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User-defined spectra.

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2<html><head>
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8  <meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="content-type">
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12 
13  <title>PALM chapter 4.2</title></head>
14<body>
15
16
17<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="Kapitel4.2"></a>4.2 <a href="#Laufparameter">Runtime
18parameters</a>, <a href="#particle_parameters">particle parameters</a>, and <a href="#Paketparameter">package
19parameters</a></h3>
20
21
22
23<h3 style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><a name="Laufparameter"></a>Runtime parameters:</h3>
24
25
26
27<br>
28
29
30<br>
31
32
33<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
34
35
36 <tbody>
37
38
39
40    <tr>
41
42
43
44      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
45name</b></font></td>
46
47
48 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
49
50
51
52      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
53     
54     
55      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
56
57
58 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
59
60
61 </td>
62
63
64
65      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
66
67
68
69    </tr>
70
71
72 <tr>
73
74
75 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="averaging_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span><br>
76
77
78
79      </td>
80
81
82 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
83
84
85 </td>
86
87
88
89      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
90
91
92 </td>
93
94
95
96      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Averaging interval for
97all&nbsp;output of temporally averaged data (in s).<br>
98
99
100      <br>
101
102
103This
104parameter defines the time interval length for temporally averaged data
105(vertical profiles, spectra, 2d cross-sections, 3d volume data). By
106default,&nbsp;data are not subject to temporal averaging. The
107interval
108length is limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
109In any case, <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span>
110&lt;= <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span>
111must hold.<br>
112
113
114      <br>
115
116
117If
118an interval is defined, then by default the average is calculated from
119the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The number
120of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
121parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<br>
122
123
124      <br>
125
126
127If
128an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it
129will be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for
130restart runs, averaging intervals do not
131necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.<br>
132
133
134      <br>
135
136
137Parameters
138      <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
139and <a href="#averaging_interval_sp">averaging_interval_sp</a>
140can be used to define different averaging intervals for vertical
141profile data and spectra, respectively.<br>
142
143
144 </td>
145
146
147 </tr>
148
149
150
151    <tr>
152
153
154 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
155     
156     
157      <p><a name="averaging_interval_pr"></a><b>averaging_interval_pr</b></p>
158
159
160
161      </td>
162
163
164 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
165
166
167 </td>
168
169
170
171      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_<br>
172
173
174
175interval</a><br>
176
177
178
179      </span> </td>
180
181
182 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
183     
184     
185      <p>Averaging
186interval for output of vertical profiles&nbsp;to
187local
188file <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
189      </font></font>and/or&nbsp; <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
190(in s).&nbsp; </p>
191
192
193 
194     
195     
196      <p>If
197this parameter is given a non-zero value, temporally
198averaged vertical profile data are output. By default, profile data
199data are not subject to temporal averaging. The interval length is
200limited by the parameter <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
201In any case <b>averaging_interval_pr</b> &lt;= <b>dt_dopr
202      </b>must
203hold.</p>
204
205
206If an interval is defined, then by default the average
207is calculated
208from the data values of all timesteps lying within this interval. The
209number of time levels entering into the average can be reduced with the
210parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>.
211     
212     
213      <p>If
214an averaging interval can not be completed at the end of a run, it will
215be finished at the beginning of the next restart run. Thus for restart
216runs, averaging intervals do not
217necessarily begin at the beginning of the run.</p>
218
219
220 </td>
221
222
223 </tr>
224
225
226
227    <tr>
228
229
230 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="call_psolver_at_all_substeps"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_<br>
231
232
233
234substeps</span></td>
235
236
237 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
238
239
240
241      </td>
242
243
244 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
245
246
247 </td>
248
249
250
251      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Switch
252to steer the call of the pressure solver.<br>
253
254
255 <br>
256
257
258
259In order to speed-up performance, the Poisson equation for perturbation
260pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>) can
261be called only at the last substep of multistep Runge-Kutta
262timestep schemes (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
263by setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_substeps</span>
264= <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.
