3457     
3458     
3459      <p>By default vertical
3460profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
3461The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
3462NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467     
3468     
3469     
3470     
3471      <p>For
3472historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
3473file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
3474which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
3475parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3476for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481 </p>
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487     
3488     
3489     
3490     
3491      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
3492profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
3493vertical
3494grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
3495profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
3496also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
3497      </p>
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502 
3503     
3504     
3505     
3506     
3507      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
3508profiles is
3509assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
3510Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
3511the profiles are ordered with respect to their
3512output times.</p>
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517     
3518     
3519     
3520     
3521      <p>Profiles can also be temporally
3522averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).<br>
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528      </p>
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533 
3534     
3535     
3536     
3537     
3538      <p>The following list shows the values which can be
3539assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
3540The profile data is either defined on
3541u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
3542or
3543on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
3544According to this,
3545the
3546z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
3547Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
3548the lowest output
3549level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
3550u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
3551. Turbulence quantities such as&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">w*u* &nbsp;</span>or <span style="font-style: italic;">u*2</span> are calculated from turbulent fluctuations that are defined as deviations from the instantaneous horizontal average.
3552
3553
3554 </p>
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559 
3560     
3561     
3562     
3563     
3564      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569 <tbody>
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574 <tr>
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3586velocity (in m/s).</td>
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591 </tr>
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596 <tr>
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
3608velocity (in m/s).</td>
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613 </tr>
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618 <tr>
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
3630velocity (in m/s).</td>
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635 </tr>
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640 <tr>
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
3652K).</td>
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657 </tr>
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662 <tr>
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
3674temperature (in K).</td>
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679 </tr>
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684 <tr>
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
3696temperature (in K).</td>
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701 </tr>
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706 <tr>
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
3718(in kg/kg).</td>
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723 </tr>
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728 <tr>
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
3740kg/kg).</td>
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745 </tr>
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750 <tr>
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
3762(in kg/kg).</td>
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767 </tr>
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772 <tr>
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td>
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787          </tr>
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792          <tr>
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797 <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
3804kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809 </tr>
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814 <tr>
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td>
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td>
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829          </tr>
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834          <tr>
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
3846(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852          </tr>
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857 <tr>
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
3869(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875          </tr>
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880 <tr>
3881
3882            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">p</span></td>
3883
3884            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Perturbation pressure (in Pa)</td>
3885
3886          </tr>
3887
3888          <tr>
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
3900momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905 </tr>
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910 <tr>
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
3923(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928 </tr>
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933 <tr>
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950          </tr>
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955 <tr>
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3967subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973          </tr>
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978 <tr>
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3990resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996          </tr>
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001 <tr>
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
4013vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
4014(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019 </tr>
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025          <tr>
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4037subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043          </tr>
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048 <tr>
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4060resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066          </tr>
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071 <tr>
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
4083vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
4084(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089 </tr>
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095          <tr>
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4107sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112 </tr>
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117 <tr>
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4129sensible
4130heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135 </tr>
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140 <tr>
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4152heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
4153(in K
4154m/s).</td>
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159 </tr>
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164 <tr>
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4176sensible heat flux using the
4177Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182 </tr>
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187 <tr>
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4199heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
4200(<i>w"pt"</i>
4201+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206 </tr>
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211 <tr>
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4224buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229 </tr>
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234 <tr>
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*vpt*</i></font></td>
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4246buoyancy
4247flux (in K m/s).</td>
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252 </tr>
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257 <tr>
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
4269flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274 </tr>
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279 <tr>
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4291water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296 </tr>
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301 <tr>
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
4313flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318 </tr>
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323 <tr>
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
4335(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340 </tr>
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345 <tr>
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4357latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362 </tr>
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367 <tr>
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
4379heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384 </tr>
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389 <tr>
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
4401heat
4402flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407 </tr>
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412 <tr>
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4425scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431          </tr>
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436 <tr>
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
4448concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td>
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453 </tr>
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459          <tr>
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
4471concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477          </tr>
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482 <tr>
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td>
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
4493salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498          </tr>
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503          <tr>
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td>
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td>
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518          </tr>
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523          <tr>
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td>
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538          </tr>
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543          <tr>
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
4555perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560 </tr>
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565 <tr>
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4577u-velocity
4578component (resolved)</td>
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583 </tr>
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588 <tr>
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4600v-velocity
4601component (resolved)</td>
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606 </tr>
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611 <tr>
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the w-velocity
4623component (resolved)</td>
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628 </tr>
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633 <tr>
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
4645temperature (resolved)</td>
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650 </tr>
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655 <tr>
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
4667w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672 </tr>
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677 <tr>
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
4689w-velocity
4690component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
4691= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697          </tr>
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702 <tr>
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719          </tr>
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724 <tr>
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741          </tr>
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746 <tr>
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*:dz</i></font></td>
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4758shear
4759(resolved)</td>
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764 </tr>
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769 <tr>
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*:dz</i></font></td>
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4781turbulent transport of pressure
4782fluctuations (resolved)</td>
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787 </tr>
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792 <tr>
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e:dz</i></font></td>
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4804transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809 </tr>
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814 
4815       
4816       
4817       
4818       
4819        </tbody>
4820     
4821     
4822     
4823     
4824      </table>
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829 <br>
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
4835variables can additionally be
4836output (this output is only done once
4837with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
4838later
4839times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
4840above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845 
4846     
4847     
4848     
4849     
4850      <ul>
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856       
4857       
4858       
4859       
4860        <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
4861        <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l, #lpt, #q, #qv, #s, #sa, #vpt</i></p>
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867     
4868     
4869     
4870     
4871      </ul>
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876 
4877     
4878     
4879     
4880     
4881      <p>Profile names preceded by a hash automatically imply that
4882profiles for these variables are also output at later times. It is not
4883necessary and not allowed to specify the same profile name with and
4884without hash simultaneously(this would lead to an NetCDF error). </p>
4885
4886
4887     
4888     
4889      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
