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3  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type"><title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
4<body>
5<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
6parameters</a> and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
7parameters</a></h3>
8<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>
9Runtime parameters:</h3>
10<br>
11<br>
12<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
13  <tbody>
14    <tr>
15      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
16      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
17      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
18      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
19      <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
20      </td>
21      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
22    </tr>
23    <tr>
24      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
25      </td>
26      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
27      </td>
28      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
29      </td>
30      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br><br>This
31parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
32(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
33default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval
34length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>. In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> &lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span> must hold.<br><br>If
35an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
36the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
37of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
38parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br><br>If an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
39will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
40restart runs, averaging intervals do not
41necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br><br>Parameters <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a> and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a> can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
42      </td>
43    </tr>
44<tr>
45      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
46      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
47      </td>
48      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
49      </td>
50      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
51interval</a><br>
52</span>
53      </td>
54      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
55      <p>Averaging interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to local
56file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a> </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
57(in s).&nbsp; </p>
58      <p>If
59this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
60averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
61data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
62limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>. In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr </b>must
63hold.</p>If an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated
64from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
65number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
66parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
67      <p>If
68an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
69be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
70runs, averaging intervals do not
71necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
72      </td>
73    </tr>
74   
75    <tr>
76      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
77substeps</span></td>
78      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
79      </td>
80      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
81      </td>
82      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
83to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
84      <br>
85In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
86pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
87timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>) by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
88In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
89field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
90case and in case
91of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
92    </tr>
93    <tr>
94      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
95      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
96      </td>
97      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
98      </td>
99      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
100      <p><i>0.1, 0.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
101      <i>(see right)</i></p>
102      </td>
103      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
104      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
105
106     
107      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
108allowed </span>time step according to CFL and diffusion-criterion
109dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">= dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
110in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
111the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i> &lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
112&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
113      </span></p>
114
115     
116      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of cfl_factor depends on
117the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
118      </span></p>
119
120     
121      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
122is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
123      </span></p>
124
125     
126      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
127restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
128= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity divergence
129significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
130be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
131appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
132      </span></span></p>
133
134      <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
135    </tr>
136<tr>
137      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
138      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
139      </td>
140      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
141      </td>
142      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
143      </td>
144      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
145      <p>Switch to impose random perturbations to the horizontal
146velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
147      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b> = <i>.T.,</i> random
148perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
149certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
150etc..<br>
151      </p>
152      <p>The temporal interval between these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
153the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
154and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
155and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
156In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
157and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
158the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
159and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
160A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
161determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
162distributed random number.
163After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
164Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
165solver.<br>
166      </p>
167      <p>The random number generator to be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
168      </p>
169      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have developed
170(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of perturbations
171is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
172lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
173an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
174energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
175using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
176As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
177more random perturbations are assigned<br>
178.&nbsp; <br>
179Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
180the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
181by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
182velocities. </p>
183      </td>
184    </tr>
185    <tr>
186      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
187      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
188      </td>
189      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp; <br>
190&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
191      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
192      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
193      <p>Type of normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
194profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
195      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
196parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
197the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
198certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
199a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
200profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
201are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
202temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
203then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
204accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
205then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
206is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
207      </p>
208      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
209horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
210used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
211Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
212subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
213(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
214domain).&nbsp; </p>
215      <p>The user can choose between the following normalization
216quantities: <br>
217      </p>
218      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
219        <tbody>
220          <tr>
221            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
222            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
223to the total surface sensible heat
224flux (k=0 ).</td>
225          </tr>
226          <tr>
227            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
228            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
229to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
230(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
231          </tr>
232          <tr>
233            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
234            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
235to the square of the characteristic
236temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined as ratio of
237the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
238          </tr>
239          <tr>
240            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
241            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
242to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
243          </tr>
244          <tr>
245            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
246            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
247to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
248(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
249          </tr>
250          <tr>
251            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
252            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
253to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
254(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
255          </tr>
256        </tbody>
257      </table>
258      <p>For each coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
259an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>, then the
260x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
261and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>. Data
262of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
263normalized.&nbsp; </p>
264      <p>Using a normalization leaves all vertical profile data on
265local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
266unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the normalization is steered
267by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
268which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
269(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
270&nbsp;<br>
271The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
272respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
273      </td>
274    </tr>
275    <tr>
276      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
277      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
278      </td>
279      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp; <br>
280&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
281      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
282      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
283      <p>Type of normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
284profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
285      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
286parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
287the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
288certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
289the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
290comparability. </p>
291      <p>The user can choose between the following normalization
292quantities: <br>
293      </p>
294      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
295        <tbody>
296          <tr>
297            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
298            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with respect
299to the boundary layer height
300(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
301value).</td>
302          </tr>
303        </tbody>
304      </table>
305      <p>For further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
306      </td>
307    </tr>
308    <tr>
309      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
310      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
311      </td>
312      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp; <br>
313&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
314      <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
315      </td>
316      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
317      <p>Determines which vertical profiles are to be presented in
318which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used. &nbsp; </p>
319      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
320      <p><b>cross_profiles</b> =&nbsp; </p>
321      <ul>
322        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
323u v ',</span><br>
324        <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
325',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
326        <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
327w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
328        <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
329w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
330        <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
331kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
332        <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
333,</span><br>
33414 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
335      </ul>
336      <p>If plot output of vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
337the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
338Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
339which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
340program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
341determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
342which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
343expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
344coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
345drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
346names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
347The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
348must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the string.&nbsp;
349      </p>
350      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
351      <ul>
352        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ', ' pt '</span></p>
353      </ul>
354      <p>In this case the plot consists of two coordinate systems
355(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
356velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span> and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>) of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
357and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
358(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
359      </p>
360      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn, depends on
361whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
362(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
363For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>,
364      <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned, then
365the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
366temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
367to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
368then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
369but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
370      </p>
371The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
372with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
373and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
374Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
375distributed on several pages).</td>
376    </tr>
377    <tr>
378      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
379      <p><a name="cross_ts_uymax"></a><b>cross_ts_uymax</b></p>
380      </td>
381      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R(10)</td>
382      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">10 *&nbsp; </span><br>
383&nbsp; 999.999</td>
384      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
385      <p>Maximum of the range of y-axis values for coordinate systems
386of time series plots.&nbsp; </p>
387      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>If time series are output and plotted (see <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>),
388their range of values (which are to be presented at the y axis) is
389determined by the absolute maximum or minimum values these variables
390take within the time series. Singular extreme events can make the
391timeseries difficult to interpret. In order to solve for this problem,
392the range of values of the y-axis can be assigned manually with the
393parameters <b>cross_ts_uymax</b> and <a href="#cross_ts_uymin">cross_ts_uymin</a>.
394This can be done separately for each of the time series coordinate
395systems (panels). These panels are listed in the description of
396parameter <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>.
397If, for example, the user wants to limit the range of values of theta<sub>*</sub>,
398this may bbe done by <b>cross_ts_uymax</b>(4) = <i>5.0 </i>and <b>cross_ts_uymin</b>(4)
399= <i>- 5.0 </i>(theta* is by default presented in the 4th panel (see <a href="#data_output_ts">data_output_ts</a>).
