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22  <title>PALM chapter 4.2</title>
23</head>
24
25
26<body>
27
28
29
30
31<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
32parameters</a>, <a href="#particle_parameters">particle parameters</a>, and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
33parameters</a></h3>
34
35
36
37
38
39<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
40
41
42
43
44
45<br>
46
47
48
49
50<br>
51
52
53
54
55<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
56
57
58
59
60 <tbody>
61
62
63
64
65
66    <tr>
67
68
69
70
71
72      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
73name</b></font></td>
74
75
76
77
78 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
79
80
81
82
83
84      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
85     
86     
87     
88     
89      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
90
91
92
93
94 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
95
96
97
98
99 </td>
100
101
102
103
104
105      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
106
107
108
109
110
111    </tr>
112
113
114
115
116 <tr>
117
118
119
120
121 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
122
123
124
125
126
127      </td>
128
129
130
131
132 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
133
134
135
136
137 </td>
138
139
140
141
142
143      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
144
145
146
147
148 </td>
149
150
151
152
153
154      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
155all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br>
156
157
158
159
160      <br>
161
162
163
164
165This
166parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
167(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
168default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
169interval
170length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
171In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
172&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
173must hold.<br>
174
175
176
177
178      <br>
179
180
181
182
183If
184an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
185the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
186of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
187parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br>
188
189
190
191
192      <br>
193
194
195
196
197If
198an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
199will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
200restart runs, averaging intervals do not
201necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br>
202
203
204
205
206      <br>
207
208
209
210
211Parameters
212      <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
213and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
214can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
215profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
216
217
218
219
220 </td>
221
222
223
224
225 </tr>
226
227
228
229
230
231    <tr>
232
233
234
235
236 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
237     
238     
239     
240     
241      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
242
243
244
245
246
247      </td>
248
249
250
251
252 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
253
254
255
256
257 </td>
258
259
260
261
262
263      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
264
265
266
267
268
269interval</a><br>
270
271
272
273
274
275      </span> </td>
276
277
278
279
280 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
281     
282     
283     
284     
285      <p>Averaging
286interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
287local
288file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
289      </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
290(in s).&nbsp; </p>
291
292
293
294
295 
296     
297     
298     
299     
300      <p>If
301this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
302averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
303data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
304limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
305In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
306      </b>must
307hold.</p>
308
309
310
311
312If an interval is defined, then by default the average
313is calculated
314from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
315number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
316parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
317     
318     
319     
320     
321      <p>If
322an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
323be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
324runs, averaging intervals do not
325necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
326
327
328
329
330 </td>
331
332
333
334
335 </tr>
336
337
338
339
340
341    <tr>
342
343
344
345
346 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
347
348
349
350
351
352substeps</span></td>
353
354
355
356
357 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
358
359
360
361
362
363      </td>
364
365
366
367
368 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
369
370
371
372
373 </td>
374
375
376
377
378
379      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
380to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
381
382
383
384
385 <br>
386
387
388
389
390
391In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
392pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
393be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
394timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
395by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
396= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
397In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
398field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
399case and in case
400of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
401= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
402should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
403
404
405
406
407
408    </tr>
409
410
411
412
413 <tr>
414
415
416
417
418 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
419     
420     
421     
422     
423      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
424
425
426
427
428
429      </td>
430
431
432
433
434 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
435
436
437
438
439 </td>
440
441
442
443
444
445      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
446     
447     
448     
449     
450      <p><i>0.1,
4510.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
452
453
454
455
456 <i>(see right)</i></p>
457
458
459
460
461
462      </td>
463
464
465
466
467 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
468     
469     
470     
471     
472      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
473
474
475
476
477
478     
479     
480     
481     
482      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
483allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
484diffusion-criterion
485dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
486dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
487in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
488the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
489&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
490&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
491
492
493
494
495 </span></p>
496
497
498
499
500
501     
502     
503     
504     
505      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
506cfl_factor depends on
507the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
508
509
510
511
512 </span></p>
513
514
515
516
517 
518     
519     
520     
521     
522      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
523is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
524
525
526
527
528 </span></p>
529
530
531
532
533 
534     
535     
536     
537     
538      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
539restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
540= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
541divergence
542significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
543be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
544appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
545
546
547
548
549
550      </span></span></p>
551
552
553
554
555 <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
556scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
557= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
558
559
560
561
562
563    </tr>
564
565
566
567
568    <tr>
569
570
571
572
573 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
574     
575     
576     
577     
578      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
579
580
581
582
583
584      </td>
585
586
587
588
589 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
590
591
592
593
594 </td>
595
596
597
598
599
600      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
601
602
603
604
605 </td>
606
607
608
609
610
611      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
612     
613     
614     
615     
616      <p>Switch to
617impose random perturbations to the horizontal
618velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
619
620
621
622
623 
624     
625     
626     
627     
628      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
629= <i>.T.,</i> random
630perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
631certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
632etc..<br>
633
634
635
636
637 </p>
638
639
640
641
642 
643     
644     
645     
646     
647      <p>The temporal interval between
648these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
649the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
650and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
651and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
652In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
653and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
654the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
655and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
656A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
657determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
658distributed random number.