4890the user or
4891have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896The
4897user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
4898own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br>
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903      <br>
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908In case
4909of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
4910PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
4911which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
4912Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
4913using these two files. The
4914plot layout is
4915steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
4916are determined by
4917a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
4918      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
4919      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
4920      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
4921etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
4922input
4923file. <br>
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928      <br>
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933Further details about plotting vertical
4934profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
4935be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
49364.5.2</a></td>
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941 </tr>
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946 <tr>
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4952     
4953     
4954     
4955     
4956      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
4957      <br>
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962 <b>_each_pe</b></p>
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967 </td>
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977 </td>
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987 </td>
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
4994data by one or
4995all processors.&nbsp; 
4996     
4997     
4998     
4999     
5000      <p>In runs with several processors, by
5001default, each processor
5002outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
5003file. After PALM
5004has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
5005file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
5006the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012     
5013     
5014     
5015     
5016      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
5017= <i>.F.,</i>
5018the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
5019into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
5020have to be
5021called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
5022gridpoints, sufficient
5023memory is required on PE0. </p>
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028 </td>
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033 </tr>
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039    <tr>
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5045     
5046     
5047     
5048     
5049      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055_amplitude</b></p>
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060 </td>
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5077     
5078     
5079     
5080     
5081      <p>Maximum
5082perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
5083imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089     
5090     
5091     
5092     
5093      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
5094describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
5095field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
5096the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
5097only an
5098approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103 </td>
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109    </tr>
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114 <tr>
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5120     
5121     
5122     
5123     
5124      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
5125      <br>
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130 <b>_limit</b></p>
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135 </td>
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5152     
5153     
5154     
5155     
5156      <p lang="en-GB">Upper
5157limit value of the perturbation energy of
5158the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
5159perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
5160      </p>
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165 
5166     
5167     
5168     
5169     
5170      <p><span lang="en-GB">The parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5171describes how to impose
5172random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
5173energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
5174of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
5175mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
5176assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
5177velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
5178must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
5179number of grid points).</span>  </p>
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184 </td>
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190    </tr>
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195 <tr>
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5201     
5202     
5203     
5204     
5205      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211      </td>
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227zu(nz*2/3)<br>
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232see right</i></td>
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5239     
5240     
5241     
5242     
5243      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Lower
5244limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5245imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5246      </font> </p>
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251 
5252     
5253     
5254     
5255     
5256      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5257parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5258&lt;= zu(</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span><span lang="en-GB">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5259&lt;= </span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_t</span></a>
5260      <span lang="en-GB">must
5261also hold.</span></p>
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266     
5267     
5268     
5269     
5270      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz * 2 / 3) </span>(negative).</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275 
5276     
5277     
5278     
5279     
5280      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5281parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5282describes how to impose
5283random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5284       </p>
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289 </td>
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294 </tr>
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299 <tr>
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5305     
5306     
5307     
5308     
5309      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315      </td>
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331zu(nzt-3)<br>
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336see right</i></td>
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5343     
5344     
5345     
5346     
5347      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Upper
5348limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5349imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5350      </font> </p>
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355 
5356     
5357     
5358     
5359     
5360      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5361parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5362&lt;= zu<i>(</i></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span></i><span lang="en-GB">.
5363Additionally, </span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_b</span></a>
5364      <span lang="en-GB">&lt;=
5365      <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5366must also hold.</span></p>
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371      <span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nzt - 3</span>)</span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>(negative)</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5372     
5373     
5374     
5375     
5376      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5377parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5378describes how to impose
5379random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5380       </p>
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385 </td>
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390 </tr>
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395 <tr>
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5401     
5402     
5403     
5404     
5405      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411      </td>
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421 </td>
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432 </td>
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5439     
5440     
5441     
5442     
5443      <p>Output of 2d
5444cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449 
5450     
5451     
5452     
5453     
5454      <p>The
5455temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5456are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
5457and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
5458By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5459an additional output
5460will be made at the
5461beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5462starting times of restart runs).</p>
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467 </td>
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472 </tr>
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477 <tr>
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5484     
5485     
5486     
5487     
5488      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494      </td>
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504 </td>
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515 </td>
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
5522at the beginning
5523of a run.<br>
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528      <br>
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533The temporal intervals of output times of
55343d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5535is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
5536By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5537an additional output
5538will be made at the
5539beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5540starting times of restart runs).</td>
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545 </tr>
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550 <tr>
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5556     
5557     
5558     
5559     
5560      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566      </td>
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576 </td>
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587 </td>
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5594     
5595     
5596     
5597     
5598      <p>Output of data
5599for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604 
5605     
5606     
5607     
5608     
5609      <p>This
5610parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5611= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616     
5617     
5618     
5619     
5620      <p>Output
5621of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
5622(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
5623reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
5624form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
5625= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
5626assigned. This
5627yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
5628parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_comp_prec">do3d_comp_prec</a>
5629can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
5630each quantity.<br>
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635 </p>
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640 
5641     
5642     
5643     
5644     
5645      <p>So far compressed data
5646output is only possible for Cray-T3E
5647machines. Additional information for
5648handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
56494.5.6</a>.</p>
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654 </td>
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659 </tr>
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664 <tr>
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5670     
5671     
5672     
5673     
5674      <p><a name="do3d_comp_prec"></a><b>do3d_comp_prec</b></p>
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680      </td>
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
56867&nbsp; <br>
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692&nbsp; (100)</td>
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">see
5698right<br>
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703 </td>
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5709     
5710     
5711     
5712     
5713      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
5714output.&nbsp; </p>
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719 
5720     
5721     
5722     
5723     
5724      <p>This parameter only applies for
5725&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5726= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731     
5732     
5733     
5734     
5735      <p>In
5736case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
5737(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
5738this parameter determines the number of significant digits
5739which are to be output.<br>
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744 </p>
5745
5746
5747
5748
5749 
5750     
5751     
5752     
5753     
5754      <p>Fewer digits
5755clearly reduce the amount
5756of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
5757quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
5758name&gt;&lt;number of
5759significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
5760Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
5761are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
5762are not very reasonable
5763because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768 </p>
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774     
5775     
5776     
5777     
5778      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_comp_prec</span>
5779= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784 </td>
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790    </tr>
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795 <tr>
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5801     
5802     
5803     
5804     
5805      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811      </td>
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5829     
5830     
5831      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
5832step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">in </span><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
5833      </font></font> 
5834
5835
5836 
5837     
5838     
5839     
5840     
5841      <p style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><span lang="en-GB">This parameter</span>
5842      <span lang="en-GB">is
5843described in
5844detail with the initialization parameters (see</span><span lang="en-GB"> </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a><span lang="en-GB">).