265In many cases, this sufficiently reduces the divergence of the velocity
266field. Nevertheless, small-scale ripples (2-delta-x) may occur. In this
267case and in case
268of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions, <span style="font-weight: bold;">call_psolver_at_all_timesteps</span>
269= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
270should be used.&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></td>
271
272
273
274    </tr>
275
276
277 <tr>
278
279
280 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
281     
282     
283      <p><a name="fcl_factor"></a><b>cfl_factor</b></p>
284
285
286
287      </td>
288
289
290 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
291
292
293 </td>
294
295
296
297      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
298     
299     
300      <p><i>0.1,
3010.8 or 0.9</i> <br>
302
303
304 <i>(see right)</i></p>
305
306
307
308      </td>
309
310
311 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
312     
313     
314      <p lang="en-GB">Time step limiting factor.&nbsp; </p>
315
316
317
318     
319     
320      <p><span lang="en-GB">In the model, the <span lang="en-GB">maximum
321allowed </span>time step according to CFL and
322diffusion-criterion
323dt_max is reduced by </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB">dt</span></a> <span lang="en-GB">=
324dt_max * <b>cfl_factor</b>
325in order to avoid stability problems which may arise in the vicinity of
326the maximum allowed timestep. The condition <i>0.0</i>
327&lt; <b>cfl_factor</b>
328&lt; <i>1.0 </i>applies.<br>
329
330
331 </span></p>
332
333
334
335     
336     
337      <p><span lang="en-GB">The default value of
338cfl_factor depends on
339the </span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme"><span lang="en-GB">timestep_scheme</span></a><span lang="en-GB"> used:<br>
340
341
342 </span></p>
343
344
345 
346     
347     
348      <p><span lang="en-GB">For the third order Runge-Kutta scheme it
349is <b>cfl_factor</b> = </span><span style="font-style: italic;">0.9</span><span lang="en-GB">.<br>
350
351
352 </span></p>
353
354
355 
356     
357     
358      <p><span lang="en-GB">In case of the leapfrog scheme a quite
359restrictive value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
360= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.1 </span></span><span lang="en-GB">is used because for larger values the velocity
361divergence
362significantly effects the accuracy of the model results.</span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"> Possibly larger values may
363be used with the leapfrog scheme but these are to be determined by
364appropriate test runs.<span style="font-family: times new roman;"><br>
365
366
367
368      </span></span></p>
369
370
371 <span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: times new roman;"></span><font face="Times New Roman">The default value for the Euler
372scheme is <span style="font-weight: bold;">cfl_factor</span>
373= <span style="font-style: italic;">0.8</span> .</font></span></td>
374
375
376
377    </tr>
378
379
380    <tr>
381
382
383 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
384     
385     
386      <p><a name="create_disturbances"></a><b>create_disturbances</b></p>
387
388
389
390      </td>
391
392
393 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
394
395
396 </td>
397
398
399
400      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
401
402
403 </td>
404
405
406
407      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
408     
409     
410      <p>Switch to
411impose random perturbations to the horizontal
412velocity field.&nbsp; </p>
413
414
415 
416     
417     
418      <p>With <b>create_disturbances</b>
419= <i>.T.,</i> random
420perturbations can be imposed to the horizontal velocity field at
421certain times e.g. in order to trigger off the onset of convection,
422etc..<br>
423
424
425 </p>
426
427
428 
429     
430     
431      <p>The temporal interval between
432these times can be steered with <a href="#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>,
433the vertical range of the perturbations with <a href="#disturbance_level_b">disturbance_level_b</a>
434and <a href="#disturbance_level_t">disturbance_level_t</a>,
435and the perturbation amplitude with <a href="#disturbance_amplitude">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
436In case of non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
437and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
438the horizontal range of the perturbations is determined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
439and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
440A perturbation is added to each grid point with its individual value
441determined by multiplying the disturbance amplitude with a uniformly
442distributed random number.
443After this, the arrays of u and v are smoothed by applying a
444Shuman-filter twice and made divergence-free by applying the pressure
445solver.<br>
446
447
448 </p>
449
450
451 
452     
453     
454      <p>The random number generator to
455be used can be chosen with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#random_generator">random_generator</a>.<br>
456
457
458
459      </p>
460
461
462 
463     
464     
465      <p>As soon as the desired flow features have
466developed
467(e.g.&nbsp; convection has started), further imposing of
468perturbations
469is not necessary and can be omitted (this does not hold for non-cyclic
470lateral boundaries!). This can be steered by assigning
471an upper limit value for the perturbation energy (the perturbation
472energy is defined by the deviation of the velocity from the mean flow)
473using the parameter <a href="#disturbance_energy_limit">disturbance_energy_limit</a>.