400A one-sided limitation of the range of values may also be assigned.</p>
401      </td>
402    </tr>
403    <tr>
404      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
405      <p><a name="cross_ts_uymin"></a><b>cross_ts_uymin</b></p>
406      </td>
407      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
408      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
409      <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp; <br>
410&nbsp; <i>999.999</i></p>
411      </td>
412      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
413      <p>Minimum of the range of y-axis values for coordinate systems
414of time series plot.&nbsp; </p>
415      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>For details see <a href="#cross_ts_uymax">cross_ts_uymax</a>.</p>
416      </td>
417    </tr>
418    <tr>
419      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
420      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
421      </td>
422      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp; <br>
423&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
424      <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
425      </td>
426      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
427      <p>x-axis labels of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
428plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
429      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>The default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
430      <p><b>cross_xtext</b> =&nbsp; </p>
431      <ul>
432        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
433ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
434        <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
435K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
436        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
437ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
438        <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
439m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
440        <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
441m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
442        <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
443        <br>
44414 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
445      </ul>
446      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis labels to vertical
447profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output of vertical
448profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
449The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
450      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
451according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
452and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
453      <p>Umlauts are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
454well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of each
455character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
456plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
457      </td>
458    </tr>
459    <tr>
460      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
461      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
462      </td>
463      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
464      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
465      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
466      <p>Type of cycle to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
467      <p>This parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
468the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
469perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
470It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
471grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
472may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>). The
473computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
474however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
475      </td>
476    </tr>
477    <tr>
478      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
479      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
480      </td>
481      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
482      </td>
483      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
484      </td>
485      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br><br>PALM
486allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
487averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
488parameter (see below).<br><br>By default, cross section data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a> and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>. Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>. If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data, these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>, <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>, respectively.<br><br>The
489filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
490Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
491dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
492format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
493"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing the PALM NetCDF data.<br><br>The following quantities are available for output by default:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity name</span></td><td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td><td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td><td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td><td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td><td></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation pressure</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>, Pa</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet concentration</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option "-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean particle/droplet radius </td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option "-p particles"</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential temperature<br></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity (or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water content</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span> or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid water</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor content (specific humidity)</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of the scalar</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface) characteristic temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface) friction velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section is allowed</td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential temperature</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#moisture">moisture</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td></tr><tr><td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td><td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of the velocity</td><td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"></td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br><br>By
494assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
495output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av' </span>(for
496cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
497section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
498along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
499Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
500order:<br><br>Example:<br><br><div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br></div><br>This
501example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
502of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
503averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
504DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
505w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
506temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
507temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br><br>The user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br><br>The time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
508This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
509time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can be
510declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br><br>Also, an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>. This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br><br>The parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a> can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval. Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><p>With the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
511the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
512grid point.<br>
513      </p>
514     
515Cross sections extend through the total model
516domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0 &lt;= i
517&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
518&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions the
519complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>, <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span> causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction normal to the respective section.<br><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br><br>Beside
520the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
521other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
522user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>). They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a> for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
523Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
524selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
525listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
526quantities.<br><br><p style="font-weight: bold;">Output on parallel machines:</p><p>
527By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
528of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
529are
530constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
531&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.). After PALM has
532finished, the contents of these individual
533files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
534(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
535configuration file).</p>
536      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to collect all grid points of a
537cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only one&nbsp;
538output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
539does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal gridpoints, sufficient
540memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
541= <i>.F.</i>.</p><p>3d volume data output is always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span> has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p><p><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
542      <p>Beside
543the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data can
544also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
545using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p><p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>, the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
546Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
547the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
548The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
549for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>,
550      <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
551means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
552v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
553averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
554creates
555a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
556with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
557As third and
558fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
559and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
560which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
561and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
562one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
563the file
564PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
565configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
566PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;) after PALM has
567finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file can be done
568in
569compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>). Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
5704.5.5</a>.</p>By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
571Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
572the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
573The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
574for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>,
575      <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
576means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
577with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
578temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
579instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
580file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
581creates NAMELIST parameter files
582(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
583      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
584which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
585That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
586respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
587suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
588configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
589PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;) after PALM has
590finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the respective data and
591parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
592file.
593The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
594parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
595(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
596All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
597file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
5984.5.4</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>There is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future PALM versions (later than 3.0).
599     
600      </td>
601    </tr>
602    <tr>
603      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
604      </td>
605      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10)
606      </td>
607      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span>
608      </td>
609      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br><br>By default, all data (profiles, time
610series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
611in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>). Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
612are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br><br>The numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br><br>The maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a> if larger files have to be created.<br><br>For historical reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> may be assigned the following values:<br><br><table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td><td>output of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>, <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td><td>output of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td><td>output of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span> (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br>Multiple values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>, i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be assigned.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span> There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
613      </td>
614    </tr>
615    <tr>
616      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
617      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
618      </td>
619      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10&nbsp; <br>
620
621(100)</td>
622      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
623      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
624      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
625are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
626
627     
628      <p>By default vertical profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>. The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a> which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
629      </p>
630
631     
632      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
633profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> vertical
634grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
635profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
636also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
637      </p>
638
639     
640      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of profiles is
641assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
642Within the file  <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>, the profiles are ordered with respect to their
643output times.</p><p>Profiles can also be temporally averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).&nbsp;<br>
644      </p>
645
646     
647     
648
649     
650      <p>The following list shows the values which can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
651The profile data is either defined on
652u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>) or
653on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>). According to this,
654the
655z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
656Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
657the lowest output
658level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w'' u'',w''v"</i>,
659      <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i> .&nbsp; <br>
660      </p>
661
662     
663      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
664
665        <tbody>
666          <tr>
667            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
668            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
669velocity (in m/s).</td>
670          </tr>
671          <tr>
672            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
673            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
674velocity (in m/s).</td>
675          </tr>
676          <tr>
677            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
678            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
679velocity (in m/s).</td>
680          </tr>
681          <tr>
682            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
683            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
684K).</td>
685          </tr>
686          <tr>
687            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
688            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
689temperature (in K).</td>
690          </tr>
691          <tr>
692            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
693            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
694temperature (in K).</td>
695          </tr>
696          <tr>
697            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
698            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
699(in kg/kg).</td>
700          </tr>
701          <tr>
702            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
703            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
704kg/kg).</td>
705          </tr>
706          <tr>
707            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
708            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
709(in kg/kg).</td>
710          </tr>
711          <tr>
712            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
713            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
714kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
715          </tr>
716          <tr>
717            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
718            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