5845Additionally, it may be
5846used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
5847is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
5848time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span></p>
5849
5850      <font face="Thorndale, serif">
5851      </font> 
5852
5853
5854 </td>
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859 </tr>
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864 <tr>
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875      </td>
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885 </td>
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896 </td>
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
5903of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br>
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908      <br>
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913By
5914default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
5915are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
5916&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
5917the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
5918reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
5919average's statistics.<br>
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924      <br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
5930variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
5931the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
5932averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB">averaging_interval</span></a>)</font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
5933is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
5934MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
5935      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
5936gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
5937this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">&nbsp;
5938      </span><br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943      <br>
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953With
5954an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
5955      <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
5956the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
5957s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
5958larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
5959(maximum) 10 time levels.<br>
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964      <br>
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
5970is allowed
5971to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
5972the last averaging
5973interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
5974has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
5975spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
5976averaging interval.<br>
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981      <br>
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986      </span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
5987be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
5988vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993 </td>
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998 </tr>
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004    <tr>
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6010     
6011     
6012     
6013     
6014      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020      </td>
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036averaging_<br>
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041input</a></span></td>
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6048     
6049     
6050     
6051     
6052      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
6053interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
6054profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
6055      </font></font> </p>
6056
6057
6058
6059
6060 
6061     
6062     
6063     
6064     
6065      <p>By default, data from
6066each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
6067used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
6068&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
6069the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
6070reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
6071average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076 </p>
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081     
6082     
6083     
6084     
6085      <p>For
6086more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p>
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091      </td>
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097    </tr>
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102 <tr>
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_coupling"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span></td>
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval for the data exchange in case of <a href="chapter_3.8.html">runs with coupled models</a> (e.g. atmosphere - ocean) (in s).<br>
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127      <br>
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132This parameter has an effect only in case of a run with coupled models. It is available starting from version 3.3a. <br>
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137      <br>
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142This parameter specifies the temporal interval at which data are
6143exchanged at the interface between coupled models (currently: interface
6144between atmosphere and ocean). If this parameter is not explicitly
6145specified in the parameter files for both coupled models, or if there
6146is an inconsistency between its values for both coupled models,
6147the&nbsp;execution will terminate and an informative error message will
6148be given.&nbsp;In order to ensure synchronous coupling throughout the simulation, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span> should be chosen larger than
6149      <a href="#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</td>
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154    </tr>
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159    <tr>
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170      </td>
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180 </td>
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192      </td>
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6198     
6199     
6200     
6201     
6202      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6203at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
6204averaged),
6205cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
6206spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
6213data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6214parameter can be used to
6215assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
6216output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6217simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
6218which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6219time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6220takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
6221dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6222+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6223+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
6224etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6225the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6226deviate
6227from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232      <br>
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237Individual temporal
6238intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
6239parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
6240and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
6241      </td>
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246 </tr>
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251 <tr>
6252
6253
6254
6255
6256 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262      </td>
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272 </td>
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6279&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284output</a></i>
6285      </td>
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6291     
6292     
6293     
6294     
6295      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6296at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
6297shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
6303output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6304parameter can be used to
6305assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
6306output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6307simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
6308which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6309time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6310takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
6311dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6312+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6313+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
6314etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6315the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6316deviate from
6317these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322      <br>
6323
6324
6325
6326
6327      </font></span>The
6328length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334    </tr>
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339    <tr>
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6345     
6346     
6347     
6348     
6349      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355      </td>
6356
6357
6358
6359
6360 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6373     
6374     
6375     
6376     
6377      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6378interval</font> at which random
6379perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
6380(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
6381      </p>
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386 
6387     
6388     
6389     
6390     
6391      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
6392describes how to impose
6393random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
6394      </font> </p>
6395
6396
6397
6398
6399 </td>
6400
6401
6402
6403
6404 </tr>
6405
6406
6407
6408
6409 <tr>
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6415     
6416     
6417     
6418     
6419      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425      </td>
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6437&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442output</a></i></td>
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6449     
6450     
6451     
6452     
6453      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
6454interval at
6455which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
6456file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
6457or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6458      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
6459      </font></span> </p>
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464 
6465     
6466     
6467     
6468     
6469      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6470horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
6471parameter can be used to
6472assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
6473be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
6474zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6475time is the beginning
6476of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
6477takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6478      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
6479+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6480etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
6481profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6482interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6483If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6484example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6485the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
6486model uses a variable time step, these
6487deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6488different for each output time.<br>
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493 </font></span></p>
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6499     
6500     
6501     
6502     
6503      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6504order to
6505guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6506      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6507should be equal or a little bit
6508larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
6509= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6510      </span>and 3600.0
6511seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
6512&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
6513      </p>
6514
6515
6516
6517
6518 
6519     
6520     
6521     
6522     
6523      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