659After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
660Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
661solver.<br>
662
663
664
665
666 </p>
667
668
669
670
671 
672     
673     
674     
675     
676      <p>The random number generator to
677be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
678
679
680
681
682
683      </p>
684
685
686
687
688 
689     
690     
691     
692     
693      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
694developed
695(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
696perturbations
697is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
698lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
699an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
700energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
701using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
702As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
703more random perturbations are assigned<br>
704
705
706
707
708
709.&nbsp; <br>
710
711
712
713
714
715Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
716the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
717by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
718velocities. </p>
719
720
721
722
723 </td>
724
725
726
727
728 </tr>
729
730
731
732
733 <tr>
734
735
736
737
738 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
739     
740     
741     
742     
743      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
744
745
746
747
748
749      </td>
750
751
752
753
754 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
755      <br>
756
757
758
759
760&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
761
762
763
764
765 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
766
767
768
769
770
771      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
772     
773     
774     
775     
776      <p>Type of
777normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
778profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
779
780
781
782
783
784     
785     
786     
787     
788      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
789= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
790
791
792
793
794     
795     
796     
797     
798      <p>If
799vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
800local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
801parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
802the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
803certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
804a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
805profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
806are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
807temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
808then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
809accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
810then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
811is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
812
813
814
815
816 </p>
817
818
819
820
821
822     
823     
824     
825     
826      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
827horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
828used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
829Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
830subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
831(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
832domain).&nbsp; </p>
833
834
835
836
837 
838     
839     
840     
841     
842      <p>The user can choose between
843the following normalization
844quantities: <br>
845
846
847
848
849 </p>
850
851
852
853
854 
855     
856     
857     
858     
859      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
860
861
862
863
864 <tbody>
865
866
867
868
869 <tr>
870
871
872
873
874 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
875
876
877
878
879
880            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
881respect
882to the total surface sensible heat
883flux (k=0 ).</td>
884
885
886
887
888 </tr>
889
890
891
892
893 <tr>
894
895
896
897
898 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
899
900
901
902
903
904            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
905respect
906to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
907(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
908
909
910
911
912
913          </tr>
914
915
916
917
918 <tr>
919
920
921
922
923 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
924
925
926
927
928
929            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
930respect
931to the square of the characteristic
932temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
933as ratio of
934the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
935
936
937
938
939 </tr>
940
941
942
943
944
945          <tr>
946
947
948
949
950 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
951
952
953
954
955
956            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
957respect
958to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
959
960
961
962
963 </tr>
964
965
966
967
968
969          <tr>
970
971
972
973
974 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
975
976
977
978
979
980            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
981respect
982to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
983(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
984
985
986
987
988
989          </tr>
990
991
992
993
994 <tr>
995
996
997
998
999 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
1006respect
1007to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
1008(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014          </tr>
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019 
1020       
1021       
1022       
1023       
1024        </tbody> 
1025     
1026     
1027     
1028     
1029      </table>
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034 
1035     
1036     
1037     
1038     
1039      <p>For each
1040coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
1041an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
1042      <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
1043then the
1044x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
1045and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
1046Data
1047of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
1048normalized.&nbsp; </p>
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053 
1054     
1055     
1056     
1057     
1058      <p>Using a normalization
1059leaves all vertical profile data on
1060local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
1061unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
1062normalization is steered
1063by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
1064which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
1065(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071&nbsp;<br>
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
1078respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084      </td>
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089 </tr>
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094 <tr>
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1100     
1101     
1102     
1103     
1104      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110      </td>
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
1116      <br>
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1133     
1134     
1135     
1136     
1137      <p>Type of
1138normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
1139profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145     
1146     
1147     
1148     
1149      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1150= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155     
1156     
1157     
1158     
1159      <p>If
1160vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
1161local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
1162parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1163the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
1164certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
1165the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
1166comparability. </p>
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171 
1172     
1173     
1174     
1175     
1176      <p>The user can choose between the
1177following normalization
1178quantities: <br>
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183 </p>
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188 
1189     
1190     
1191     
1192     
1193      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198 <tbody>
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203 <tr>
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
1215respect
1216to the boundary layer height
1217(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
1218value).</td>
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223 </tr>
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228 
1229       
1230       
1231       
1232       
1233        </tbody> 
1234     
1235     
1236     
1237     
1238      </table>
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243 
1244     
1245     
1246     
1247     
1248      <p>For
1249further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255      </td>
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260 </tr>
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265 <tr>
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1271     
1272     
1273     
1274     
1275      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281      </td>
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
1287      <br>
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302 </td>
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1309     
1310     
1311     
1312     
1313      <p>Determines
1314which vertical profiles are to be presented in
1315which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
1316&nbsp; </p>
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321 
1322     
1323     
1324     
1325     
1326      <p>This parameter only applies for
1327&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1328= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333     
1334     
1335     
1336     
1337      <p>The
1338default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343 
1344     
1345     
1346     
1347     
1348      <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
1349=&nbsp; </p>
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354 
1355     
1356     
1357     
1358     
1359      <ul>
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364 
1365       
1366       
1367       
1368       
1369        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1370u v ',</span><br>
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
1376',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1382w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1388w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
1394kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
1400,</span><br>
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
140614 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
1407'</span></p>
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412 
1413     
1414     
1415     
1416     
1417      </ul>
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422 
1423     
1424     
1425     
1426     
1427      <p>If plot output of
1428vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
1429the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
1430Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
1431which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
1432program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
1433The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
1434determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
1435which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
1436expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
1437coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
1438drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
1439names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1440The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
1441must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
1442string.&nbsp; </p>
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447 
1448     
1449     
1450     
1451     
1452      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457 
1458     
1459     
1460     
1461     
1462      <ul>
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468       
1469       
1470       
1471       
1472        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
1473' pt '</span></p>
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478 
1479     
1480     
1481     
1482     
1483      </ul>
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488 
1489     
1490     
1491     
1492     
1493      <p>In this case the
1494plot consists of two coordinate systems
1495(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
1496velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
1497and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
1498of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
1499and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
1500(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506      </p>
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511 
1512     
1513     
1514     
1515     
1516      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
1517depends on
1518whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
1519(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1520For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
1521then
1522the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
1523temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
1524to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
1525then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
1526but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531 </p>
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
1538with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
1539and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1540Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
1541distributed on several pages).</td>
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546 </tr>
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551 <tr>
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1557     
1558     
1559     
1560     
1561      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567      </td>
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
1573      <br>
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588 </td>
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1595     
1596     
1597     
1598     
1599      <p>x-axis labels
1600of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
1601plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1602      </p>
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607 
1608     
1609     
1610     
1611     
1612      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1613= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618     
1619     
1620     
1621     
1622      <p>The
1623default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628 
1629     
1630     
1631     
1632     
1633      <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
1634=&nbsp; </p>
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639 
1640     
1641     
1642     
1643     
1644      <ul>
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649 
1650       
1651       
1652       
1653       
1654        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
1655ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
1661K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
1668ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673 <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
1674m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679 <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
1680m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685 <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
1686        <br>
1687
1688
1689
1690
169114 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697     
1698     
1699     
1700     
1701      </ul>
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706 
1707     
1708     
1709     
1710     
1711      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
1712labels to vertical
1713profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
1714of vertical
1715profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
1722      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
1723according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
1724and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729 
1730     
1731     
1732     
1733     
1734      <p>Umlauts
1735are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
1736well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
1737each
1738character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
1739plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745      </td>
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750 </tr>
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755 <tr>
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1761     
1762     
1763     
1764     
1765      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771      </td>
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1789     
1790     
1791     
1792     
1793      <p>Type of cycle
1794to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799 
1800     
1801     
1802     
1803     
1804      <p>This
1805parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
1806the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1807perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1808It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
1809grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
1810may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
1811The
1812computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
1813however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818 </td>
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824    </tr>
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829 <tr>
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1835     
1836     
1837     
1838     
1839      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845      </td>
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856      </td>
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867      </td>
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
1873for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br>
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878      <br>
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883PALM
1884allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
1885averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
1886parameter (see below).<br>
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891      <br>
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896By default, cross section
1897data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
1898below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
1899      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
1900and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
1901Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
1902If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
1903these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1904      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1905      <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1906and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1907respectively.<br>
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912      <br>
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917The
1918filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
1919Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
1920dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
1921format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
1922"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
1923the PALM NetCDF data.<br>
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928      <br>
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933The following quantities are
1934available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br>
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939      <br>
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944     
1945     
1946     
1947     