719(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
720          </tr>
721          <tr>
722            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
723            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
724(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
725          </tr>
726          <tr>
727            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
728            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
729momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
730          </tr>
731          <tr>
732            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
733            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
734(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
735          </tr>
736          <tr>
737            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
738            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
739          </tr>
740          <tr>
741            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
742            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
743subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
744          </tr>
745          <tr>
746            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
747            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
748resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
749          </tr>
750          <tr>
751            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
752            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
753vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
754          </tr>
755          <tr>
756            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
757            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
758subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
759          </tr>
760          <tr>
761            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
762            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
763resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
764          </tr>
765          <tr>
766            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
767            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
768vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
769          </tr>
770          <tr>
771            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
772            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
773sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
774          </tr>
775          <tr>
776            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
777            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical sensible
778heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
779          </tr>
780          <tr>
781            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
782            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
783heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
784(in K
785m/s).</td>
786          </tr>
787          <tr>
788            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
789            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
790sensible heat flux using the
791Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
792          </tr>
793          <tr>
794            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
795            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
796heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
797(<i>w"pt"</i>
798+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
799          </tr>
800          <tr>
801            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
802            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
803buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
804          </tr>
805          <tr>
806            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
807            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical buoyancy
808flux (in K m/s).</td>
809          </tr>
810          <tr>
811            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
812            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
813flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
814          </tr>
815          <tr>
816            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
817            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
818water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
819          </tr>
820          <tr>
821            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
822            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
823flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
824          </tr>
825          <tr>
826            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
827            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
828(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
829          </tr>
830          <tr>
831            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
832            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
833latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
834          </tr>
835          <tr>
836            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
837            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
838heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
839          </tr>
840          <tr>
841            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
842            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent heat
843flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
844          </tr>
845          <tr>
846            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
847            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
848scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
849          </tr>
850          <tr>
851            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
852            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
853concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>)</td>
854          </tr>
855          <tr>
856            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
857            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
858concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
859          </tr>
860          <tr>
861            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
862            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
863perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
864          </tr>
865          <tr>
866            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
867            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the u-velocity
868component (resolved)</td>
869          </tr>
870          <tr>
871            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
872            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the v-velocity
873component (resolved)</td>
874          </tr>
875          <tr>
876            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
877            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
878temperature (resolved)</td>
879          </tr>
880          <tr>
881            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
882            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
883temperature (resolved)</td>
884          </tr>
885          <tr>
886            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
887            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
888w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
889          </tr>
890          <tr>
891            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
892            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the w-velocity
893component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
894= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
895          </tr>
896          <tr>
897            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
898            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
899          </tr>
900          <tr>
901            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
902            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
903          </tr>
904          <tr>
905            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
906            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by shear
907(resolved)</td>
908          </tr>
909          <tr>
910            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
911            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
912turbulent transport of pressure
913fluctuations (resolved)</td>
914          </tr>
915          <tr>
916            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
917            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
918transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
919          </tr>
920        </tbody>
921     
922      </table>
923
924      <br>
925
926Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some variables can be also be
927output (this output is only done once
928with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
929later
930times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
931above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
932
933     
934      <ul>
935<p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>, <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>,
936        <i>#l</i></p>
937      </ul>
938
939     
940      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by the user or
941have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.<br>
942      </p>In case of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
943PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
944which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
945Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
946using these two files. The
947plot layout is
948steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters are determined by
949a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
950      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
951      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
952etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
953input
954file. <br><br>Further details about plotting vertical profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
9554.5.2</a></td>
956    </tr>
957    <tr>
958      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
959      <p><a name="data_output_ts"></a><b>data_output_ts</b></p>
960      </td>
961      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
962      </td>
963      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
964      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities for which time series
965are to be output (plot).&nbsp; <br><p>By default time series data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>. The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p><p>For historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a> which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
966      </p>
967
968     
969     
970
971Time series of different quantities can be output by assigning <b>data_output_ts</b>
972one or more of the following strings:<br>&nbsp;<br>
973
974     
975      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
976
977        <tbody>
978          <tr>
979            <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
980            </td>
981            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total kinetic energy of
982the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
983(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
984          </tr>
985          <tr>
986            <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
987            </td>
988            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation kinetic
989energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup> </sup>(normalized
990with respect to the total number of grid
991points)</td>
992          </tr>
993          <tr>
994            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
995            </td>
996            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step size (in s).</td>
997          </tr>
998          <tr>
999            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
1000            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in m/s)
1001(horizontal average).</td>
1002          </tr>
1003          <tr>
1004            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
1005            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale of
1006the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
1007          </tr>
1008          <tr>
1009            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
1010            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
1011scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
1012/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i> (horizontal
1013average) (in K).</td>
1014          </tr>
1015          <tr>
1016            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
1017            </td>
1018            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum u-component of the
1019velocity (in m/s).</td>
1020          </tr>
1021          <tr>
1022            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
1023            </td>
1024            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum v-component of the
1025velocity (in m/s).</td>
1026          </tr>
1027          <tr>
1028            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
1029            </td>
1030            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum w-component of the
1031velocity (in m/s).</td>
1032          </tr>
1033          <tr>
1034            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
1035            </td>
1036            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the velocity
1037field before the pressure
1038solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
1039grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
1040          </tr>
1041          <tr>
1042            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
1043            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the velocity
1044field after the pressure
1045solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
1046grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
1047          </tr>
1048          <tr>
1049            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
1050            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
1051boundary layer (horizontal average)
1052determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
1053          </tr>
1054          <tr>
1055            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
1056            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
1057boundary layer (horizontal average)
1058determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td>
1059          </tr>
1060          <tr>
1061            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
1062            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
1063heat flux near the surface (horizontal
1064average)
1065between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it corresponds to
1066the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td>
1067          </tr>
1068          <tr>
1069            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
1070            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
1071(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
1072m/s).</td>
1073          </tr>
1074          <tr>
1075            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
1076            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
1077(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
1078          </tr>
1079          <tr>
1080            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
1081            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
1082the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
1083          </tr>
1084          <tr>
1085            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
1086            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
1087z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
1088          </tr>
1089          <tr>
1090            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
1091            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1092using upstream scheme along x with
1093upstream-spline advection switched on.</td>
1094          </tr>
1095          <tr>
1096            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
1097            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1098using upstream scheme along y with
1099upstream-spline
1100advection switched on.</td>
1101          </tr>
1102          <tr>
1103            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
1104            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
1105using upstream scheme along z with
1106upstream-spline
1107advection switched on.<br>
1108            </td>
1109          </tr>
1110          <tr>
1111            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
1112            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
1113          </tr>
1114        </tbody>
1115     
1116      </table>
1117
1118      <br>
1119Always <b>all</b> time series available are output to the file,
1120regardless of the value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_ts</span>.
1121Time series data refers to the total
1122domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
1123However, the following time series always present the values of the
1124total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>, <i>vmax</i>,
1125      <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>, <i>div_new</i>.<br><br>The temporal interval of the data points of the time series is assigned via the parameter <a href="#dt_dots">dt_dots</a>.<br>
1126
1127     
1128      <p>In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>, the data of the individual time series are output in columns
1129to file  <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOTTS_DATA</a>
1130starting from the second column (the simulated time is output as the
1131first column).&nbsp;Their sequence (with respect to the columns)
1132corresponds to the list given above. Additional to the file
1133PLOTTS_DATA, which contains the data,
1134PALM creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOTTS_PAR">PLOTTS_PAR</a>)
1135which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
1136Time series can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> using these two files. The
1137plot layout is
1138steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters are determined by
1139a set of PALM-internal parameters. All
1140parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input file.<b> </b>In this case (<span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>)<b> data_output_ts</b>
1141determines which time series are actually to be plotted. They are
1142plotted
1143into individual coordinate systems (panels). Typically several time
1144series are plotted
1145together into one panel. The grouping is fixed PALM-internally (it can
1146be changed by editing the parameter input file). The time series are
1147assigned to the panels
1148as: <br>
1149      </p>
1150
1151     
1152      <ul>
1153<p>panel 1:&nbsp; <i>E E *</i>&nbsp; <br>
1154panel 2:&nbsp; <i>dt</i> <br>
1155panel 3:&nbsp; <i>u* w*</i>&nbsp; <br>
1156panel 4:&nbsp; <i>th*</i>&nbsp; <br>
1157panel 5:&nbsp; <i>umax vmax wmax</i> <br>
1158panel 6:&nbsp; <i>div_old div_new</i> <br>
1159panel 7:&nbsp; <i>z_i_wpt z_i_pt</i> <br>
1160panel 8:&nbsp; <i>w"pt"0 w"pt"wpt</i> <br>
1161panel 9:&nbsp; <i>pt(0) pt(zp)</i> <br>
1162panel 10: <i>splptx splpty splptz</i><br>
1163panel 11: <i>L</i></p>
1164      </ul>
1165
1166     
1167      <p>The range of values (y-axes) which are to be plotted can be
1168assigned to each panel with the parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_ts_uymin">cross_ts_uymin</a>
1169and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_ts_uymax">cross_ts_uymax</a>.