6524profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
6525      </p>
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530 </td>
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535 </tr>
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540 <tr>
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551      </td>
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561 </td>
6562
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6574     
6575     
6576     
6577     
6578      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6579interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
6580vertical
6581profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6582      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
6583      </p>
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588 
6589     
6590     
6591     
6592     
6593      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
6594parameter can be used to
6595assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
6596time is the beginning
6597of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6598= 1800.0,
6599then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
6600profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6601interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6602If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6603example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6604the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
6605are related to
6606the
6607example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
6608deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6609different for each output time.<br>
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614 </font></span></p>
6615
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620     
6621     
6622     
6623     
6624      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6625order to
6626guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6627      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6628should be a little bit
6629larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6630= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6631      </span>and 3600.0
6632seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
6633&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
6634variable time steps are used
6635(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
6636should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642     
6643     
6644     
6645     
6646      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
6647and output
6648format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
6649      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
6650internally fixed. In this file
6651the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
6652adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657 </td>
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662 </tr>
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668    <tr>
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6674     
6675     
6676     
6677     
6678      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684      </td>
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6702     
6703     
6704     
6705     
6706      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6707interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
6708output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
6709      </p>
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714 
6715     
6716     
6717     
6718     
6719      <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
6720is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
6721calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p>
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726     
6727     
6728     
6729     
6730      <p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6731IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6732== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6738      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6739MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6745ELSE<br>
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6751      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6752MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6753)<br>
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6759ENDIF</p>
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764     
6765     
6766     
6767     
6768      <p>This parameter can be used to
6769assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6770time is the beginning of
6771&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
67722*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
6773actual output times can
6774deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
6775Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
6776of the time series are
6777written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
6778= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p>
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783     
6784     
6785     
6786     
6787      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
6788value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
6789is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6795IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6796== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6802      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6803MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6809ELSE<br>
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6815      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6816MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
6817      <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6818)<br>
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6824ENDIF<br>
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829      <br>
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834(which minimizes the number of calls of
6835routine flow_statistics).<br>
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840     
6841     
6842     
6843     
6844      <p>By default time series data
6845is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
6846Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
6847it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
6848format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
6849data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854The
6855file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
6856gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br>
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861     
6862     
6863     
6864     
6865      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870 <tbody>
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875 <tr>
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
6881
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886            </td>
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
6892kinetic energy of
6893the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
6894(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900          </tr>
6901
6902
6903
6904
6905 <tr>
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916            </td>
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
6922kinetic
6923energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
6924            </sup>(normalized
6925with respect to the total number of grid
6926points)</td>
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931 </tr>
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936 <tr>
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947            </td>
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
6953size (in s).</td>
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958 </tr>
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963 <tr>
6964
6965
6966
6967
6968 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
6975m/s)
6976(horizontal average).</td>
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981 </tr>
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986 <tr>
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
6992
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
6998of
6999the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004 </tr>
7005
7006
7007
7008
7009 <tr>
7010
7011
7012
7013
7014
7015            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
7022scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
7023/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
7024(horizontal
7025average) (in K).</td>
7026
7027
7028
7029
7030 </tr>
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035 <tr>
7036
7037
7038
7039
7040 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
7041
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046            </td>
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7052u-component of the
7053velocity (in m/s).</td>
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058 </tr>
7059
7060
7061
7062
7063 <tr>
7064
7065
7066
7067
7068 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074            </td>
7075
7076
7077
7078
7079 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7080v-component of the
7081velocity (in m/s).</td>
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086 </tr>
7087
7088
7089
7090
7091 <tr>
7092
7093
7094
7095
7096 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
7097
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102            </td>
7103
7104
7105
7106
7107 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7108w-component of the
7109velocity (in m/s).</td>
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114 </tr>
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119 <tr>
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130            </td>
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
7136of the velocity
7137field before the pressure
7138solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7139grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144 </tr>
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149 <tr>
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
7155
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
7161velocity
7162field after the pressure
7163solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7164grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169 </tr>
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174 <tr>
7175
7176
7177
7178
7179 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7186boundary layer (horizontal average)
7187determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192
7193          </tr>
7194
7195
7196
7197
7198 <tr>
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
7204
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7210boundary layer (horizontal average)
7211determined by the temperature profile, following the criterion of Sullivan et al. (1998) (in m).</td>
7212
7213
7214
7215
7216 </tr>
7217
7218
7219
7220
7221 <tr>
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
7234heat flux at k=0 (horizontal
7235average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in K m/s).</td>
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240 </tr>
7241
7242
7243
7244
7245 <tr>
7246
7247
7248
7249
7250 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
7251
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
7257(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
7258m/s).</td>
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263 </tr>
7264
7265
7266
7267
7268 <tr>
7269
7270
7271
7272
7273 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
7274
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
7280(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285 </tr>
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290 <tr>
7291
7292            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"u"0</span></td>
7293
7294            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (u-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7295
7296          </tr>
7297
7298          <tr>
7299
7300            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"v"0</span></td>
7301
7302            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (v-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7303
7304          </tr>
7305
7306          <tr>
7307
7308            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"q"0</span></td>
7309
7310            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale
7311humidity flux at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within
7312Prandtl-layer (in kg/kg m/s). Zero values are output if humidity is not
7313used.</td>
7314
7315          </tr>
7316
7317          <tr>
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322
7323            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
7330the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335 </tr>
7336
7337
7338
7339
7340 <tr>
7341
7342
7343
7344
7345
7346            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
7353z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358 </tr>
7359
7360
7361