474As soon as the perturbation energy has exceeded this energy limit, no
475more random perturbations are assigned<br>
476
477
478
479.&nbsp; <br>
480
481
482
483Timesteps where a random perturbation has been imposed are marked in
484the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
485by the character "D" appended to the values of the maximum horizontal
486velocities. </p>
487
488
489 </td>
490
491
492 </tr>
493
494
495 <tr>
496
497
498 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
499     
500     
501      <p><a name="cross_normalized_x"></a><b>cross_normalized_x</b></p>
502
503
504
505      </td>
506
507
508 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
509      <br>
510
511
512&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
513
514
515 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
516
517
518
519      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
520     
521     
522      <p>Type of
523normalization applied to the x-coordinate of vertical
524profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.</p>
525
526
527
528     
529     
530      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
531= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
532
533
534     
535     
536      <p>If
537vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
538local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
539parameters on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
540the x-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
541certain quantities (e.g. the near-surface heat flux) in order to ensure
542a better comparability. This type of normalization then applies to all
543profiles of one coordinate system (panel). The normalization quantities
544are re-calculated for each output time of each individual profile. If
545temporally averaged profiles are output (see <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>),
546then the normalization quantities are also temporally averaged
547accordingly. If the value of a normalization quantity becomes zero,
548then normalization for the total respective coordinate system (panel)
549is switched off automatically (also for the y-axis).<br>
550
551
552 </p>
553
554
555
556     
557     
558      <p>By default, the normalization quantities are calculated as the
559horizontal mean of the total model domain and and these values are also
560used for the normalization of profiles from subdomains (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
561Instead of this, they can be calculated from the data of a certain
562subdomain by using the parameter <a href="#normalizing_region">normalizing_region</a>
563(however, they are used again for all subdomains and even for the total
564domain).&nbsp; </p>
565
566
567 
568     
569     
570      <p>The user can choose between
571the following normalization
572quantities: <br>
573
574
575 </p>
576
577
578 
579     
580     
581      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
582
583
584 <tbody>
585
586
587 <tr>
588
589
590 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'wpt0'</i></td>
591
592
593
594            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
595respect
596to the total surface sensible heat
597flux (k=0 ).</td>
598
599
600 </tr>
601
602
603 <tr>
604
605
606 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2'</i></td>
607
608
609
610            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
611respect
612to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>2</sup>
613(square of the characteristic vertical wind speed of the CBL)</td>
614
615
616
617          </tr>
618
619
620 <tr>
621
622
623 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'tsw2'</i></td>
624
625
626
627            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
628respect
629to the square of the characteristic
630temperature of the CBL theta<sub>*</sub> (this is defined
631as ratio of
632the surface heat flux and w<sub>*</sub>).</td>
633
634
635 </tr>
636
637
638
639          <tr>
640
641
642 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws3'</i></td>
643
644
645
646            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
647respect
648to w<sub>*</sub> <sup>3</sup>.</td>
649
650
651 </tr>
652
653
654
655          <tr>
656
657
658 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'ws2tsw'</i></td>
659
660
661
662            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
663respect
664to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
665(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
666
667
668
669          </tr>
670
671
672 <tr>
673
674
675 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><i>'wstsw2'</i></td>
676
677
678
679            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
680respect
681to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2 </sup>theta<sub>*</sub>
682(for definition of theta<sub>*</sub> see <span style="font-style: italic;">'tsw2'</span>).</td>
683
684
685
686          </tr>
687
688
689 
690       
691       
692        </tbody> 
693     
694     
695      </table>
696
697
698 
699     
700     
701      <p>For each
702coordinate system (panel) to be drawn (see <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>)
703an individual normalization quantity can be assigned. For example: if <span style="font-weight: bold;">cross_normalized_x</span> =
704      <span style="font-style: italic;">'ws2'</span><i>,'ws3'</i>,
705then the
706x-values in the 1st coordinate system are normalized with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>2</sup>
707and in the 2nd system with respect to w<sub>*</sub><sup>3</sup>.