1170If not a single time series of a panel is assigned by <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_ts</span>,
1171then this panel is completely omitted in the plot.<br>
1172      </p>
1173
1174     
1175      <p>Further details about plotting time series with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.3.html">chapter
11764.5.3</a>.</p>
1177      </td>
1178    </tr>
1179    <tr>
1180      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1181      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b> <br>
1182      <b>_each_pe</b></p>
1183      </td>
1184      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
1185      </td>
1186      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
1187      </td>
1188      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section data by one or
1189all processors.&nbsp;
1190     
1191      <p>In runs with several processors, by default, each processor
1192outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual file. After PALM
1193has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
1194the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
1195
1196     
1197      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b> = <i>.F.,</i>
1198the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
1199into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not have to be
1200called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal gridpoints, sufficient
1201memory is required on PE0. </p>
1202      </td>
1203    </tr>
1204<tr>
1205      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1206      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
1207_amplitude</b></p>
1208      </td>
1209      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1210      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
1211      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1212      <p>Maximum perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
1213imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
1214      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
1215describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
1216field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
1217the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is only an
1218approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
1219      </td>
1220    </tr>
1221    <tr>
1222      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1223      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
1224      <br>
1225      <b>_limit</b></p>
1226      </td>
1227      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1228      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
1229      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1230      <p lang="en-GB">Upper limit value of the perturbation energy of
1231the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
1232perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp; </p>
1233      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
1234      </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
1235random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
1236energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
1237of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
1238mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
1239assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
1240velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
1241must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
1242number of grid points).</span> </font> </p>
1243      </td>
1244    </tr>
1245    <tr>
1246      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1247      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
1248      </td>
1249      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1250      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3)</i></td>
1251      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1252      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
1253limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
1254imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
1255      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
1256parameter must hold the condition zu<i>(3)</i> &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
1257&lt;= <i>zu(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
1258&lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must also hold. <br>
1259      </font></span></p>
1260      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
1261      </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
1262random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
1263      </td>
1264    </tr>
1265    <tr>
1266      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1267      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
1268      </td>
1269      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1270      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3)</i></td>
1271      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1272      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
1273limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
1274imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
1275      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
1276parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b> &lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-1</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;= <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
1277must also hold.<br>
1278      </font></span></p>
1279      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
1280      </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
1281random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
1282      </td>
1283    </tr>
1284    <tr>
1285      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1286      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
1287      </td>
1288      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
1289      </td>
1290      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
1291      </td>
1292      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1293      <p>Output of 2d cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
1294
1295     
1296      <p>The temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
1297are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>,
1298      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
1299and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
1300By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i> an additional output
1301will be made at the
1302beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
1303starting times of restart runs).</p>
1304      </td>
1305    </tr>
1306    <tr>
1307      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1308      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
1309      </td>
1310      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
1311      </td>
1312      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
1313      </td>
1314      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data at the beginning
1315of a run.<br><br>The temporal intervals of output times of 3d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
1316is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
1317By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i> an additional output
1318will be made at the
1319beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
1320starting times of restart runs).</td>
1321    </tr>
1322    <tr>
1323      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1324      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
1325      </td>
1326      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
1327      </td>
1328      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
1329      </td>
1330      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1331      <p>Output of data for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
1332
1333     
1334      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>Output of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
1335(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
1336reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
1337form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
1338= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is assigned. This
1339yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
1340parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_precision">do3d_precision</a>
1341can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
1342each quantity.<br>
1343      </p>
1344
1345     
1346      <p>So far compressed data output is only possible for Cray-T3E
1347machines. Additional information for
1348handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
13494.5.6</a>.</p>
1350      </td>
1351    </tr>
1352    <tr>
1353      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1354      <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
1355      </td>
1356      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 7&nbsp; <br>
1357
1358&nbsp; (100)</td>
1359      <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1360      </td>
1361      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1362      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data output.&nbsp; </p>
1363
1364     
1365      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p><p>In case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
1366(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
1367this parameter determines the number of significant digits
1368which are to be output.<br>
1369      </p>
1370
1371     
1372      <p>Fewer digits clearly reduce the amount
1373of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
1374quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity name&gt;&lt;number of
1375significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
1376Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
1377are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
1378are not very reasonable
1379because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
1380      </p>
1381
1382     
1383      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
1384= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
1385      </td>
1386    </tr>
1387<tr>
1388      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1389      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
1390      </td>
1391      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1392      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
1393      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1394      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
1395step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
1396      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
1397      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is described in
1398detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">). Additionally, it may be
1399used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
1400is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
1401time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span> </font>
1402      </p>
1403      </td>
1404    </tr>
1405    <tr>
1406      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
1407      </td>
1408      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
1409      </td>
1410      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
1411      </td>
1412      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br><br>By default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a> are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> &gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
1413the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
1414reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
1415average's statistics.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>), the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
1416averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> / MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp; 
1417      <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>With an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
1418the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
1419s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
1420larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
1421(maximum) 10 time levels.<br><br><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It is allowed
1422to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If the last averaging
1423interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
1424has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
1425spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
1426averaging interval.<br><br></span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
1427      </td>
1428    </tr>
1429<tr>
1430      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1431      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
1432      </td>
1433      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1434      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>averaging_<br>input</a></span></td>
1435      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1436      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp; </font></font> </p>
1437      <p>By default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span> &gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
1438the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
1439reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
1440average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
1441      </p><p>For more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p></td>
1442    </tr>
1443    <tr>
1444      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
1445      </td>
1446      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
1447      </td>
1448      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
1449      </td>
1450      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
1451at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time averaged),
1452cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
1453spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
1454      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
1455assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
1456output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1457takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output + dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> + 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> + 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
1458etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
1459the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly deviate
1460from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br>Individual temporal intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>, and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
1461      </td>
1462    </tr>
1463    <tr>
1464      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
1465      </td>
1466      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
1467      </td>
1468      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i>
1469      </td>
1470      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
1471at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
1472shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
1473assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
1474output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1475takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av + dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> + 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> + 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
1476etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
1477the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly deviate from
1478these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br><br></font></span>The length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
1479    </tr>
1480<tr>
1481      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1482      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
1483      </td>
1484      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1485      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1486      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1487      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which random
1488perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
1489(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1490      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter
1491      </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> describes how to impose
1492random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span> </font> </p>
1493      </td>
1494    </tr>
1495    <tr>
1496      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1497      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
1498      </td>
1499      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1500      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1501      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1502      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal interval at
1503which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
1504file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a> or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
1505
1506     
1507      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1508horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this parameter can be used to
1509assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning
1510of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
1511takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
1512etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
1513profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
1514interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
1515If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
1516example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
1517the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the model uses a variable time step, these
1518deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
1519different for each output time.<br>
1520      </font></span></p>
1521
1522     
1523      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In order to
1524guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
1525should be equal or a little bit
1526larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
1527= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>and 3600.0
1528seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
1529&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
1530
1531     
1532      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
1533profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span> </p>
1534      </td>
1535    </tr>
1536    <tr>
1537      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
1538      </td>
1539      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
1540      </td>
1541      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1542      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1543      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
1544interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of vertical
1545profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span> </p>
1546
1547     
1548      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
1549parameter can be used to
1550assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference time is the beginning
1551of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b> = 1800.0,
1552then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
1553profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
1554interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
1555If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
1556example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
1557the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a>
1558      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers are related to
1559the
1560example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
1561deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
1562different for each output time.<br>
1563      </font></span></p>
1564
1565     
1566      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In order to
1567guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
1568should be a little bit
1569larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
1570= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>and 3600.0
1571seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
1572&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If variable time steps are used
1573(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
1574should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
1575
1576     
1577      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data and output
1578format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is internally fixed. In this file
1579the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
1580adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
1581      </td>
1582    </tr>
1583<tr>
1584      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1585      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
1586      </td>
1587      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1588      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
1589      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1590      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
1591      </font> </p>
1592      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of time
1593series is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output_ts"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_ts</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this parameter can be used to
1594assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
1595&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
15962*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The actual output times can
1597deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp; Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data of the time series are
1598written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
1599= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a> == 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> = MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ELSE<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> = MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a> )<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ENDIF<br><br>(which minimizes the number of calls of routine flow_statistics).</td>
1600    </tr>
1601   
1602    <tr>
1603      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1604      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
1605      </td>
1606      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1607      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1608      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1609      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1610      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1611horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1612      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
1613assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
1614output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
1615takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> + 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
1616etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
1617(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1618      </font></span></p>
1619      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1620has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1621respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1622      </td>
1623    </tr>
1624    <tr>
1625      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1626      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
1627      </td>
1628      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1629      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1630      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1631      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data (xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1632      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1633horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1634      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
1635this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
1636cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
1637the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz + dt_do2d_xz</b>,
1638<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> + 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
1639can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1640      </font></span></p>
1641      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1642has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1643respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1644      </td>
1645    </tr>
1646    <tr>
1647      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1648      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
1649      </td>
1650      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1651      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1652      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1653      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data (yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1654      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
1655horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
1656      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
1657this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
1658cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
1659the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz + dt_do2d_yz</b>,
1660<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span> + 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output times
1661can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1662      </font></span></p>
1663      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1664has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1665respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1666      </td>
1667    </tr>
1668    <tr>
1669      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1670      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
1671      </td>
1672      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1673      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td>
1674      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1675      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
1676      </p>
1677      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
16783d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used to assign
1679th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
1680interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the
1681beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d + dt_do3d</b>,
1682<span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> + 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> + 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
1683deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
1684      </font></span></p>
1685      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
1686has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1687respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
1688      </td>
1689    </tr>
1690   
1691    <tr>
1692      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1693      <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
1694      </td>
1695      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1696      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
1697      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1698      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which a new
1699restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).