7362
7363 
7364
7365
7366 
7367
7368
7369 
7370
7371
7372 <tr>
7373
7374
7375
7376
7377 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
7378
7379
7380
7381
7382
7383            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389          </tr>
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394 
7395       
7396       
7397       
7398       
7399        </tbody> 
7400     
7401     
7402     
7403     
7404      </table>
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409      <br>
7410
7411
7412
7413
7414Additionally, the
7415user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
7416user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
7417These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
7418this.<br>
7419
7420
7421
7422
7423      <br>
7424
7425
7426
7427
7428Time series data refers to the total
7429domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
7430However, the following time series always present the values of the
7431total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
7432      <i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
7433      <i>div_new</i>.</td>
7434
7435
7436
7437
7438 </tr>
7439
7440
7441
7442
7443 <tr>
7444
7445
7446
7447
7448 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7449     
7450     
7451     
7452     
7453      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
7454
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459      </td>
7460
7461
7462
7463
7464 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469
7470      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7471&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476output</a></i></td>
7477
7478
7479
7480
7481
7482      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7483     
7484     
7485     
7486     
7487      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7488interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
7489shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7490      </font> </p>
7491
7492
7493
7494
7495 
7496     
7497     
7498     
7499     
7500      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7501horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7502      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7503      </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
7504parameter can be used to
7505assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
7506output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
7507simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
7508which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7509time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
7510takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7511      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7512+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7513+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7514etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
7515(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7516
7517
7518
7519
7520
7521      </font></span></p>
7522
7523
7524
7525
7526 
7527     
7528     
7529     
7530     
7531      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7532has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7533the time t = 0 or at the
7534respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7535
7536
7537
7538
7539
7540      </td>
7541
7542
7543
7544
7545 </tr>
7546
7547
7548
7549
7550 <tr>
7551
7552
7553
7554
7555 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7556     
7557     
7558     
7559     
7560      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
7561
7562
7563
7564
7565
7566      </td>
7567
7568
7569
7570
7571 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7572
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7578&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7579
7580
7581
7582
7583output</a></i></td>
7584
7585
7586
7587
7588
7589      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7590     
7591     
7592     
7593     
7594      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7595interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
7596(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7597      </font> </p>
7598
7599
7600
7601
7602 
7603     
7604     
7605     
7606     
7607      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7608horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7609      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7610      </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7611this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7612cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7613be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
7614has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
7615the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
7616+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
7617      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7618+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7619+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
7620can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7621
7622
7623
7624
7625
7626      </font></span></p>
7627
7628
7629
7630
7631 
7632     
7633     
7634     
7635     
7636      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7637has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7638the time t = 0 or at the
7639respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645      </td>
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650 </tr>
7651
7652
7653
7654
7655 <tr>
7656
7657
7658
7659
7660 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7661     
7662     
7663     
7664     
7665      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
7666
7667
7668
7669
7670
7671      </td>
7672
7673
7674
7675
7676 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681
7682      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7683&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688output</a></i></td>
7689
7690
7691
7692
7693
7694      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7695     
7696     
7697     
7698     
7699      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7700interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
7701(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
7702      </font> </p>
7703
7704
7705
7706
7707 
7708     
7709     
7710     
7711     
7712      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7713horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7714      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7715      </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7716this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7717cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7718be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
7719has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7720time is the beginning of
7721the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
7722+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
7723      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
7724+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
7725      </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
7726times
7727can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7728
7729
7730
7731
7732
7733      </font></span></p>
7734
7735
7736
7737
7738 
7739     
7740     
7741     
7742     
7743      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7744has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7745the time t = 0 or at the
7746respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7747
7748
7749
7750
7751
7752      </td>
7753
7754
7755
7756
7757 </tr>
7758
7759
7760
7761
7762 <tr>
7763
7764
7765
7766
7767 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7768     
7769     
7770     
7771     
7772      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
7773
7774
7775
7776
7777
7778      </td>
7779
7780
7781
7782
7783 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7790&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7791
7792
7793
7794
7795output</a></i></td>
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800
7801      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7802     
7803     
7804     
7805     
7806      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7807interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
7808      <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
7809
7810
7811
7812
7813
7814     
7815     
7816     
7817     
7818      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
7819output of
78203d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
7821to assign
7822th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
7823interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7824be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
7825zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7826time is the
7827beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
7828+ dt_do3d</b>,
7829      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7830+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7831+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
7832deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
7833
7834
7835
7836
7837
7838      </font></span></p>
7839
7840
7841
7842
7843 
7844     
7845     
7846     
7847     
7848      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7849has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7850the time t = 0 or at the
7851respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7852
7853
7854
7855
7856
7857      </td>
7858
7859
7860
7861
7862 </tr>
7863
7864
7865
7866
7867 <tr>
7868
7869
7870
7871
7872      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td>
7873
7874
7875
7876
7877      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7878
7879
7880
7881
7882      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td>
7883
7884
7885
7886
7887      <td>Maximum
7888allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br>
7889
7890
7891
7892
7893      <br>
7894
7895
7896
7897
7898By default,
7899the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
7900simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
7901changed for other situations.</td>
7902
7903
7904
7905
7906    </tr>
7907
7908
7909
7910
7911    <tr>
7912
7913
7914
7915
7916 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7917     
7918     
7919     
7920     
7921      <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
7922
7923
7924
7925
7926
7927      </td>
7928
7929
7930
7931
7932 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7933
7934
7935
7936
7937
7938      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
7939
7940
7941
7942
7943
7944      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7945     
7946     
7947     
7948     
7949      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7950interval</font> at which a new
7951restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p>
7952
7953
7954
7955
7956 
7957     
7958     
7959     
7960     
7961      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
7962description
7963how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
7964does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
7965has not been set.</font></span></p>
7966
7967
7968
7969     
7970     
7971     
7972      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
7973and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
7974
7975
7976
7977
7978 </td>
7979
7980
7981
7982
7983 </tr>
7984
7985
7986
7987
7988
7989    <tr>
7990
7991
7992
7993
7994 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7995     
7996     
7997     
7998     
7999      <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005      </td>
8006
8007
8008
8009
8010 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
8017
8018
8019
8020
8021
8022      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8023     
8024     
8025     
8026     
8027      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
8028interval</font> at which run control
8029output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
8030      </font> </p>
8031
8032
8033
8034
8035 
8036     
8037     
8038     
8039     
8040      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
8041information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
8042output time, one line
8043with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
8044kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
8045beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
80462*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
8047etc., and always at
8048the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
8049respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
8050deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
8051
8052
8053
8054
8055
8056      </font></span></p>
8057
8058
8059
8060
8061 
8062     
8063     
8064     
8065     
8066      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
8067information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
8068= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
8069
8070
8071
8072
8073 </td>
8074
8075