708Data
709of the further coordinate systems (if any are to be drawn) are not
710normalized.&nbsp; </p>
711
712
713 
714     
715     
716      <p>Using a normalization
717leaves all vertical profile data on
718local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
719unaffected, it only affects the visualization. Within <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>, the
720normalization is steered
721by parameter <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#NORMX">normx</a>
722which may be changed subsequently by the user in the parameter file
723(local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>).<br>
724
725
726
727&nbsp;<br>
728
729
730
731The assigned normalization quantity is noted in the axes labels of the
732respective coordinate systems (see <a href="#cross_xtext">cross_xtext</a>).</p>
733
734
735
736      </td>
737
738
739 </tr>
740
741
742 <tr>
743
744
745 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
746     
747     
748      <p><a name="cross_normalized_y"></a><b>cross_normalized_y</b></p>
749
750
751
752      </td>
753
754
755 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*10&nbsp;
756      <br>
757
758
759&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
760
761
762 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100 * ' '</i></td>
763
764
765
766      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
767     
768     
769      <p>Type of
770normalization applied to the y-coordinate of vertical
771profiles to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;</p>
772
773
774
775     
776     
777      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
778= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
779
780
781     
782     
783      <p>If
784vertical profiles are plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> (data on
785local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
786parameter on local file <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
787the y-values of the data points can be normalized with respect to
788certain quantities (at present only the normalization with respect to
789the boundary layer height is possible) in order to ensure a better
790comparability. </p>
791
792
793 
794     
795     
796      <p>The user can choose between the
797following normalization
798quantities: <br>
799
800
801 </p>
802
803
804 
805     
806     
807      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
808
809
810 <tbody>
811
812
813 <tr>
814
815
816 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'z_i'</i></td>
817
818
819
820            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Normalization with
821respect
822to the boundary layer height
823(determined from the height where the heat flux achieves its minimum
824value).</td>
825
826
827 </tr>
828
829
830 
831       
832       
833        </tbody> 
834     
835     
836      </table>
837
838
839 
840     
841     
842      <p>For
843further explanations see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x.</a></p>
844
845
846
847      </td>
848
849
850 </tr>
851
852
853 <tr>
854
855
856 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
857     
858     
859      <p><a name="cross_profiles"></a><b>cross_profiles</b></p>
860
861
862
863      </td>
864
865
866 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*100&nbsp;
867      <br>
868
869
870&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
871
872
873 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
874
875
876 </td>
877
878
879
880      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
881     
882     
883      <p>Determines
884which vertical profiles are to be presented in
885which coordinate system if the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span> is used.
886&nbsp; </p>
887
888
889 
890     
891     
892      <p>This parameter only applies for
893&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
894= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
895
896
897     
898     
899      <p>The
900default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
901
902
903 
904     
905     
906      <p><b>cross_profiles</b>
907=&nbsp; </p>
908
909
910 
911     
912     
913      <ul>
914
915
916 
917       
918       
919        <p><span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
920u v ',</span><br>
921
922
923 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' pt
924',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
925
926
927 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
928w"pt" w*pt* w*pt*BC wpt wptBC ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
929
930
931 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
932w"u" w*u* wu w"v"w*v* wv ',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
933
934
935 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' km
936kh ',</span><br style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">
937
938
939 <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' l '
940,</span><br>
941
942
943
94414 * <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">'
945'</span></p>
946
947
948 
949     
950     
951      </ul>
952
953
954 
955     
956     
957      <p>If plot output of
958vertical profiles is produced (see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>),
959the appropriate data are written to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.
960Simultaneously, the model produces a parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
961which describes the layout for a plot to be generated with the plot
962program <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
963The parameter <b>cross_profiles</b>
964determines how many coordinate systems (panels) the plot contains and
965which profiles are supposed to be drawn into which panel. <b>cross_profiles</b>
966expects a character string (up to 100 characters long) for each
967coordinate system, which consists of the names of the profiles to be
968drawn into this system (all available profiles and their respective
969names are described at parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
970The single names have to be separated by one blank (' ') and a blank
971must be spent also at the beginning and at the end of the
972string.&nbsp; </p>
973
974
975 
976     
977     
978      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
979
980
981 
982     
983     
984      <ul>
985
986
987
988       
989       
990        <p><b>cross_profiles</b> = <span style="font-family: monospace; font-style: italic;">' u v ',
991' pt '</span></p>
992
993
994 
995     
996     
997      </ul>
998
999
1000 
1001     
1002     
1003      <p>In this case the
1004plot consists of two coordinate systems
1005(panels) with the first panel containing the profiles of the horizontal
1006velocity components (<span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>
1007and <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>)
1008of all output times (see <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>)
1009and the second one containing the profiles of the potential temperature
1010(<span style="font-style: italic;">'pt'</span>).<br>
1011
1012
1013
1014      </p>
1015
1016
1017 
1018     
1019     
1020      <p>Whether the coordinate systems are actually drawn,
1021depends on
1022whether data of the appropriate profiles were output during the run
1023(profiles to be output have to be selected with the parameter <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).