1948      <table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953        <tbody>
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958          <tr>
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
1964name</span></td>
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969            <td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td>
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td>
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td>
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984          </tr>
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989          <tr>
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td>
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999            <td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td>
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004            <td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td>
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009            <td></td>
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014          </tr>
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019          <tr>
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td>
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td>
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2040is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2041= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046          </tr>
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051          <tr>
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td>
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
2062pressure</td>
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067            <td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
2068Pa</td>
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078          </tr>
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083          <tr>
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td>
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
2094concentration</td>
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099            <td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td>
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2105advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2106"-p particles"</td>
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111          </tr>
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116          <tr>
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td>
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
2127particle/droplet radius </td>
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
2138advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
2139"-p particles"</td>
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144          </tr>
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149          <tr>
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td>
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td>
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td>
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2170is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2171= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td>
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176          </tr>
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181          <tr>
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td>
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td>
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td>
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2202is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
2203= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208          </tr>
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213          <tr>
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td>
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
2224temperature<br>
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229            </td>
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244          </tr>
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249          <tr>
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td>
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
2260(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td>
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275          </tr>
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280          <tr>
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td>
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
2291content</td>
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2302= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
2303or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2304= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309          </tr>
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314          <tr>
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td>
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
2325water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td>
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2336= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341          </tr>
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346          <tr>
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td>
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
2357water</td>
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td>
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2368= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373          </tr>
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378          <tr>
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td>
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td>
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
2399= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404          </tr>
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409          <tr>
2410
2411            <td>qsws*</td>
2412
2413            <td>latent&nbsp;surface heatflux</td>
2414
2415            <td>kg/kg * m/s</td>
2416
2417            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed, requires humidity = .TRUE. </td>
2418
2419          </tr>
2420
2421          <tr>
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td>
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
2432content (specific humidity)</td>
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2443= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448          </tr>
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453          <tr>
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td>
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td>
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2474= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479          </tr>
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484          <tr>
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td>
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
2495the scalar</td>
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500            <td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td>
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
2506= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511          </tr>
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516          <tr>
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td>
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td>
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td>
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
2537= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542          </tr>
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547          <tr>
2548
2549            <td>shf*</td>
2550
2551            <td>sensible surface heatflux</td>
2552
2553            <td>K m/s</td>
2554
2555            <td>only horizontal cross section is allowed</td>
2556
2557          </tr>
2558
2559          <tr>
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td>
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2570characteristic temperature</td>
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2581is allowed</td>
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586          </tr>
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591          <tr>
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td>
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
2602the velocity</td>
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617          </tr>
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622          <tr>
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td>
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
2633friction velocity</td>
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
2644is allowed</td>
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649          </tr>
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654          <tr>
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td>
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
2665the velocity</td>
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680          </tr>
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685          <tr>
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td>
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
2696temperature</td>
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711          </tr>
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716          <tr>
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td>
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
2727the velocity</td>
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742          </tr>
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747          <tr>
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td>
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757            <td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td>
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767            <td></td>
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772          </tr>
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777       
2778       
2779       
2780       
2781        </tbody>
2782     
2783     
2784     
2785     
2786      </table>
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791      <br>
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796Multiple
2797quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
2798= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br>
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803      <br>
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808By
2809assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
2810output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
2811respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
2812appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
2813      </span>(for
2814cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
2815section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
2816along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
2817Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
2818order:<br>
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823      <br>
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828Example:<br>
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833      <br>
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838     
2839     
2840     
2841     
2842      <div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br>
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847      </div>
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852      <br>
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857This
2858example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
2859of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
2860averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
2861DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
2862w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
2863temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
2864temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br>
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869      <br>
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874The
2875user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
2876own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br>
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881      <br>
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886The
2887time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
2888This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
2889time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
2890be
2891declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br>
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896      <br>
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901Also,
2902an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
2903be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
2904This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
2905the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br>
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910      <br>
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915The
2916parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
2917can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
2918Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
2919      <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924     
2925     
2926     
2927     
2928      <p>With
2929the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
2930the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
2931grid point.<br>
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936 </p>
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941 Cross sections extend through the
2942total model
2943domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
2944&lt;= i
2945&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
2946&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
2947the
2948complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
2949sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
2950      <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
2951causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
2952normal to the respective section.<br>
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957      <br>
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962      <br>
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br>
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972      <br>
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977Beside
2978the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
2979other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
2980user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
2981They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
2982for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
2983Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
2984selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
2985listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
2986quantities.<br>
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991      <br>
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996     
2997     
2998     
2999     
3000      <p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
3001on parallel machines:</p>
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006     
3007     
3008     
3009     
3010      <p>
3011By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
3012of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
3013are
3014constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
3015&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
3016After PALM has
3017finished, the contents of these individual
3018files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
3019using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3020(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3021configuration file).</p>
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026 
3027     
3028     
3029     
3030     
3031      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
3032collect all grid points of a
3033cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
3034one&nbsp;
3035output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
3036does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
3037gridpoints, sufficient
3038memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
3039assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
3040= <i>.F.</i>.</p>
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045     
3046     
3047     
3048     
3049      <p>3d volume data output is
3050always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
3051has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p>
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056     
3057     
3058     
3059     
3060      <p><br>
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071     
3072     
3073     
3074     
3075      <p>Beside
3076the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
3077can
3078also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
3079using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p>
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084     
3085     
3086     
3087     
3088      <p>By
3089assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
3090      </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
3091the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
3092Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3093the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
3094The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
3095for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3096= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
3097means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
3098v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
3099averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
3100creates
3101a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
3102with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
3103As third and
3104fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
3105and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
3106which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
3107and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
3108one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
3109the file
3110PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3111configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3112PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;)
3113after PALM has
3114finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
3115can be done
3116in
3117compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
3118Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
3119      <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
31204.5.5</a>.</p>
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
3126      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
3127the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
3128Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
3129the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
3130The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
3131for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
3132= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
3133means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
3134with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
3135temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
3136instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
3137file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
3138creates NAMELIST parameter files
3139(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
3140      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
3141      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3142      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
3143      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
3144      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
3145which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
3146That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
3147respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
3148suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
3149configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
3150PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;)
3151after PALM has
3152finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
3153respective data and
3154parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
3155file.