8076
8077
8078
8079    </tr>
8080
8081
8082
8083
8084 <tr>
8085
8086
8087
8088
8089 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8090     
8091     
8092     
8093     
8094      <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
8095
8096
8097
8098
8099
8100      </td>
8101
8102
8103
8104
8105 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8106
8107
8108
8109
8110
8111      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
8112
8113
8114
8115
8116
8117      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8118     
8119     
8120     
8121     
8122      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
8123model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
8124      </font> </p>
8125
8126
8127
8128
8129 
8130     
8131     
8132     
8133     
8134      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
8135is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
8136starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span></p>
8137
8138
8139
8140     
8141     
8142     
8143      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
8144and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
8145
8146
8147
8148
8149 </td>
8150
8151
8152
8153
8154 </tr>
8155
8156
8157
8158
8159 <tr>
8160
8161
8162
8163
8164 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8165     
8166     
8167     
8168     
8169      <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
8170
8171
8172
8173
8174
8175      </td>
8176
8177
8178
8179
8180 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
8181
8182
8183
8184
8185
8186      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
8187
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8193     
8194     
8195     
8196     
8197      <p>Steering of
8198header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
8199      </p>
8200
8201
8202
8203
8204 
8205     
8206     
8207     
8208     
8209      <p>By default, informations about the model
8210parameters in use are
8211output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
8212(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
8213file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
8214With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
8215these informations are
8216also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
8217at restart runs.</p>
8218
8219
8220
8221
8222 </td>
8223
8224
8225
8226
8227 </tr>
8228
8229
8230
8231
8232 <tr>
8233
8234
8235
8236
8237 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8238     
8239     
8240     
8241     
8242      <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
8243
8244
8245
8246
8247
8248      </td>
8249
8250
8251
8252
8253 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8254
8255
8256
8257
8258
8259      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
8260
8261
8262
8263
8264
8265      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8266     
8267     
8268     
8269     
8270      <p>Number of
8271cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
8272
8273
8274
8275
8276 <br>
8277
8278
8279
8280
8281
8282This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
8283multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
8284perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
8285The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
8286
8287
8288
8289
8290
8291      </p>
8292
8293
8294
8295
8296 <br>
8297
8298
8299
8300
8301By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>-
83021</i>), the
8303number of cycles
8304depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
8305and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
8306for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
8307the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
8308
8309
8310
8311
8312 <br>
8313
8314
8315
8316
8317
8318By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
8319cycles can be
8320fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
8321
8322
8323
8324
8325 <br>
8326
8327
8328
8329
8330
8331      <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
8332must
8333examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
8334regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
8335sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
8336least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
8337both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
8338and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
8339good choice, for
8340non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
8341= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
8342sufficient.</td>
8343
8344
8345
8346
8347 </tr>
8348
8349
8350
8351
8352 <tr>
8353
8354
8355
8356
8357 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
8358
8359
8360
8361
8362
8363level</b></td>
8364
8365
8366
8367
8368 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8369
8370
8371
8372
8373
8374      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8375
8376
8377
8378
8379 </td>
8380
8381
8382
8383
8384 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
8385level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
8386
8387
8388
8389
8390 <br>
8391
8392
8393
8394
8395
8396In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
8397the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
8398the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
8399gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
8400The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
8401gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
8402It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
8403determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
8404this level.<br>
8405
8406      <br>
8407
8408Setting of <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span> prevents that data are collected on PE0 at all, i.e. coarsening of grids is limited by the subdomains.</td>
8409
8410
8411
8412
8413 </tr>
8414
8415
8416
8417
8418 <tr>
8419      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="netcdf_data_format"></a>netcdf_data_format</span><br>
8420      </td>
8421      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I<br>
8422      </td>
8423      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">2</span><br>
8424      </td>
8425      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Data format for NetCDF files.<br>
8426      <br>
8427This variable defines the format of the NetCDF files. Following values are allowed:<br>
8428      <br>
8429      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
8430        <tbody>
8431          <tr>
8432            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1</span><br>
8433            </td>
8434            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF classic format (filesize limited to 2GB)<br>
8435            </td>
8436          </tr>
8437          <tr>
8438            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">2</span><br>
8439            </td>
8440            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF 64-bit-offset format (large file support, but single variable still limited to 2GB)<br>
8441            </td>
8442          </tr>
8443          <tr>
8444            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">3</span><br>
8445            </td>
8446            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF-4 (HDF5) format (files can be as large as file system supports; unlimited variable size; allows parallel I/O)<br>
8447            </td>
8448          </tr>
8449          <tr>
8450            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">4</span><br>
8451            </td>
8452            <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF-4 format, but with NF90_CLASSIC_MODEL bit set (some new features of NetCDF4 are not available)<br>
8453            </td>
8454          </tr>
8455        </tbody>
8456      </table>
8457      <br>
8458      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
8459Setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_data_format </span>&gt; <span style="font-style: italic;">2 </span>requires a NetCDF4 library (set <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">-I</span>, <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">-L</span>, and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> -l </span>options for compiling and linking appropriately in configuration file). Also, preprocessor switch <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">__netcdf4 </span>has to be set (see line starting with <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">%cpp_opts </span>in the configuration file).<br>
8460      <br>
8461Files with NetCDF4 format cannot be read with NetCDF3 libraries.<br>
8462      </td>
8463    </tr>
8464
8465
8466
8467
8468
8469   
8470
8471
8472
8473
8474    <tr>
8475
8476
8477
8478
8479
8480      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8481     
8482     
8483     
8484     
8485      <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
8486
8487
8488
8489
8490 </td>
8491
8492
8493
8494
8495
8496      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8497
8498
8499
8500
8501 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
8502
8503
8504
8505
8506
8507      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
8508level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
8509
8510
8511
8512
8513 <br>
8514
8515
8516
8517
8518
8519In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
8520the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
8521the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
8522gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
8523The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
8524gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
8525It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
8526determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
8527this level.</td>
8528
8529
8530
8531
8532 </tr>
8533
8534
8535
8536
8537 <tr>
8538
8539
8540
8541
8542 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8543     
8544     
8545     
8546     
8547      <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
8548
8549
8550
8551
8552
8553      </td>
8554
8555
8556
8557
8558 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8559
8560
8561
8562
8563
8564      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
8565
8566
8567
8568
8569 </td>
8570
8571
8572
8573
8574
8575      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8576     
8577     
8578     
8579     
8580      <p>Determines the
8581subdomain from which the normalization
8582quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
8583
8584
8585
8586
8587 
8588     
8589     
8590     
8591     
8592      <p>If output
8593data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
8594(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
8595is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
8596      <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
8597the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
8598the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
8599= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
8600domain. Instead
8601of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
8602subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
8603where <i>1</i>
8604&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
8605hold. These
8606quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
8607of the total domain).</p>
8608
8609
8610
8611
8612 </td>
8613
8614
8615
8616
8617 </tr>
8618
8619
8620
8621
8622 <tr>
8623
8624      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a href="npex"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></a><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="npex"></a>npex</span></td>
8625
8626      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8627
8628      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8629</td>
8630
8631      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8632     
8633      <p>Number of processors
8634along x-direction of the virtual
8635processor
8636net.&nbsp; </p>
8637
8638
8639
8640
8641
8642
8643
8644
8645 
8646     
8647     
8648     
8649     
8650     
8651     
8652     
8653     
8654      <p>For parallel runs, the total
8655number of processors to be used
8656is given by
8657the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
8658option <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/software/mrun_beschreibung.html#Opt-X">-X</a>.
8659By default, depending on the type of the parallel computer, PALM
8660generates a 1d processor
8661net (domain decomposition along x, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8662= <span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>) or a
86632d-net (this is
8664favored on machines with fast communication network and/or large number of processors (&gt;256)). In case of a
86652d-net, it is tried to make it more or less square-shaped. If, for
8666example, 16 processors are assigned (-X 16), a 4 * 4 processor net is
8667generated (<span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
8668= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8669= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>).