1024For example if <b>data_output_pr</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span> was assigned,
1025then
1026the plot only consists of one panel, since no profiles of the potential
1027temperature were output. On the other hand, if profiles were assigned
1028to <b>data_output_pr </b>whose names do not appear in <b>cross_profiles</b>,
1029then the respective profile data are output (<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>)
1030but they are not drawn in the plot. <br>
1031
1032
1033 </p>
1034
1035
1036
1037The arrangement of the panels in the plot can be controlled
1038with the parameters <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>
1039and <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
1040Up to 100 panels systems are allowed in a plot (however, they may be
1041distributed on several pages).</td>
1042
1043
1044 </tr>
1045
1046
1047 <tr>
1048
1049
1050 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1051     
1052     
1053      <p><a name="cross_xtext"></a><b>cross_xtext</b></p>
1054
1055
1056
1057      </td>
1058
1059
1060 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*40&nbsp;
1061      <br>
1062
1063
1064&nbsp;&nbsp; (100)</td>
1065
1066
1067 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see right<br>
1068
1069
1070 </td>
1071
1072
1073
1074      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1075     
1076     
1077      <p>x-axis labels
1078of vertical profile coordinate systems to be
1079plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
1080      </p>
1081
1082
1083 
1084     
1085     
1086      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
1087= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
1088
1089
1090     
1091     
1092      <p>The
1093default assignment is:&nbsp; </p>
1094
1095
1096 
1097     
1098     
1099      <p><b>cross_xtext</b>
1100=&nbsp; </p>
1101
1102
1103 
1104     
1105     
1106      <ul>
1107
1108
1109 
1110       
1111       
1112        <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'wind speed in
1113ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1114
1115
1116 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pot. temperature in
1117K',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1118
1119
1120
1121        <span style="font-style: italic;">'heat flux in K
1122ms&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1123
1124
1125 <span style="font-style: italic;">'momentum flux in
1126m&gt;2s&gt;2',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1127
1128
1129 <span style="font-style: italic;">'eddy diffusivity in
1130m&gt;2s&gt;-&gt;1',&nbsp; </span><br style="font-style: italic;">
1131
1132
1133 <span style="font-style: italic;">'mixing length in m',</span>&nbsp;
1134        <br>
1135
1136
113714 * <span style="font-style: italic;">' '</span></p>
1138
1139
1140
1141     
1142     
1143      </ul>
1144
1145
1146 
1147     
1148     
1149      <p>This parameter can be used to assign x-axis
1150labels to vertical
1151profiles to be plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>(for output
1152of vertical
1153profile data see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>).<br>
1154
1155
1156
1157The labels are assigned to those coordinate systems (panels) defined by
1158      <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>
1159according to their respective order (compare the default values of <b>cross_xtext</b>
1160and <b>cross_profiles</b>). </p>
1161
1162
1163 
1164     
1165     
1166      <p>Umlauts
1167are possible (write &ldquo; in front of, similar to TeX), as
1168well as super- and subscripts (use "&gt;" or "&lt;" in front of
1169each
1170character), special characters etc. (see UNIRAS manuals) when using the
1171plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_beschreibung.html#chapter3.2.6">profil</a>.</p>
1172
1173
1174
1175      </td>
1176
1177
1178 </tr>
1179
1180
1181 <tr>
1182
1183
1184 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1185     
1186     
1187      <p><a name="cycle_mg"></a><b>cycle_mg</b></p>
1188
1189
1190
1191      </td>
1192
1193
1194 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*1</td>
1195
1196
1197
1198      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'w'</i></td>
1199
1200
1201
1202      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1203     
1204     
1205      <p>Type of cycle
1206to be used with the multi-grid method.&nbsp; </p>
1207
1208
1209 
1210     
1211     
1212      <p>This
1213parameter determines which type of cycle is applied in
1214the multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
1215perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
1216It defines in which way it is switched between the fine and coarse
1217grids. So-called v- and w-cycles are realized (i.e. <b>cycle_mg</b>
1218may be assigned the values <i>'v'</i> or <i>'w'</i>).
1219The
1220computational cost of w-cycles is much higher than that of v-cycles,
1221however, w-cycles give a much better convergence. </p>
1222
1223
1224 </td>
1225
1226
1227
1228    </tr>
1229
1230
1231 <tr>
1232
1233
1234 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1235     
1236     
1237      <p><a name="data_output"></a><b>data_output</b></p>
1238
1239
1240
1241      </td>
1242
1243
1244 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (100)<br>
1245
1246
1247
1248      </td>
1249
1250
1251 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100 * ' '</span><br>
1252
1253
1254
1255      </td>
1256
1257
1258 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Quantities
1259for which 2d cross section and/or 3d volume data are to be output.<br>
1260
1261
1262      <br>
1263
1264
1265PALM
1266allows the output of instantaneous data as well as of temporally
1267averaged data which is steered by the strings assigned to this
1268parameter (see below).<br>
1269
1270
1271      <br>
1272
1273
1274By default, cross section
1275data are output (depending on the selected cross sections(s), see
1276below)&nbsp; to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF</a>,
1277      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_NETCDF</a>
1278and/or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_NETCDF</a>.