3156The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3157parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
3158(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
3159All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
3160file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
3161in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
31624.5.4</a>.<br>
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167      <br>
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177There
3178is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
3179PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td>
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184 </tr>
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189 <tr>
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200      </td>
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br>
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222      <br>
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227By
3228default, all data (profiles, time
3229series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
3230in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
3231Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
3232      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
3233are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br>
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238      <br>
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243The
3244numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br>
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249      <br>
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254The
3255maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the
3256parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
3257if larger files have to be created.<br>
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262      <br>
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267For historical
3268reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
3269may be assigned the following values:<br>
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274      <br>
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279     
3280     
3281     
3282     
3283      <table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288        <tbody>
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293          <tr>
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td>
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303            <td>output
3304of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
3305read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
3306            </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
3307            <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td>
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312          </tr>
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317          <tr>
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td>
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327            <td>output
3328of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3329software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
3330(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td>
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335          </tr>
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340          <tr>
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td>
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350            <td>output
3351of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
3352software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
3353(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td>
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358          </tr>
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363       
3364       
3365       
3366       
3367        </tbody>
3368     
3369     
3370     
3371     
3372      </table>
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377      <br>
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382Multiple
3383values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
3384i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
3385cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
3386      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
3387assigned.<br>
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392      <br>
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
3398There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
3399future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404 </td>
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409 </tr>
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414 <tr>
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3421     
3422     
3423     
3424     
3425      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431      </td>
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
343710&nbsp; <br>
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443(100)</td>
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
3449* ' '</i></td>
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3455     
3456     
3457     
3458     
3459      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
3460are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465 
3466     
3467     
3468     
3469     
3470      <p>By default vertical
3471profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
3472The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
3473NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478     
3479     
3480     
3481     
3482      <p>For
3483historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
3484file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
3485which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
3486parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3487for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492 </p>
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498     
3499     
3500     
3501     
3502      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
3503profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
3504vertical
3505grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
3506profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
3507also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
3508      </p>
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513 
3514     
3515     
3516     
3517     
3518      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
3519profiles is
3520assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
3521Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
3522the profiles are ordered with respect to their
3523output times.</p>
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528     
3529     
3530     
3531     
3532      <p>Profiles can also be temporally
3533averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).<br>
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539      </p>
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544 
3545     
3546     
3547     
3548     
3549      <p>The following list shows the values which can be
3550assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
3551The profile data is either defined on
3552u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
3553or
3554on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
3555According to this,
3556the
3557z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
3558Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
3559the lowest output
3560level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
3561u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
3562. Turbulence quantities such as&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">w*u* &nbsp;</span>or <span style="font-style: italic;">u*2</span> are calculated from turbulent fluctuations that are defined as deviations from the instantaneous horizontal average.
3563
3564
3565 </p>
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570 
3571     
3572     
3573     
3574     
3575      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580 <tbody>
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585 <tr>
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3597velocity (in m/s).</td>
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602 </tr>
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607 <tr>
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
3619velocity (in m/s).</td>
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624 </tr>
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629 <tr>
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
3641velocity (in m/s).</td>
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646 </tr>
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651 <tr>
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
3663K).</td>
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668 </tr>
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673 <tr>
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
3685temperature (in K).</td>
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690 </tr>
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695 <tr>
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
3707temperature (in K).</td>
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712 </tr>
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717 <tr>
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
3729(in kg/kg).</td>
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734 </tr>
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739 <tr>
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
3751kg/kg).</td>
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756 </tr>
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761 <tr>
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
3773(in kg/kg).</td>
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778 </tr>
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783 <tr>
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td>
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798          </tr>
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803          <tr>
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808 <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
3815kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820 </tr>
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825 <tr>
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td>
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td>
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840          </tr>
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845          <tr>
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
3857(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863          </tr>
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868 <tr>
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
3880(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886          </tr>
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891 <tr>
3892
3893            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 0, 0);">p</span></td>
3894
3895            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Perturbation pressure (in Pa)</td>
3896
3897          </tr>
3898
3899          <tr>
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
3911momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916 </tr>
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921 <tr>
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
3934(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939 </tr>
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944 <tr>
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961          </tr>
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966 <tr>
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
3978subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984          </tr>
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989 <tr>
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
4001resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007          </tr>
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012 <tr>
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
4024vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
4025(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030 </tr>
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036          <tr>
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4048subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054          </tr>
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059 <tr>
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
4071resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077          </tr>
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082 <tr>
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
4094vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
4095(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100 </tr>
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106          <tr>
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4118sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123 </tr>
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128 <tr>
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4140sensible
4141heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146 </tr>
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151 <tr>
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4163heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
4164(in K
4165m/s).</td>
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170 </tr>
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175 <tr>
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4187sensible heat flux using the
4188Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193 </tr>
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198 <tr>
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
4210heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
4211(<i>w"pt"</i>
4212+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217 </tr>
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222 <tr>
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4235buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240 </tr>
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245 <tr>
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*vpt*</i></font></td>
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
4257buoyancy
4258flux (in K m/s).</td>
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263 </tr>
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268 <tr>