1700      </font> </p>
1701      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a description
1702how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
1703does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
1704has not been set.</font></span> </p>
1705      </td>
1706    </tr>
1707    <tr>
1708      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1709      <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
1710      </td>
1711      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1712      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
1713      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1714      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which run control
1715output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
1716      </p>
1717      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
1718information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each output time, one line
1719with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
1720kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
1721beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
17222*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>, etc., and always at
1723the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
1724respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
1725deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
1726      </font></span></p>
1727      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
1728information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
1729= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
1730      </td>
1731    </tr>
1732   
1733   
1734   
1735    <tr>
1736      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1737      <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
1738      </td>
1739      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1740      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
1741      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1742      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
1743model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
1744      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
1745is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
1746starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span>
1747      </p>
1748      </td>
1749    </tr>
1750   
1751    <tr>
1752      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1753      <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
1754      </td>
1755      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
1756      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
1757      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1758      <p>Steering of header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp; </p>
1759      <p>By default, informations about the model parameters in use are
1760output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
1761(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
1762file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
1763With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>, these informations are
1764also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
1765at restart runs.</p>
1766      </td>
1767    </tr>
1768    <tr>
1769      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1770      <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
1771      </td>
1772      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1773      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
1774      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1775      <p>Number of cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
1776      <br>
1777This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
1778multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1779perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1780The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
1781      </p>
1782      <br>
1783By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>- 1</i>), the number of cycles
1784depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
1785and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
1786for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
1787the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
1788      <br>
1789By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of cycles can be
1790fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
1791      <br>
1792      <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user must
1793examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
1794regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
1795sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
1796least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
1797both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
1798and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a good choice, for
1799non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
1800= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be sufficient.</td>
1801    </tr>
1802    <tr>
1803      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
1804level</b></td>
1805      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1806      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
1807      </td>
1808      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
1809level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
1810      <br>
1811In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
1812the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
1813the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
1814gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
1815The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
1816gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
1817It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
1818determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
1819this level.</td>
1820    </tr>
1821    <tr>
1822      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
1823      </td>
1824      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
1825      </td>
1826      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
1827      </td>
1828      <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files will have 64 bit offset format.<br><br>By
1829default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
1830GByte. Using netcdf_64bit = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
1831GByte.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>Some (PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
1832      </td>
1833    </tr>
1834<tr>
1835      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1836      <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
1837      </td>
1838      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1839      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
1840      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
1841level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
1842      <br>
1843In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
1844the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
1845the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
1846gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
1847The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
1848gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
1849It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
1850determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
1851this level.</td>
1852    </tr>
1853    <tr>
1854      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1855      <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
1856      </td>
1857      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1858      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
1859      </td>
1860      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1861      <p>Determines the subdomain from which the normalization
1862quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
1863      <p>If output data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
1864(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
1865is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
1866      <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
1867the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
1868the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
1869= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total domain. Instead
1870of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
1871subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>, where <i>1</i>
1872&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must hold. These
1873quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
1874of the total domain).</p>
1875      </td>
1876    </tr>
1877    <tr>
1878      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1879      <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
1880      </td>
1881      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1882      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
1883      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1884      <p>Number of iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
1885      <p>This parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
1886as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
1887= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>). The number of
1888iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
1889on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
1890runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
1891point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
1892SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
1893      </td>
1894    </tr>
1895    <tr>
1896      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1897      <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
1898      </td>
1899      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1900      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
1901      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1902     
1903     
1904      Limits the output of 3d volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br><br>By default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
1905can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
1906(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
1907output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software, see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
1908    </tr>
1909    <tr>
1910      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1911      <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
1912      </td>
1913      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1914      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
1915      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1916      <p>Convergence factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
1917      <p>If the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
1918= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>), this parameter
1919determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i> &lt;=
1920      <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>. The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
1921depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
1922space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
1923appropriate test runs.</p>
1924      </td>
1925    </tr>
1926   
1927   
1928   
1929   
1930   
1931   
1932   
1933   
1934    <tr>
1935      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1936      <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
1937      </td>
1938      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
1939      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
1940      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1941      <p>Ratio of the eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
1942      </p>
1943      <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
1944this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
1945/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
1946      </td>
1947    </tr>
1948    <tr>
1949      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1950      <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
1951      </td>
1952      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1953      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
1954      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1955      <p>Number of coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
1956      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It determines the layout of plots of
1957horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
1958when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
1959Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
1960plotted on one page are
1961determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>. <b>profile_columns</b>
1962determines how many panels are to be
1963arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
1964respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1965According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
1966the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
1967then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz &gt;
1968      <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>, the remaining
1969panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
1970then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set. If
1971row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
1972is reduced automatically.</p>
1973      </td>
1974    </tr>
1975    <tr>
1976      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1977      <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
1978      </td>
1979      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
1980      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
1981      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1982      <p>Number of rows of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
1983by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp; </p>
1984      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
1985profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
1986      </td>
1987    </tr>
1988    <tr>
1989      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1990      <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
1991      </td>
1992      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
1993      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
1994      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1995      <p>Scheme to be used to solve the Poisson equation for the
1996perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
1997      <br>
1998The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
1999      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2000        <tbody>
2001          <tr>
2002            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
2003            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
2004along x and y, solution of a
2005tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
2006FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
2007used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
2008This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
2009Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
2010          </tr>
2011          <tr>
2012            <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2013            <p><i>poisfft_</i> <br>
2014            <i>hybrid</i></p>
2015            </td>
2016            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
2017along x and y, solution of a
2018tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
2019FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
2020used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
2021This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
2022Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
2023          </tr>
2024          <tr>
2025            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
2026            <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2027            <p>Multi-grid scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
2028and
2029w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
2030are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
2031steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
2032the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
2033and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
2034to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
2035can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>. <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
2036The
2037smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
2038case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
2039            <br>
2040If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
2041is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
2042multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as the number of
2043grid points in the three directions
2044of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
2045where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n, </i>the
2046multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
2047its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
2048affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
2049always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
2050for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
2051because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
2052parameter.