1279Volume data are output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_NETCDF">DATA_3D_NETCDF</a>.
1280If the user has switched on the output of temporally averaged data,
1281these are written seperately to local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XY_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1282      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1283      <a href="chapter_4.3.html#DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF">DATA_2D_YZ_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1284and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</a>,
1285respectively.<br>
1286
1287
1288      <br>
1289
1290
1291The
1292filenames already suggest that all files have NetCDF format.
1293Informations about the file content (kind of quantities, array
1294dimensions and grid coordinates) are part of the self describing NetCDF
1295format and can be extracted from the NetCDF files using the command
1296"ncdump -c &lt;filename&gt;". See chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a> about processing
1297the PALM NetCDF data.<br>
1298
1299
1300      <br>
1301
1302
1303The following quantities are
1304available for output by default (quantity names ending with '*' are only allowed for the output of horizontal cross sections):<br>
1305
1306
1307      <br>
1308
1309
1310     
1311     
1312      <table style="text-align: left; width: 576px; height: 481px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1313
1314
1315        <tbody>
1316
1317
1318          <tr>
1319
1320
1321            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">quantity
1322name</span></td>
1323
1324
1325            <td style="width: 196px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">meaning</span></td>
1326
1327
1328            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">unit</span></td>
1329
1330
1331            <td><span style="font-weight: bold;">remarks</span></td>
1332
1333
1334          </tr>
1335
1336
1337          <tr>
1338
1339
1340            <td style="width: 106px;"><span style="font-style: italic;">e</span></td>
1341
1342
1343            <td style="width: 196px;">SGS TKE</td>
1344
1345
1346            <td>m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup></td>
1347
1348
1349            <td></td>
1350
1351
1352          </tr>
1353
1354
1355          <tr>
1356
1357
1358            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">lwp*</span></td>
1359
1360
1361            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water path</td>
1362
1363
1364            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1365
1366
1367            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1368is allowed,&nbsp;requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1369= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1370
1371
1372          </tr>
1373
1374
1375          <tr>
1376
1377
1378            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">p</span></td>
1379
1380
1381            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">perturpation
1382pressure</td>
1383
1384
1385            <td style="vertical-align: top;">N/m<sup>2</sup>,
1386Pa</td>
1387
1388
1389            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1390
1391
1392          </tr>
1393
1394
1395          <tr>
1396
1397
1398            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pc</span></td>
1399
1400
1401            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">particle/droplet
1402concentration</td>
1403
1404
1405            <td style="vertical-align: top;">#/gridbox</td>
1406
1407
1408            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
1409advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
1410"-p particles"</td>
1411
1412
1413          </tr>
1414
1415
1416          <tr>
1417
1418
1419            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pr</span></td>
1420
1421
1422            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">mean
1423particle/droplet radius </td>
1424
1425
1426            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1427
1428
1429            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires that particle
1430advection is switched on by <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
1431"-p particles"</td>
1432
1433
1434          </tr>
1435
1436
1437          <tr>
1438
1439
1440            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pra*</span></td>
1441
1442
1443            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation amount</td>
1444
1445
1446            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm</td>
1447
1448
1449            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1450is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
1451= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE., </span>time interval on which amount refers to is defined by <a href="#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a></td>
1452
1453
1454          </tr>
1455
1456
1457          <tr>
1458
1459
1460            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">prr*</span></td>
1461
1462
1463            <td style="vertical-align: top;">precipitation rate</td>
1464
1465
1466            <td style="vertical-align: top;">mm/s</td>
1467
1468
1469            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1470is allowed,&nbsp;requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a>
1471= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1472
1473
1474          </tr>
1475
1476
1477          <tr>
1478
1479
1480            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">pt</span></td>
1481
1482
1483            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">potential
1484temperature<br>
1485
1486
1487            </td>
1488
1489
1490            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1491
1492
1493            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1494
1495
1496          </tr>
1497
1498
1499          <tr>
1500
1501
1502            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">q</span></td>
1503
1504
1505            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">specific humidity
1506(or total water content, if cloud physics is switched on)</td>
1507
1508
1509            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1510
1511
1512            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1513
1514
1515          </tr>
1516
1517
1518          <tr>
1519
1520
1521            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql</span></td>
1522
1523
1524            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">liquid water
1525content</td>
1526
1527
1528            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1529
1530
1531            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1532= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
1533or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1534= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1535
1536
1537          </tr>
1538
1539
1540          <tr>
1541
1542
1543            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_c</span></td>
1544
1545
1546            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">change in liquid