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
4280flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285 </tr>
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290 <tr>
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4302water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307 </tr>
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312 <tr>
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
4324flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329 </tr>
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334 <tr>
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
4346(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351 </tr>
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356 <tr>
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4368latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373 </tr>
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378 <tr>
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
4390heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395 </tr>
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400 <tr>
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
4412heat
4413flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418 </tr>
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423 <tr>
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
4436scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442          </tr>
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447 <tr>
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
4459concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td>
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464 </tr>
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470          <tr>
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
4482concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488          </tr>
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493 <tr>
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td>
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
4504salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509          </tr>
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514          <tr>
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td>
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td>
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529          </tr>
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534          <tr>
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td>
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549          </tr>
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554          <tr>
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
4566perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571 </tr>
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576 <tr>
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4588u-velocity
4589component (resolved)</td>
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594 </tr>
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599 <tr>
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
4611v-velocity
4612component (resolved)</td>
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617 </tr>
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622 <tr>
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the w-velocity
4634component (resolved)</td>
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639 </tr>
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644 <tr>
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
4656temperature (resolved)</td>
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661 </tr>
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666 <tr>
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
4678w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683 </tr>
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688 <tr>
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
4700w-velocity
4701component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
4702= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708          </tr>
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713 <tr>
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730          </tr>
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735 <tr>
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752          </tr>
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757 <tr>
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4769shear
4770(resolved)</td>
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775 </tr>
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780 <tr>
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4792turbulent transport of pressure
4793fluctuations (resolved)</td>
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798 </tr>
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803 <tr>
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
4815transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820 </tr>
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825 
4826       
4827       
4828       
4829       
4830        </tbody>
4831     
4832     
4833     
4834     
4835      </table>
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840 <br>
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
4846variables can additionally be
4847output (this output is only done once
4848with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
4849later
4850times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
4851above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856 
4857     
4858     
4859     
4860     
4861      <ul>
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867       
4868       
4869       
4870       
4871        <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
4872        <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l, #lpt, #q, #qv, #s, #sa, #vpt</i></p>
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878     
4879     
4880     
4881     
4882      </ul>
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887 
4888     
4889     
4890     
4891     
4892      <p>Profile names preceded by a hash automatically imply that
4893profiles for these variables are also output at later times. It is not
4894necessary and not allowed to specify the same profile name with and
4895without hash simultaneously(this would lead to an NetCDF error). </p>
4896
4897
4898     
4899     
4900      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
4901the user or
4902have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907The
4908user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
4909own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br>
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914      <br>
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919In case
4920of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
4921PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
4922which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
4923Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
4924using these two files. The
4925plot layout is
4926steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
4927are determined by
4928a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
4929      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
4930      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
4931      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
4932etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
4933input
4934file. <br>
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939      <br>
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944Further details about plotting vertical
4945profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
4946be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
49474.5.2</a></td>
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952 </tr>
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957 <tr>
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4963     
4964     
4965     
4966     
4967      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
4968      <br>
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973 <b>_each_pe</b></p>
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978 </td>
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988 </td>
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998 </td>
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
5005data by one or
5006all processors.&nbsp; 
5007     
5008     
5009     
5010     
5011      <p>In runs with several processors, by
5012default, each processor
5013outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
5014file. After PALM
5015has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
5016file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
5017the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023     
5024     
5025     
5026     
5027      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
5028= <i>.F.,</i>
5029the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
5030into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
5031have to be
5032called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
5033gridpoints, sufficient
5034memory is required on PE0. </p>
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039 </td>
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044 </tr>
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050    <tr>
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5056     
5057     
5058     
5059     
5060      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066_amplitude</b></p>
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071 </td>
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5088     
5089     
5090     
5091     
5092      <p>Maximum
5093perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
5094imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100     
5101     
5102     
5103     
5104      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
5105describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
5106field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
5107the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
5108only an
5109approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114 </td>
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120    </tr>
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125 <tr>
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5131     
5132     
5133     
5134     
5135      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
5136      <br>
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141 <b>_limit</b></p>
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146 </td>
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5163     
5164     
5165     
5166     
5167      <p lang="en-GB">Upper
5168limit value of the perturbation energy of
5169the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
5170perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
5171      </p>
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176 
5177     
5178     
5179     
5180     
5181      <p><span lang="en-GB">The parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5182describes how to impose
5183random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
5184energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
5185of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
5186mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
5187assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
5188velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
5189must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
5190number of grid points).</span>  </p>
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195 </td>
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201    </tr>
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206 <tr>
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5212     
5213     
5214     
5215     
5216      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222      </td>
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238zu(nz*2/3)<br>
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243see right</i></td>
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5250     
5251     
5252     
5253     
5254      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Lower
5255limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5256imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5257      </font> </p>
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262 
5263     
5264     
5265     
5266     
5267      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5268parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5269&lt;= zu(</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span><span lang="en-GB">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
5270&lt;= </span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_t</span></a>
5271      <span lang="en-GB">must
5272also hold.</span></p>
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277     
5278     
5279     
5280     
5281      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz * 2 / 3) </span>(negative).</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286 
5287     
5288     
5289     
5290     
5291      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5292parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5293describes how to impose
5294random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5295       </p>
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300 </td>
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305 </tr>
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310 <tr>
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5316     
5317     
5318     
5319     
5320      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326      </td>
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342zu(nzt-3)<br>
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347see right</i></td>
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"> 
5354     
5355     
5356     
5357     
5358      <p lang="en-GB"><font size="3">Upper
5359limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
5360imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font>in <font size="3">m).&nbsp;
5361      </font> </p>
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366 
5367     
5368     
5369     
5370     
5371      <p><span lang="en-GB">This
5372parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5373&lt;= zu<i>(</i></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB">nz-2</span></a><span lang="en-GB">)</span></i><span lang="en-GB">.