2053            <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid points of
2054the
2055subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
2056of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
2057With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
2058data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
2059for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
2060be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
2061            <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
2062identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
2063            </td>
2064          </tr>
2065          <tr>
2066            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
2067            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over relaxation
2068method (SOR). The convergence of
2069this
2070iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
2071            <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
2072and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp; <br>
2073Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this scheme
2074needs substantially
2075more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
2076errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
2077          </tr>
2078        </tbody>
2079      </table>
2080      <br>
2081In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation is by default
2082only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
2083at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
2084      </td>
2085    </tr>
2086    <tr>
2087      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2088      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b> <br>
2089      <b>_factor</b></p>
2090      </td>
2091      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2092      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
2093      <i>0.01</i></td>
2094      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2095      <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
2096      <p>A so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
2097variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
2098If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
2099respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
2100damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
2101is assigned to.
2102The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
2103and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its maximum value
2104at
2105the top boundary. </p>
2106      <p>This method
2107effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
2108which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
2109reflected&nbsp; at the top
2110boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
2111switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
2112or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
2113Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
2114= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched off.&nbsp; </p>
2115      <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
2116&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
2117&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
2118numerical instabilities.</p>
2119      </td>
2120    </tr>
2121    <tr>
2122      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2123      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b> <br>
2124      <b>_height</b></p>
2125      </td>
2126      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2127      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2128      <p><i>2/3 *</i> <br><span style="font-style: italic;">
2129zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
2130      </td>
2131      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2132      <p>Height where the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p>
2133      <p>With Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
2134this parameter determines the range where damping is applied. By
2135default, Rayleigh damping will be applied in the upper third of the
2136model
2137domain.</p>
2138      </td>
2139    </tr>
2140    <tr>
2141      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2142      <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
2143      </td>
2144      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2145      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
2146      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2147      <p>Largest residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
2148      </p>
2149      <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the multi-grid
2150scheme (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
2151The assigned cycle (v- or w-cycle, see <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
2152is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If this
2153is not the case after 1000 cycles, the PALM aborts with a corresponding
2154error message.</p>
2155      <p>The reciprocal value of this parameter can be interpreted as
2156a factor by the divergence of the provisional
2157velocity field is approximately reduced after the multi-grid scheme has
2158been applied (thus the default value causes a reduction of the
2159divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p>
2160      </td>
2161    </tr>
2162    <tr>
2163      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2164      <p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
2165      </td>
2166      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2167      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
2168      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2169      <p>Simulated time after which a restart run is to be carried out
2170(in s). </p>
2171      <p>The simulated time refers to the beginning of the
2172initial run (t = 0), not to the beginning of the respective
2173restart run. Restart runs can additionally be forced to be carried out
2174in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>.
2175      </p>
2176      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
2177A successful operation of this parameter requires additional
2178modifications in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-call
2179for the respective run (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
21803.3</a>).<br>
2181      </p>
2182      <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b> or <b>dt_restart</b> does
2183not override the automatic start of restart runs in case that the job
2184runs out of CPU time. <br>
2185      </p>
2186      </td>
2187    </tr>
2188    <tr>
2189      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2190      <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
2191      </td>
2192      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
2193      </td>
2194      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
2195      </td>
2196      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2197      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font>
2198      </p>
2199
2200     
2201     
2202
2203     
2204      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
2205horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
2206define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
2207cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xy</b>
2208the
2209corresponding vertical grid point index/indices k of the requested
2210cross section(s). The exact location (height level) of the cross
2211section depends on the variable for which the output is made: zu(k) for
2212scalars and horizontal velocities, zw(k) for the vertical velocity.
2213Information about the exact location of the cross section is contained
2214in the NetCDF output file (if the default NetCDF output is switched on;
2215see <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>).</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2216creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In the
2217NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
2218does not effect the output of horizontal cross sections of variable u<sub>*</sub>
2219and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For these quantities always only one cross
2220section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
2221= <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>), then the respective data are
2222successively written to file. The output order follows the order given
2223by <b>section_xy</b>.&nbsp;</font></span></td>
2224    </tr>
2225    <tr>
2226      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2227      <p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
2228      </td>
2229      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
2230      </td>
2231      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
2232      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2233      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point index j).&nbsp; </font>
2234      </p>
2235
2236      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
2237vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this parameter can be used to
2238define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
2239cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b> the
2240corresponding horizontal grid point index/indices j of the requested
2241cross section(s). The exact position (in y-direction) of the cross
2242section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>) no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all positions.<br><br>Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2243creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along y. In the
2244NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
2245y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
2246selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>, <i>27</i>),
2247then the respective data are successively written to file. The output
2248order follows the order given by <b>section_xz</b>.</font></span></td>
2249    </tr>
2250    <tr>
2251      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2252      <p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
2253      </td>
2254      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
2255      </td>
2256      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
2257      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2258      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point index i).&nbsp; </font>
2259      </p>
2260
2261      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
2262vertical yz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
2263this parameter can be used to define the position(s) of the cross
2264section(s). Up to 100 positions of cross sections can be selected by
2265assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal grid point
2266index/indices i of the requested cross section(s). The exact position
2267(in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a>
2268      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>) no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all positions.<br><br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2269creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along x. In the
2270NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br></font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
2271selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>,
2272      <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
2273respective data are successively written to file. The output order
2274follows the order given by <b>section_yz</b>.</font></span></td>
2275    </tr>
2276    <tr>
2277      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
2278      </td>
2279      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2280      </td>
2281      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
2282      </td>
2283      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2284parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2285(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By default, this
2286applies for output of instantaneous 3d volume data, cross section data,
2287spectra and vertical profile data as well as for temporally averaged 2d
2288and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br>
2289      </td>
2290    </tr>
2291    <tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td><td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span></td><td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2292parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2293(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td></tr><tr>
2294      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
2295      </td>
2296      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2297      </td>
2298      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
2299      </td>
2300      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2301parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2302(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
2303      </td>
2304    </tr>
2305   
2306    <tr>
2307      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
2308      </td>
2309      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2310      </td>
2311      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
2312      </td>
2313      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2314parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2315(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
2316      </td>
2317    </tr>
2318    <tr>
2319      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
2320      </td>
2321      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2322      </td>
2323      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
2324      </td>
2325      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2326parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2327(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
2328      </td>
2329    </tr>
2330    <tr>
2331      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
2332      </td>
2333      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2334      </td>
2335      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
2336      </td>
2337      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2338parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2339(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
2340      </td>
2341    </tr>
2342    <tr>
2343      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
2344      </td>
2345      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2346      </td>
2347      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>data_output</a></span>
2348      </td>
2349      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br><br>This
2350parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before this interval
2351(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>If the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.
2352      </td>
2353    </tr>
2354<tr>
2355      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2356      <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b> <br>
2357      <b>_needed</b></p>
2358      </td>
2359      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2360      </td>
2361      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br>
2362      </td>
2363      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2364      <p>CPU time needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
2365batch mode (in s).<br>
2366      </p>
2367      <p>If the environment variable <b>write_binary </b>is
2368set <i>true</i> (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
23693.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after each
2370timestep. Time integration must not consume the CPU time completely,
2371since several actions still have to be carried out after time
2372integration has finished (e.g. writing of binary data for the restart
2373run, carrying out output commands, copying of local files to their
2374permanent destinations, etc.) which also takes some time. The maximum
2375possible time needed for these activities plus a reserve is to be given
2376with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among other things,
2377it depends on
2378the number of grid points used. If its value is selected too small,
2379then the
2380respective job will be prematurely aborted by the queuing system, which
2381may result in a data loss and will possibly interrupt the job chain.<br>
2382      </p>
2383      <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span> is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span> and if moreover the job has
2384been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b> option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>.