1547water content due to condensation/evaporation during last timestep</td>
1548
1549
1550            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1551
1552
1553            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1554= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1555
1556
1557          </tr>
1558
1559
1560          <tr>
1561
1562
1563            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_v</span></td>
1564
1565
1566            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">volume of liquid
1567water</td>
1568
1569
1570            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m<sup>3</sup>/gridbox</td>
1571
1572
1573            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1574= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1575
1576
1577          </tr>
1578
1579
1580          <tr>
1581
1582
1583            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">ql_vp</span></td>
1584
1585
1586            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">weighting factor</td>
1587
1588
1589            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1590
1591
1592            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>
1593= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1594
1595
1596          </tr>
1597
1598
1599          <tr>
1600
1601
1602            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">qv</span></td>
1603
1604
1605            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">water vapor
1606content (specific humidity)</td>
1607
1608
1609            <td style="vertical-align: top;">kg/kg</td>
1610
1611
1612            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
1613= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1614
1615
1616          </tr>
1617
1618
1619          <tr>
1620
1621
1622            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">rho</span></td>
1623
1624
1625            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">potential density</td>
1626
1627
1628            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">kg/m<sup>3</sup></td>
1629
1630
1631            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
1632= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1633
1634
1635          </tr>
1636
1637
1638          <tr>
1639
1640
1641            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">s</span></td>
1642
1643
1644            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">concentration of
1645the scalar</td>
1646
1647
1648            <td style="vertical-align: top;">1/m<sup>3</sup></td>
1649
1650
1651            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>
1652= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1653
1654
1655          </tr>
1656
1657
1658          <tr>
1659
1660
1661            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic;">sa</span></td>
1662
1663
1664            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">salinity</td>
1665
1666
1667            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">psu</td>
1668
1669
1670            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>
1671= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1672
1673
1674          </tr>
1675
1676
1677          <tr>
1678
1679
1680            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">t*</span></td>
1681
1682
1683            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
1684characteristic temperature</td>
1685
1686
1687            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1688
1689
1690            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1691is allowed</td>
1692
1693
1694          </tr>
1695
1696
1697          <tr>
1698
1699
1700            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u</span></td>
1701
1702
1703            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">u-component of
1704the velocity</td>
1705
1706
1707            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1708
1709
1710            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1711
1712
1713          </tr>
1714
1715
1716          <tr>
1717
1718
1719            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">u*</span></td>
1720
1721
1722            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">(near surface)
1723friction velocity</td>
1724
1725
1726            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1727
1728
1729            <td style="vertical-align: top;">only horizontal cross section
1730is allowed</td>
1731
1732
1733          </tr>
1734
1735
1736          <tr>
1737
1738
1739            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">v</span></td>
1740
1741
1742            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">v-component of
1743the velocity</td>
1744
1745
1746            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1747
1748
1749            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1750
1751
1752          </tr>
1753
1754
1755          <tr>
1756
1757
1758            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">vpt</span></td>
1759
1760
1761            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">virtual potential
1762temperature</td>
1763
1764
1765            <td style="vertical-align: top;">K</td>
1766
1767
1768            <td style="vertical-align: top;">requires&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.1.html#humidity">humidity</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span></td>
1769
1770
1771          </tr>
1772
1773
1774          <tr>
1775
1776
1777            <td style="width: 106px; vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">w</span></td>
1778
1779
1780            <td style="width: 196px; vertical-align: top;">w-component of
1781the velocity</td>
1782
1783
1784            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m/s</td>
1785
1786
1787            <td style="vertical-align: top;"></td>
1788
1789
1790          </tr>
1791
1792
1793          <tr>
1794
1795
1796            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">z0*</span></td>
1797
1798
1799            <td style="vertical-align: top;">roughness length</td>
1800
1801
1802            <td style="vertical-align: top;">m</td>
1803
1804
1805            <td></td>
1806
1807
1808          </tr>
1809
1810
1811       
1812       
1813        </tbody>
1814     
1815     
1816      </table>
1817
1818
1819      <br>
1820
1821
1822Multiple
1823quantities can be assigned, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>
1824= <span style="font-style: italic;">'e'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w'</span>.<br>
1825
1826
1827      <br>
1828
1829
1830By
1831assigning the pure strings from the above table, 3d volume data is
1832output. Cross section data can be output by appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'_xz'</span>, or <span style="font-style: italic;">'_yz'</span> to the
1833respective quantities. Time averaged&nbsp;output is created by
1834appending the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'_av'
1835      </span>(for
1836cross section data, this string must be appended after the cross
1837section string). Cross section data can also be (additionally) averaged
1838along the direction normal to the respective section (see below).