5374Additionally, </span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB">disturbance_level_b</span></a>
5375      <span lang="en-GB">&lt;=
5376      <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
5377must also hold.</span></p>
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382      <span lang="en-GB">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </span><span lang="en-GB">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nzt - 3</span>)</span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>(negative)</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5383     
5384     
5385     
5386     
5387      <p><span lang="en-GB">The
5388parameter </span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB">create_disturbances</span></a><span lang="en-GB">
5389describes how to impose
5390random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
5391       </p>
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396 </td>
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401 </tr>
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406 <tr>
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5412     
5413     
5414     
5415     
5416      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422      </td>
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432 </td>
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443 </td>
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5450     
5451     
5452     
5453     
5454      <p>Output of 2d
5455cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460 
5461     
5462     
5463     
5464     
5465      <p>The
5466temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5467are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
5468and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
5469By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5470an additional output
5471will be made at the
5472beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5473starting times of restart runs).</p>
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478 </td>
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483 </tr>
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488 <tr>
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5495     
5496     
5497     
5498     
5499      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505      </td>
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515 </td>
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526 </td>
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
5533at the beginning
5534of a run.<br>
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539      <br>
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544The temporal intervals of output times of
55453d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
5546is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
5547By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
5548an additional output
5549will be made at the
5550beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
5551starting times of restart runs).</td>
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556 </tr>
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561 <tr>
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5567     
5568     
5569     
5570     
5571      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577      </td>
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587 </td>
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593      <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">.F.<br>
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598 </td>
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5605     
5606     
5607     
5608     
5609      <p>Output of data
5610for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615 
5616     
5617     
5618     
5619     
5620      <p>This
5621parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5622= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627     
5628     
5629     
5630     
5631      <p>Output
5632of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
5633(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
5634reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
5635form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
5636= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
5637assigned. This
5638yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
5639parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_comp_prec">do3d_comp_prec</a>
5640can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
5641each quantity.<br>
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646 </p>
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651 
5652     
5653     
5654     
5655     
5656      <p>So far compressed data
5657output is only possible for Cray-T3E
5658machines. Additional information for
5659handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
56604.5.6</a>.</p>
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665 </td>
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670 </tr>
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675 <tr>
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5681     
5682     
5683     
5684     
5685      <p><a name="do3d_comp_prec"></a><b>do3d_comp_prec</b></p>
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691      </td>
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
56977&nbsp; <br>
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703&nbsp; (100)</td>
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">see
5709right<br>
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714 </td>
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5720     
5721     
5722     
5723     
5724      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
5725output.&nbsp; </p>
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730 
5731     
5732     
5733     
5734     
5735      <p>This parameter only applies for
5736&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
5737= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742     
5743     
5744     
5745     
5746      <p>In
5747case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
5748(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
5749this parameter determines the number of significant digits
5750which are to be output.<br>
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755 </p>
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760 
5761     
5762     
5763     
5764     
5765      <p>Fewer digits
5766clearly reduce the amount
5767of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
5768quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
5769name&gt;&lt;number of
5770significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
5771Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
5772are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
5773are not very reasonable
5774because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779 </p>
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785     
5786     
5787     
5788     
5789      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_comp_prec</span>
5790= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795 </td>
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801    </tr>
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806 <tr>
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5812     
5813     
5814     
5815     
5816      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822      </td>
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5839      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5840     
5841     
5842      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
5843step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">in </span><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
5844      </font></font> 
5845
5846
5847 
5848     
5849     
5850     
5851     
5852      <p style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><span lang="en-GB">This parameter</span>
5853      <span lang="en-GB">is
5854described in
5855detail with the initialization parameters (see</span><span lang="en-GB"> </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a><span lang="en-GB">).
5856Additionally, it may be
5857used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
5858is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
5859time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span></p>
5860
5861      <font face="Thorndale, serif">
5862      </font> 
5863
5864
5865 </td>
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870 </tr>
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875 <tr>
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886      </td>
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896 </td>
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907 </td>
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
5914of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br>
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919      <br>
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924By
5925default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
5926are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
5927&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
5928the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
5929reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
5930average's statistics.<br>
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935      <br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940      <font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
5941variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
5942the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
5943averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;"><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB">averaging_interval</span></a>)</font><font style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;" face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
5944is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
5945MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
5946      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
5947gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
5948this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font><span style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">&nbsp;
5949      </span><br style="font-family: Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;">
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954      <br>
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964With
5965an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
5966      <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
5967the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
5968s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
5969larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
5970(maximum) 10 time levels.<br>
5971
5972
5973
5974
5975      <br>
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
5981is allowed
5982to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
5983the last averaging
5984interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
5985has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
5986spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
5987averaging interval.<br>
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992      <br>
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997      </span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
5998be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
5999vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004 </td>
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009 </tr>
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015    <tr>
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6021     
6022     
6023     
6024     
6025      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031      </td>
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047averaging_<br>
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052input</a></span></td>
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6059     
6060     
6061     
6062     
6063      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
6064interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
6065profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
6066      </font></font> </p>
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071 
6072     
6073     
6074     
6075     
6076      <p>By default, data from
6077each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
6078used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
6079&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
6080the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
6081reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
6082average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087 </p>
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092     
6093     
6094     
6095     
6096      <p>For
6097more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p>
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102      </td>
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6108    </tr>
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113 <tr>
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_coupling"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span></td>
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval for the data exchange in case of <a href="chapter_3.8.html">runs with coupled models</a> (e.g. atmosphere - ocean) (in s).<br>
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138      <br>
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143This parameter has an effect only in case of a run with coupled models. It is available starting from version 3.3a. <br>
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148      <br>
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153This parameter specifies the temporal interval at which data are
6154exchanged at the interface between coupled models (currently: interface
6155between atmosphere and ocean). If this parameter is not explicitly
6156specified in the parameter files for both coupled models, or if there
6157is an inconsistency between its values for both coupled models,
6158the&nbsp;execution will terminate and an informative error message will
6159be given.&nbsp;In order to ensure synchronous coupling throughout the simulation, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span> should be chosen larger than
6160      <a href="#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</td>
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165    </tr>
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170    <tr>
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6181      </td>
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191 </td>
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203      </td>
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6209     
6210     
6211     
6212     
6213      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6214at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
6215averaged),
6216cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
6217spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
6224data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6225parameter can be used to
6226assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