8670This choice is optimal for square total domains (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#nx">nx</a>
8671= <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ny">ny</a>),
8672since then the number of ghost points at the lateral boundarys of
8673the subdomains reaches a minimum. If <span style="font-weight: bold;">nx</span>
8674and <span style="font-weight: bold;">ny</span>
8675differ extremely, the
8676processor net should be manually adjusted using adequate values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>.&nbsp; </p>
8677
8678
8679
8680
8681
8682
8683
8684
8685
8686     
8687     
8688     
8689     
8690     
8691     
8692     
8693     
8694      <p><b>Important:</b> The value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> * <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span> must exactly match the
8695value assigned by the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
8696      <tt>-X</tt>.
8697Otherwise the model run will abort with a corresponding error
8698message.&nbsp; <br>
8699
8700
8701
8702
8703
8704
8705
8706
8707
8708Additionally, the specification of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
8709and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
8710may of course
8711override the default setting for the domain decomposition (1d or 2d)
8712which may have a significant (negative) effect on the code performance.
8713      </p>
8714
8715      </td>
8716
8717    </tr>
8718
8719    <tr>
8720
8721      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="npey"></a>npey</span></td>
8722
8723      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8724
8725      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8726</td>
8727
8728      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8729     
8730      <p>Number of processors
8731along y-direction of the virtual
8732processor
8733net.&nbsp; </p>
8734
8735
8736
8737
8738
8739
8740
8741
8742 
8743     
8744     
8745     
8746     
8747     
8748     
8749     
8750     
8751      <p>For further information see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#npex">npex</a>.</p>
8752
8753      </td>
8754
8755    </tr>
8756
8757    <tr>
8758
8759
8760
8761
8762 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8763     
8764     
8765     
8766     
8767      <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
8768
8769
8770
8771
8772
8773      </td>
8774
8775
8776
8777
8778 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8779
8780
8781
8782
8783
8784      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
8785
8786
8787
8788
8789
8790      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8791     
8792     
8793     
8794     
8795      <p>Number of
8796iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
8797
8798
8799
8800
8801 
8802     
8803     
8804     
8805     
8806      <p>This
8807parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
8808as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
8809= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
8810The number of
8811iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
8812on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
8813runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
8814point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
8815SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
8816
8817
8818
8819
8820
8821      </td>
8822
8823
8824
8825
8826 </tr>
8827
8828
8829
8830
8831 <tr>
8832
8833
8834
8835
8836 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8837     
8838     
8839     
8840     
8841      <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
8842
8843
8844
8845
8846
8847      </td>
8848
8849
8850
8851
8852 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8853
8854
8855
8856
8857
8858      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
8859
8860
8861
8862
8863
8864      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
8865volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br>
8866
8867
8868
8869
8870      <br>
8871
8872
8873
8874
8875By
8876default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
8877can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
8878(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
8879output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
8880for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
8881see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
8882
8883
8884
8885
8886
8887    </tr>
8888
8889
8890
8891
8892 <tr>
8893
8894
8895
8896
8897 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8898     
8899     
8900     
8901     
8902      <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
8903
8904
8905
8906
8907
8908      </td>
8909
8910
8911
8912
8913 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8914
8915
8916
8917
8918
8919      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
8920
8921
8922
8923
8924
8925      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8926     
8927     
8928     
8929     
8930      <p>Convergence
8931factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
8932
8933
8934
8935
8936 
8937     
8938     
8939     
8940     
8941      <p>If
8942the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
8943= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
8944this parameter
8945determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
8946&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
8947The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
8948depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
8949space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
8950appropriate test runs.</p>
8951
8952
8953
8954
8955 </td>
8956
8957
8958
8959
8960 </tr>
8961
8962
8963
8964
8965 <tr>
8966
8967
8968
8969
8970 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8971     
8972     
8973     
8974     
8975      <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
8976
8977
8978
8979
8980
8981      </td>
8982
8983
8984
8985
8986 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8987
8988
8989
8990
8991
8992      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
8993
8994
8995
8996
8997
8998      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8999     
9000     
9001     
9002     
9003      <p>Ratio of the
9004eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
9005      </p>
9006
9007
9008
9009
9010 
9011     
9012     
9013     
9014     
9015      <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
9016this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
9017/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
9018
9019
9020
9021
9022 </td>
9023
9024
9025
9026
9027 </tr>
9028
9029
9030
9031
9032 <tr>
9033
9034
9035
9036
9037      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="precipitation_amount_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">precipitation_amount_</span><br style="font-weight: bold;">
9038
9039
9040
9041
9042      <span style="font-weight: bold;">interval</span></td>
9043
9044
9045
9046
9047      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9048
9049
9050
9051
9052      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
9053&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_<br>
9054
9055
9056
9057
9058xy</a></i></td>
9059
9060
9061
9062
9063      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9064     
9065     
9066     
9067     
9068      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
9069interval</font> for which the precipitation amount (in mm) shall be calculated and output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
9070      </font> </p>
9071
9072
9073
9074
9075 
9076     
9077     
9078     
9079     
9080      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">This
9081parameter requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>The interval must be smaller or equal than the output interval for 2d horizontal cross sections given by </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_do2d_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). The output of the precipitation amount also requires setting of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> =<span style="font-style: italic;"> 'pra*'</span>.<br>
9082
9083
9084
9085
9086
9087      </font></span></p>
9088
9089
9090
9091
9092 <span lang="en-GB"></span></td>
9093
9094
9095
9096
9097    </tr>
9098
9099
9100
9101
9102    <tr>
9103
9104
9105
9106
9107
9108      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9109     
9110     
9111     
9112     
9113      <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
9114
9115
9116
9117
9118
9119      </td>
9120
9121
9122
9123
9124 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
9125
9126
9127
9128
9129
9130      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
9131
9132
9133
9134
9135
9136      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9137     
9138     
9139     
9140     
9141      <p>Number of
9142coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
9143in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
9144      </p>
9145
9146
9147
9148
9149 
9150     
9151     
9152     
9153     
9154      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
9155= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
9156
9157
9158
9159
9160     
9161     
9162     
9163     
9164      <p>It
9165determines the layout of plots of
9166horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
9167when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
9168Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
9169plotted on one page are
9170determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
9171      <b>profile_columns</b>
9172determines how many panels are to be
9173arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
9174respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
9175According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
9176the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
9177then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
9178&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
9179the remaining
9180panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
9181then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
9182If
9183row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
9184is reduced automatically.</p>
9185
9186
9187
9188
9189 </td>
9190
9191
9192
9193
9194 </tr>
9195