2385      <i><br>
2386      </i> </p>
2387      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
2388On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of PALM
2389have also to be accounted for (e.g. for
2390compilation and copying of input files).</p>
2391      </td>
2392    </tr>
2393    <tr>
2394      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2395      <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
2396      <br>
2397      <b>_parameters</b></p>
2398      </td>
2399      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
2400      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
2401      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2402      <p>Additional plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> from preceding runs of the
2403job chain.&nbsp; </p>
2404      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>By default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
2405(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2406only contain profiles of data produced by the model
2407run. If profiles of prior times (i.e. data of preceding jobs of a
2408job chain) shall be plotted additionally (e.g. for comparison
2409purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>. must be
2410set.<br>
2411      </p>
2412      <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
24134.5.2</a>.</p>
2414      </td>
2415    </tr>
2416   
2417    <tr>
2418      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2419      <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
2420      </td>
2421      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2422      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model top)</i></td>
2423      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2424      <p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
2425be
2426plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (in
2427m).&nbsp; </p>
2428      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
2429(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2430when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
2431By default, profiles are plotted up to the top boundary. The height
2432level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller value.
2433Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> vertical
2434grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are still output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.</p>
2435      <p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
2436has no effect. Instead, <a href="#z_max_do1d_normalized">z_max_do1d_normalized</a>
2437must be used.</p>
2438      </td>
2439    </tr>
2440    <tr>
2441      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2442      <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b> <br>
2443      <b>_normalized</b></p>
2444      </td>
2445      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2446      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i> <br>
2447      <i>data</i> <br>
2448      </td>
2449      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2450      <p>Normalized height level up to which horizontally averaged
2451profiles are to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
2452      </p>
2453      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
2454(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
2455when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>,
2456if a normalization for the vertical axis is selected
2457(see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>).
2458If e.g. the boundary layer height is used for normalization, then <b>z_max_do1d_normalized</b>
2459= <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height level of z =
24601.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p>
2461      </td>
2462    </tr>
2463    <tr>
2464      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2465      <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
2466      </td>
2467      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2468      </td>
2469      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br>
2470      </td>
2471      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2472      <p>Height level up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
2473with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2474(in m).&nbsp; </p>
2475      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p><p>It affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
2476sections (<a href="#data_output">data_output</a>)
2477when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>. By
2478default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d </b>the
2479visualization within
2480the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z &lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
2481Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span> grid points
2482of the complete cross section are still output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>
2483or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
2484The level up to which the section is visualized can later be changed by
2485manually editing the
2486file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>
2487or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>
2488(the respective <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>-parameter
2489is <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html#YRIGHT">yright</a>).</p>
2490      </td>
2491    </tr>
2492  </tbody>
2493</table>
2494<br>
2495<br>
2496<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Paketparameter"></a>Package
2497parameters: </h3>
2498Package (<span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span> option -p): <span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="particles_package"></a>particles</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
2499NAMELIST group name: <span style="font-weight: bold;">particles_par<br>
2500</span>
2501<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2502  <tbody>
2503    <tr>
2504      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
2505      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
2506      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2507      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
2508      <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
2509      </td>
2510      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2511      <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
2512      </td>
2513    </tr>
2514    <tr>
2515      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2516      <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
2517      </td>
2518      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2519      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
2520      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2521      <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
2522interval at
2523which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from a particle
2524source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp; </font> </p>
2525      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
2526particles are released only at the beginning of a simulation
2527(t_init=0). The time of the first release (t_init) can be changed with
2528package parameter </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><font><a href="#particle_advection_start"><font face="Thorndale, serif">particle_advection_start</font></a>.
2529      </font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>. If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span> has been set, additional
2530releases will be at t = t_init+<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
2531t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>, t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>, etc.. Actual release times
2532may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
2533      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
2534of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source
2535      </font></span>as well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
2536within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
2537      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By default, one particle is released at all points defined by these parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a> can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
2538</font></span></p>
2539      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
2540different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">) where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
2541to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
2542identical for all groups of particles.</font></span></p>Subgrid
2543scale velocities can (optionally) be included for calculating the
2544particle advection, using the method of Weil et al. (2004, JAS, 61,
25452877-2887). This method is switched on by the package
2546parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>. This also forces the Euler/upstream method to be used for time advancement of the TKE (see initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#use_upstream_for_tke">use_upstream_for_tke</a>). The minimum timestep during the sub-timesteps is controlled by package parameter <a href="#dt_min_part">dt_min_part</a>. <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By
2547default, particles are weightless and transported passively with the
2548resolved scale flow. Particles can be given a mass and thus an inertia
2549by assigning the
2550package parameter </font></span><a href="#density_ratio"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">density_ratio</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> a non-zero value (it
2551defines the ratio of the density of the fluid and the density of the
2552particles). In these cases their </font></span><a href="#radius"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">radius</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">
2553must also be defined, which affects their flow resistance. </font></span><a href="#diameter"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span> </p>
2554      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Boundary
2555conditions for the particle transport can be defined with package
2556parameters </font></span><a href="#bc_par_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_t</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#bc_par_lr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_lr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="bc_par_ns"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_ns</font></span></a>
2557      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#bc_par_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_b</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span></p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Timeseries of particle quantities in NetCDF format can be output to local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a> by using package parameter <a href="#dt_dopts">dt_dopts</a>.<br></font></span><p>For analysis, additional output of
2558particle
2559information in equidistant temporal intervals can be carried out using <a href="#dt_write_particle_data">dt_write_particle_data</a>
2560(file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>).<br>
2561      </p>
2562      <p><span style="font-family: thorndale,serif;">Statistical
2563informations</span> (e.g. the total number of particles used, the
2564number of particles exchanged between the PEs, etc.) are output to the
2565local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_INFOS</a>,
2566if switched on by the parameter <a href="#write_particle_statistics">write_particle_statistics</a>.
2567      <br>
2568      </p>
2569      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">If a job
2570chain is to be carried out, particle
2571informations </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">for the restart run (e.g. current location of
2572all
2573particles at the end of the
2574run) is output to
2575the local file</font></span> <font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a><font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font>, <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">which must be saved at the
2576end of the run <tt><span lang="en-GB"></span></tt>and given as an
2577input file to the restart run
2578under local file name</font></span> <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>
2579u<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">sing respective file
2580connection statements in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2581configuration file.
2582      </font></span>
2583      <span lang="en-GB"></span></p><p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The output of
2584particles for visualization with the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> is steered by the package
2585parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dvrp</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. For visualization
2586purposes particles can be given a
2587diameter by the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dvrp_psize">dvrp_psize</a>
2588(this diameter only affects the visualization). All particles have the
2589same size. Alternatively, particles can be given an individual size and
2590a </span>color
2591      <span lang="en-GB">by modifying the user-interface (subroutine</span></font>
2592      <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>)<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Particles can pull a
2593&ldquo;tail&rdquo; behind themselves to improve their visualization.
2594This is steered via the parameter&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#use_particle_tails">use_particle_tails</a>.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#maximum_number_of_tailpoints"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></p>
2595      <span lang="en-GB"></span><p><b>So far, the particle transport realized in PALM does only
2596work
2597duly in case of a constant vertical grid spacing!</b></p>
2598      </td>
2599    </tr>
2600    <tr>
2601      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2602      <p><a name="bc_par_b"></a><b>bc_par_b</b></p>
2603      </td>
2604      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2605      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i></td>
2606      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2607      <p>Bottom boundary condition for particle transport. </p>
2608      <p>By default, particles are reflected at the bottom boundary.
2609Alternatively, a particle absorption can set by <b>bc_par_b</b>
2610= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>.</p>
2611      </td>
2612    </tr>
2613    <tr>
2614      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2615      <p><a name="bc_par_lr"></a><b>bc_par_lr</b></p>
2616      </td>
2617      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2618      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
2619      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2620      <p>Lateral boundary condition (x-direction) for particle
2621transport. </p>
2622      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions are used along x.