6227output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6228simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
6229which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6230time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6231takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
6232dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6233+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6234+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
6235etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6236the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6237deviate
6238from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243      <br>
6244
6245
6246
6247
6248Individual temporal
6249intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
6250parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
6251and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
6252      </td>
6253
6254
6255
6256
6257 </tr>
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262 <tr>
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6273      </td>
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283 </td>
6284
6285
6286
6287
6288
6289      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6290&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6291
6292
6293
6294
6295output</a></i>
6296      </td>
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6302     
6303     
6304     
6305     
6306      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
6307at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
6308shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
6309
6310
6311
6312
6313      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
6314output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6315parameter can be used to
6316assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
6317output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
6318simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
6319which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6320time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
6321takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
6322dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6323+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
6324+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
6325etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
6326the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
6327deviate from
6328these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333      <br>
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338      </font></span>The
6339length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
6345    </tr>
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350    <tr>
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6356     
6357     
6358     
6359     
6360      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366      </td>
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6372
6373
6374
6375
6376
6377      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6383      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6384     
6385     
6386     
6387     
6388      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6389interval</font> at which random
6390perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
6391(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
6392      </p>
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397 
6398     
6399     
6400     
6401     
6402      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
6403describes how to impose
6404random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
6405      </font> </p>
6406
6407
6408
6409
6410 </td>
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415 </tr>
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420 <tr>
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6426     
6427     
6428     
6429     
6430      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436      </td>
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6448&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453output</a></i></td>
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6460     
6461     
6462     
6463     
6464      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
6465interval at
6466which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
6467file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
6468or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6469      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
6470      </font></span> </p>
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475 
6476     
6477     
6478     
6479     
6480      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6481horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
6482parameter can be used to
6483assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
6484be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
6485zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6486time is the beginning
6487of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
6488takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6489      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
6490+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
6491etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
6492profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6493interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6494If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6495example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6496the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
6497model uses a variable time step, these
6498deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6499different for each output time.<br>
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504 </font></span></p>
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510     
6511     
6512     
6513     
6514      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6515order to
6516guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6517      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6518should be equal or a little bit
6519larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
6520= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6521      </span>and 3600.0
6522seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
6523&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
6524      </p>
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529 
6530     
6531     
6532     
6533     
6534      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
6535profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
6536      </p>
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541 </td>
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546 </tr>
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551 <tr>
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562      </td>
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572 </td>
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6585     
6586     
6587     
6588     
6589      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6590interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
6591vertical
6592profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
6593      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
6594      </p>
6595
6596
6597
6598
6599 
6600     
6601     
6602     
6603     
6604      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
6605parameter can be used to
6606assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
6607time is the beginning
6608of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6609= 1800.0,
6610then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
6611profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
6612interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
6613If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
6614example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
6615the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
6616are related to
6617the
6618example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
6619deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
6620different for each output time.<br>
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625 </font></span></p>
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631     
6632     
6633     
6634     
6635      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
6636order to
6637guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
6638      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
6639should be a little bit
6640larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
6641= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
6642      </span>and 3600.0
6643seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
6644&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
6645variable time steps are used
6646(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
6647should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653     
6654     
6655     
6656     
6657      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
6658and output
6659format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
6660      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
6661internally fixed. In this file
6662the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
6663adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668 </td>
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673 </tr>
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679    <tr>
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6685     
6686     
6687     
6688     
6689      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695      </td>
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6713     
6714     
6715     
6716     
6717      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6718interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
6719output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
6720      </p>
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725 
6726     
6727     
6728     
6729     
6730      <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
6731is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
6732calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p>
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737     
6738     
6739     
6740     
6741      <p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6742IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6743== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6749      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6750MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6756ELSE<br>
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6762      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6763MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6764)<br>
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6770ENDIF</p>
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775     
6776     
6777     
6778     
6779      <p>This parameter can be used to
6780assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
6781time is the beginning of
6782&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
67832*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
6784actual output times can
6785deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
6786Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
6787of the time series are
6788written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
6789= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p>
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794     
6795     
6796     
6797     
6798      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
6799value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
6800is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6806IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
6807== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6813      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6814MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
6815
6816
6817
6818
6819&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6820ELSE<br>
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6826      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
6827MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
6828      <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
6829)<br>
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
6835ENDIF<br>
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840      <br>
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845(which minimizes the number of calls of
6846routine flow_statistics).<br>
6847
6848
6849
6850
6851     
6852     
6853     
6854     
6855      <p>By default time series data
6856is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
6857Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
6858it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
6859format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
6860data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865The
6866file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
6867gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br>
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872     
6873     
6874     
6875     
6876      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881 <tbody>
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886 <tr>
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897            </td>
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
6903kinetic energy of
6904the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
6905(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911          </tr>
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916 <tr>
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927            </td>
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
6933kinetic
6934energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
6935            </sup>(normalized
6936with respect to the total number of grid
6937points)</td>
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942 </tr>
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947 <tr>
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958            </td>
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
6964size (in s).</td>
6965
6966
6967
6968
6969 </tr>
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974 <tr>
6975
6976
6977
6978
6979 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
6980
6981
6982
6983
6984
6985            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
6986m/s)
6987(horizontal average).</td>
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992 </tr>
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997 <tr>
6998
6999
7000
7001
7002 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
7009of
7010the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
7011
7012
7013
7014
7015 </tr>
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020 <tr>
7021
7022
7023
7024
7025
7026            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
7027
7028
7029
7030
7031
7032            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
7033scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
7034/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
7035(horizontal
7036average) (in K).</td>
7037
7038
7039
7040
7041 </tr>