9196
9197
9198
9199 <tr>
9200
9201
9202
9203
9204
9205      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9206     
9207     
9208     
9209     
9210      <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
9211
9212
9213
9214
9215
9216      </td>
9217
9218
9219
9220
9221 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
9222
9223
9224
9225
9226
9227      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
9228
9229
9230
9231
9232
9233      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9234     
9235     
9236     
9237     
9238      <p>Number of rows
9239of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
9240by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
9241      </p>
9242
9243
9244
9245
9246 
9247     
9248     
9249     
9250     
9251      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
9252= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
9253
9254
9255
9256
9257     
9258     
9259     
9260     
9261      <p>It
9262determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
9263profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
9264
9265
9266
9267
9268
9269      </td>
9270
9271
9272
9273
9274 </tr>
9275
9276
9277
9278
9279 <tr>
9280
9281
9282
9283
9284 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9285     
9286     
9287     
9288     
9289      <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
9290
9291
9292
9293
9294
9295      </td>
9296
9297
9298
9299
9300 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
9301
9302
9303
9304
9305
9306      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
9307
9308
9309
9310
9311
9312      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9313     
9314     
9315     
9316     
9317      <p>Scheme to be
9318used to solve the Poisson equation for the
9319perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
9320
9321
9322
9323
9324 <br>
9325
9326
9327
9328
9329
9330The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
9331
9332
9333
9334
9335 
9336     
9337     
9338     
9339     
9340      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
9341
9342
9343
9344
9345 <tbody>
9346
9347
9348
9349
9350 <tr>
9351
9352
9353
9354
9355 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
9356
9357
9358
9359
9360
9361            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
9362along x and y, solution of a
9363tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
9364FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
9365used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
9366
9367
9368
9369
9370
9371This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
9372Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
9373
9374
9375
9376
9377
9378          </tr>
9379
9380
9381
9382
9383 <tr>
9384
9385
9386
9387
9388 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9389           
9390           
9391           
9392           
9393            <p><i>poisfft_</i>
9394            <br>
9395
9396
9397
9398
9399 <i>hybrid</i></p>
9400
9401
9402
9403
9404
9405            </td>
9406
9407
9408
9409
9410 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
9411method using FFT
9412along x and y, solution of a
9413tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
9414FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
9415used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
9416
9417
9418
9419
9420
9421This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
9422Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
9423
9424
9425
9426
9427
9428          </tr>
9429
9430
9431
9432
9433 <tr>
9434
9435
9436
9437
9438 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
9439
9440
9441
9442
9443
9444            <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9445           
9446           
9447           
9448           
9449            <p>Multi-grid
9450scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
9451and
9452w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
9453are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
9454steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
9455the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
9456and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
9457to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
9458can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
9459            <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
9460The
9461smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
9462case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
9463
9464
9465
9466
9467
9468            <br>
9469
9470
9471
9472
9473If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
9474is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
9475multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
9476the number of
9477grid points in the three directions
9478of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
9479where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
9480            </i>the
9481multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
9482its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
9483affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
9484always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
9485for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
9486because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
9487parameter.
9488           
9489           
9490           
9491           
9492            <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
9493points of
9494the
9495subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
9496of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
9497
9498
9499
9500
9501
9502With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
9503data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
9504for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
9505be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
9506
9507
9508
9509
9510
9511           
9512           
9513           
9514           
9515            <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
9516identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
9517
9518
9519
9520
9521
9522            </td>
9523
9524
9525
9526
9527 </tr>
9528
9529
9530
9531
9532 <tr>
9533
9534
9535
9536
9537 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
9538
9539
9540
9541
9542
9543            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
9544relaxation
9545method (SOR). The convergence of
9546this
9547iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
9548            <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
9549and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
9550            <br>
9551
9552
9553
9554
9555Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
9556scheme
9557needs substantially
9558more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
9559errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
9560
9561
9562
9563
9564 </tr>
9565
9566
9567
9568
9569
9570       
9571       
9572       
9573       
9574        </tbody> 
9575     
9576     
9577     
9578     
9579      </table>
9580
9581
9582
9583
9584 <br>
9585
9586
9587
9588
9589In order to speed-up
9590performance, the Poisson equation is by default
9591only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
9592at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
9593      </td>
9594
9595
9596
9597
9598 </tr>
9599
9600
9601
9602
9603 <tr>
9604
9605
9606
9607
9608 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9609     
9610     
9611     
9612     
9613      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
9614      <br>
9615
9616
9617
9618
9619 <b>_factor</b></p>
9620
9621
9622
9623
9624 </td>
9625
9626
9627
9628
9629 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9630
9631
9632
9633
9634 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
9635
9636
9637
9638
9639
9640      <i>0.01</i></td>
9641
9642
9643
9644
9645 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
9646     
9647     
9648     
9649     
9650      <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
9651
9652
9653
9654
9655 
9656     
9657     
9658     
9659     
9660      <p>A
9661so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
9662variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
9663If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
9664respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
9665damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9666is assigned to.
9667The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
9668and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
9669maximum value
9670at
9671the top (ocean: bottom) boundary. </p>
9672
9673
9674
9675
9676 
9677     
9678     
9679     
9680     
9681      <p>This method
9682effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
9683which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
9684reflected&nbsp;at the top (ocean: bottom)
9685boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
9686switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
9687or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
9688Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9689= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
9690off.&nbsp; </p>
9691
9692
9693
9694
9695 
9696     
9697     
9698     
9699     
9700      <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
9701hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
9702&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
9703&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
9704numerical instabilities.</p>
9705
9706
9707
9708
9709 </td>
9710
9711
9712
9713
9714 </tr>
9715
9716
9717
9718
9719 <tr>
9720
9721
9722
9723
9724
9725      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9726     
9727     
9728     
9729     
9730      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
9731      <br>
9732
9733
9734
9735
9736 <b>_height</b></p>
9737
9738
9739
9740
9741 </td>
9742
9743
9744
9745
9746 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9747
9748
9749
9750
9751 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9752     
9753     
9754     
9755     
9756      <p><i>2/3 *</i>
9757      <br>
9758
9759
9760
9761
9762      <span style="font-style: italic;">zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
9763
9764
9765     
9766     
9767      <p> (ocean:<i style="font-style: italic;">&nbsp;</i><i>2/3 *</i>
9768</