2623Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
2624= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_lr</b> = <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
2625can be set. <br>
2626      </p>
2627      <p>This lateral boundary conditions should correspond to the
2628lateral boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).</p>
2629      </td>
2630    </tr>
2631    <tr>
2632      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2633      <p><a name="bc_par_ns"></a><b>bc_par_ns</b></p>
2634      </td>
2635      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2636      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
2637      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2638      <p>Lateral boundary condition (y-direction) for particle
2639transport. </p>
2640      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions are used along y.
2641Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
2642= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_ns</b> = <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
2643can be set.<br>
2644      </p>
2645This lateral boundary conditions should correspond to the lateral
2646boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</td>
2647    </tr>
2648    <tr>
2649      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2650      <p><a name="bc_par_t"></a><b>bc_par_t</b></p>
2651      </td>
2652      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
2653      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i></td>
2654      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2655      <p>Top boundary condition for particle transport. </p>
2656      <p>By default, particles are absorbed at the top boundary.
2657Alternatively, a reflection condition can be set by <b>bc_par_t</b>
2658= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>.</p>
2659      </td>
2660    </tr>
2661    <tr>
2662      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2663      <p><a name="density_ratio"></a><b>density_ratio</b></p>
2664      </td>
2665      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
2666      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2667      <p><i>0.0, 9</i> *<br>
2668      <i>9999999.9</i></p>
2669      </td>
2670      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2671      <p>Ratio of the density of the fluid and the density of the
2672particles. </p>
2673      <p>With the default value<i> </i>the
2674particles are weightless and transported passively with the resolved
2675scale flow.
2676In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">density_ratio</span> /=
26770.0 particles have a mass and hence inertia so that their velocity
2678deviates more or less from the velocity of the surrounding flow.
2679Particle velocity is calculated analytically and depends on (besides
2680the density ratio and the current velocity difference between particles
2681and surrounding fluid) the
2682particle radius which is determined via <a href="#radius">radius</a>
2683as well as on the molecular viscosity (assumed as 1.461E-5 m<sup>2</sup>/s).
2684      </p>
2685      <p>If <b>density_ratio</b> = <i>1.0</i>, the particle density
2686corresponds to the density of the surrounding fluid and the particles
2687do not feel any buoyancy. Otherwise, particles will be accelerated
2688upwards (<b>density_ratio</b> &gt; <i>1.0</i>)
2689or downwards (<b>density_ratio</b> &lt; <i>1.0</i>).<br>
2690</p>
2691      <p>
2692With several groups of particles (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups">number_of_particle_groups</a>), each group can be assigned a different value. If the number of values given for <span style="font-weight: bold;">density_ratio</span> is less than the number of
2693groups defined by <span style="font-weight: bold;">number_of_particle_groups</span>,
2694then the last assigned value is used for all remaining groups. This
2695means that by default the particle density ratio for all groups will be <span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span>.</p>
2696
2697     
2698      </td>
2699    </tr>
2700   
2701    <tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="dt_dopts"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopts</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><i>value of &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>output</a></i></td><td align="left" valign="top"><p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font> at which time series data of particle quantities shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
2702      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If particle advection is switched on (see</font></span><font><span style="font-family: thorndale;"> <a href="#dt_prel">dt_prel</a>) this parameter can be used to assign
2703th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
2704interval at which time series of particle quantities shall be output. Output is written in NetCDF format on local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a>.<br><br>The
2705following list gives a short description of the&nbsp;quantities
2706available. Most quantities are averages over all particles. The
2707quantity name given in the first column is identical to the respective
2708name of the variable on the NetCDF file (see section <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> for a general description of the NetCDF files).<br><br>In case of using more than one particle group (see <a href="#number_of_particle_groups">number_of_particle_groups</a>),
2709seperate time series are output for each of the groups. The long names
2710of the variables in the NetCDF file containing the respective
2711timeseries all end with the string</font><span style="font-style: italic; font-family: monospace;">' PG ##'</span><font face="Thorndale">, where ## is the number of the particle group (<span style="font-style: italic;">01</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">02</span>, etc.). <br>&nbsp;</font></span><table style="text-align: left; width: 631px; height: 652px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">tnpt</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">total number of particles</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle x-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle y-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">particle z-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to the particle origin (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_abs</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">absolute particle z-coordinate (in m)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">u particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale u  particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale v  particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w"</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">subgrid-scale w  particle velocity component (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_up</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">total number of upward moving particles</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w_up</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">vertical velocity of the upward moving particles (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w_down</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">vertical velocity of the downward moving particles (in m/s)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_max</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">maximum number of particles in a subdomain (=tnpt for non-parallel runs)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">npt_min</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">minimum number of particles in a subdomain (=tnpt for non-parallel runs)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the particle x-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">x_ </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the particle y-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">y_</span> (in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the particle z-coordinate&nbsp;with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">z_</span> (in m<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u*2</span></td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the u particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the v particle velocity component with respect to&nbsp;<span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the w particle velocity component with respect to&nbsp;<span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">u"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the subgrid-scale u particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">u" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">v"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the subgrid-scale v particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">v" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">w"2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the subgrid-scale w particle velocity component with respect to <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">w" </span>(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)</td></tr><tr><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">npt*2</td><td align="undefined" valign="undefined">variance of the number of particles with respect to the average number of particles per subdomain</td></tr></tbody></table><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></td></tr><tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="dt_min_part"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_min_part</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0002</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">Minimum value for the particle timestep when SGS velocities are used (in s).<br><br>For a further explanation see package parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>.</td></tr><tr>
2712      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2713      <p><a name="dt_write_particle_data"></a><b>dt_write_particle_</b>
2714      <b>data</b></p>
2715      </td>
2716      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2717      </td>
2718      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
2719      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2720      <p>Temporal interval for output of particle data (in s). </p>
2721      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
2722parameter can be used to
2723assign the temporal interval at which particle data shall be output.</font></span>
2724Data are output to
2725the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>.
2726      <span style="font-family: mon;">See the file description for more
2727details about its format</span>. </p>
2728      <p>By default, no particle data are output.</p>
2729      </td>
2730    </tr>
2731    <tr>
2732      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2733      <p><a name="dvrp_psize"></a><b>dvrp_psize</b></p>
2734      </td>
2735      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2736      </td>
2737      <td style="vertical-align: top;">0.2 * dx<br>
2738      </td>
2739      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2740      <p>Diameter that the particles is given in visualizations with
2741the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> software (in
2742m).&nbsp; </p>
2743      <p>In case that particles are visualized with the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> software (see <a href="chapter_4.5.7.html">chapter
27444.5.7</a>), their size can be set by parameter <b>dvrp_psize</b>. All
2745particles are displayed with this same size.<br>
2746      </p>
2747      <p>Alternatively, the particle diameters can be set with the
2748user-interface in routine <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>
2749(at the beginning of the simulation) and/or can be redefined after each
2750timestep in routine <tt>user<font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">_particle_attributes</font></tt>
2751(both routines can be found in file <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">user_interface.f90</font></tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">)</font>.&nbsp;</p>
2752      <p><b>Note:</b> This parameter determines exclusively the size
2753under which particles appear in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>
2754visualization. The flow relevant particle radius is determined via the particle package parameter <a href="#radius">radius</a>!</p>
2755      </td>
2756    </tr>
2757    <tr><td align="left" valign="top"><a name="end_time_prel"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time_prel</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">R</td><td align="left" valign="top"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td><td align="left" valign="top">Time of the last release of particles (in s).<br><br>See also <a href="#particle_advection_start">particle_advection_start</a>.</td></tr><tr>
2758      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="initial_weighting_factor"></a>initial_weighting_factor</span></td>
2759      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
2760      </td>
2761      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span><br>
2762      </td>
2763      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Factor to define the real number of initial droplets in a grid box.<br>
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775      <br>
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787In case of explicitly simulating cloud droplets (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>),
2788the real number of initial droplets in a grid box is equal to the
2789initial number of droplets in this box (defined by the particle source
2790parameters <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></