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046 <tr>
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
7052
7053
7054
7055
7056
7057            </td>
7058
7059
7060
7061
7062 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7063u-component of the
7064velocity (in m/s).</td>
7065
7066
7067
7068
7069 </tr>
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074 <tr>
7075
7076
7077
7078
7079 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
7080
7081
7082
7083
7084
7085            </td>
7086
7087
7088
7089
7090 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7091v-component of the
7092velocity (in m/s).</td>
7093
7094
7095
7096
7097 </tr>
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102 <tr>
7103
7104
7105
7106
7107 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
7108
7109
7110
7111
7112
7113            </td>
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
7119w-component of the
7120velocity (in m/s).</td>
7121
7122
7123
7124
7125 </tr>
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130 <tr>
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
7136
7137
7138
7139
7140
7141            </td>
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
7147of the velocity
7148field before the pressure
7149solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7150grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7151
7152
7153
7154
7155 </tr>
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160 <tr>
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
7166
7167
7168
7169
7170
7171            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
7172velocity
7173field after the pressure
7174solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
7175grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
7176
7177
7178
7179
7180 </tr>
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185 <tr>
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
7191
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7197boundary layer (horizontal average)
7198determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204          </tr>
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209 <tr>
7210
7211
7212
7213
7214 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
7215
7216
7217
7218
7219
7220            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
7221boundary layer (horizontal average)
7222determined by the temperature profile, following the criterion of Sullivan et al. (1998) (in m).</td>
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227 </tr>
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232 <tr>
7233
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
7239
7240
7241
7242
7243
7244            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
7245heat flux at k=0 (horizontal
7246average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in K m/s).</td>
7247
7248
7249
7250
7251 </tr>
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256 <tr>
7257
7258
7259
7260
7261 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7267            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
7268(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
7269m/s).</td>
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274 </tr>
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279 <tr>
7280
7281
7282
7283
7284 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
7285
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
7291(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
7292
7293
7294
7295
7296 </tr>
7297
7298
7299
7300
7301 <tr>
7302
7303            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"u"0</span></td>
7304
7305            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (u-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7306
7307          </tr>
7308
7309          <tr>
7310
7311            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"v"0</span></td>
7312
7313            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale momentum flux (v-component) at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within Prandtl-layer (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
7314
7315          </tr>
7316
7317          <tr>
7318
7319            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">w"q"0</span></td>
7320
7321            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale
7322humidity flux at k=0 (horizontal average), constant within
7323Prandtl-layer (in kg/kg m/s). Zero values are output if humidity is not
7324used.</td>
7325
7326          </tr>
7327
7328          <tr>
7329
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
7335
7336
7337
7338
7339
7340            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
7341the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7342
7343
7344
7345
7346 </tr>
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351 <tr>
7352
7353
7354
7355
7356
7357            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
7358
7359
7360
7361
7362
7363            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
7364z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
7365
7366
7367
7368
7369 </tr>
7370
7371
7372
7373
7374 
7375
7376
7377 
7378
7379
7380 
7381
7382
7383 <tr>
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
7389
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
7395
7396
7397
7398
7399
7400          </tr>
7401
7402
7403
7404
7405 
7406       
7407       
7408       
7409       
7410        </tbody> 
7411     
7412     
7413     
7414     
7415      </table>
7416
7417
7418
7419
7420      <br>
7421
7422
7423
7424
7425Additionally, the
7426user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
7427user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
7428These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
7429this.<br>
7430
7431
7432
7433
7434      <br>
7435
7436
7437
7438
7439Time series data refers to the total
7440domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
7441However, the following time series always present the values of the
7442total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
7443      <i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
7444      <i>div_new</i>.</td>
7445
7446
7447
7448
7449 </tr>
7450
7451
7452
7453
7454 <tr>
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7460     
7461     
7462     
7463     
7464      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469
7470      </td>
7471
7472
7473
7474
7475 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7476
7477
7478
7479
7480
7481      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7482&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7483
7484
7485
7486
7487output</a></i></td>
7488
7489
7490
7491
7492
7493      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7494     
7495     
7496     
7497     
7498      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7499interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
7500shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7501      </font> </p>
7502
7503
7504
7505
7506 
7507     
7508     
7509     
7510     
7511      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7512horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7513      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7514      </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
7515parameter can be used to
7516assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
7517output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
7518simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
7519which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7520time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
7521takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7522      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7523+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7524+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
7525etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
7526(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7527
7528
7529
7530
7531
7532      </font></span></p>
7533
7534
7535
7536
7537 
7538     
7539     
7540     
7541     
7542      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7543has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7544the time t = 0 or at the
7545respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7546
7547
7548
7549
7550
7551      </td>
7552
7553
7554
7555
7556 </tr>
7557
7558
7559
7560
7561 <tr>
7562
7563
7564
7565
7566 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7567     
7568     
7569     
7570     
7571      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
7572
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577      </td>
7578
7579
7580
7581
7582 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7583
7584
7585
7586
7587
7588      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7589&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7590
7591
7592
7593
7594output</a></i></td>
7595
7596
7597
7598
7599
7600      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7601     
7602     
7603     
7604     
7605      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7606interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
7607(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
7608      </font> </p>
7609
7610
7611
7612
7613 
7614     
7615     
7616     
7617     
7618      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7619horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7620      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7621      </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7622this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7623cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7624be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
7625has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
7626the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
7627+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
7628      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7629+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7630+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
7631can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7632
7633
7634
7635
7636
7637      </font></span></p>
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642 
7643     
7644     
7645     
7646     
7647      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7648has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7649the time t = 0 or at the
7650respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7651
7652
7653
7654
7655
7656      </td>
7657
7658
7659
7660
7661 </tr>
7662
7663
7664
7665
7666 <tr>
7667
7668
7669
7670
7671 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7672     
7673     
7674     
7675     
7676      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681
7682      </td>
7683
7684
7685
7686
7687 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7688
7689
7690
7691
7692
7693      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7694&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7695
7696
7697
7698
7699output</a></i></td>
7700
7701
7702
7703
7704
7705      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7706     
7707     
7708     
7709     
7710      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7711interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
7712(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
7713      </font> </p>
7714
7715
7716
7717
7718 
7719     
7720     
7721     
7722     
7723      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
7724horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
7725      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
7726      </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
7727this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
7728cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7729be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
7730has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7731time is the beginning of
7732the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
7733+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
7734      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
7735+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
7736      </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
7737times
7738can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
7739
7740
7741
7742
7743
7744      </font></span></p>
7745
7746
7747
7748
7749 
7750     
7751     
7752     
7753     
7754      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7755has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7756the time t = 0 or at the
7757respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7758
7759
7760
7761
7762
7763      </td>
7764
7765
7766
7767
7768 </tr>
7769
7770
7771
7772
7773 <tr>
7774
7775
7776
7777
7778 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7779     
7780     
7781     
7782     
7783      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789      </td>
7790
7791
7792
7793
7794 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7795
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
7801&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
7802
7803
7804
7805
7806output</a></i></td>
7807
7808
7809
7810
7811
7812      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7813     
7814     
7815     
7816     
7817      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
7818interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
7819      <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
7820
7821
7822
7823
7824
7825     
7826     
7827     
7828     
7829      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
7830output of
78313d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
7832to assign
7833th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
7834interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
7835be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
7836zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
7837time is the
7838beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
7839+ dt_do3d</b>,
7840      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7841+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
7842+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
7843deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
7844
7845
7846
7847
7848
7849      </font></span></p>
7850
7851
7852
7853
7854 
7855     
7856     
7857     
7858     
7859      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
7860has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
7861the time t = 0 or at the
7862respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
7863
7864
7865
7866
7867
7868      </td>
7869
7870
7871
7872
7873 </tr>
7874
7875
7876
7877
7878 <tr>
7879
7880
7881
7882
7883      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td>
7884
7885
7886
7887
7888      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7889
7890
7891
7892
7893      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td>
7894
7895
7896
7897
7898      <td>Maximum
7899allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br>
7900
7901
7902
7903
7904      <br>
7905
7906
7907
7908
7909By default,
7910the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
7911simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
7912changed for other situations.</td>
7913
7914
7915
7916
7917    </tr>
7918
7919