1839Assignments of quantities can be given in arbitrary
1840order:<br>
1841
1842
1843      <br>
1844
1845
1846Example:<br>
1847
1848
1849      <br>
1850
1851
1852     
1853     
1854      <div style="margin-left: 40px;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'u'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt_xz_av'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'u_av'</span>.<br>
1855
1856
1857      </div>
1858
1859
1860      <br>
1861
1862
1863This
1864example will create the following output: instantaneous 3d volume data
1865of u-velocity component (by default on file DATA_3D_NETCDF), temporally
1866averaged 3d volume data of u-velocity component (by default on file
1867DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF), instantaneous horizontal cross section data of
1868w-velocity component (by default on file DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF), and
1869temporally averaged vertical cross section data of potential
1870temperature (by default on file DATA_2D_XZ_AV_NETCDF).<br>
1871
1872
1873      <br>
1874
1875
1876The
1877user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
1878own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>).<br>
1879
1880
1881      <br>
1882
1883
1884The
1885time interval of the output times is determined via <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>.
1886This is valid for all types of output quantities by default. Individual
1887time intervals for instantaneous &nbsp;(!) 3d and section data can
1888be
1889declared using <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, and <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.<br>
1890
1891
1892      <br>
1893
1894
1895Also,
1896an individual time interval for output of temporally averaged data can
1897be assigned using parameter <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.
1898This applies to both 3d volume and cross section data. The length of
1899the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.<br>
1900
1901
1902      <br>
1903
1904
1905The
1906parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>
1907can be used to shift data output activities for a given time interval.
1908Individual intervals can be set using <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>,
1909      <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
1910
1911
1912     
1913     
1914      <p>With
1915the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#nz_do3d">nz_do3d</a>&nbsp;
1916the output can be limited in the vertical direction up to a certain
1917grid point.<br>
1918
1919
1920 </p>
1921
1922
1923 Cross sections extend through the
1924total model
1925domain. In the two horizontal directions all grid points with 0
1926&lt;= i
1927&lt;= nx+1 and 0 &lt;= j
1928&lt;= ny+1 are output so that in case of cyclic boundary conditions
1929the
1930complete total domain is represented. The location(s) of the cross
1931sections can be defined with parameters <a href="#section_xy">section_xy</a>,
1932      <a href="#section_xz">section_xz</a>, and <a href="#section_yz">section_yz</a>. Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_..</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
1933causes&nbsp;the output data to be averaged along the direction
1934normal to the respective section.<br>
1935
1936
1937      <br>
1938
1939
1940      <br>
1941
1942
1943      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Output of user defined quantities:</span><br>
1944
1945
1946      <br>
1947
1948
1949Beside
1950the standard quantities from the above list, the user can output any
1951other quantities. These have to be defined and calculated within the
1952user-defined code (see <a href="chapter_3.5.4.html">3.5.4</a>).
1953They can be selected for output with the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_user">data_output_user</a>
1954for which the same rules apply as for <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output</span>.
1955Output of the user defined quantities (time interval, averaging,
1956selection of cross sections, etc.) is controlled with the parameters
1957listed above and data are written to the same file(s) as the standard
1958quantities.<br>
1959
1960
1961      <br>
1962
1963
1964     
1965     
1966      <p style="font-weight: bold;">Output
1967on parallel machines:</p>
1968
1969
1970     
1971     
1972      <p>
1973By default, with parallel runs, processors output only data
1974of their respective subdomains into seperate local files (file names
1975are
1976constructed by appending the four digit processor ID, e.g.
1977&lt;filename&gt;_0000, &lt;filename&gt;_0001, etc.).
1978After PALM has
1979finished, the contents of these individual
1980files are sampled into one final file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
1981using the program <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
1982(to be started e.g. by a suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
1983configuration file).</p>
1984
1985
1986 
1987     
1988     
1989      <p>Alternatively, PALM is able to
1990collect all grid points of a
1991cross section on PE0 before output is done. In this case only
1992one&nbsp;
1993output file (DATA_2D_XY_NETCDF, etc.) is created and <tt><font style="font-size: 11pt;" size="2">combine_plot_fields.x</font></tt>
1994does not have to be called. In case of very large numbers of horizontal
1995gridpoints, sufficient
1996memory is required on PE0.&nbsp; This method can be used by
1997assigning <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_2d_on_each_pe">data_output_2d_on_each_pe</a>
1998= <i>.F.</i>.</p>
1999
2000
2001     
2002     
2003      <p>3d volume data output is
2004always handled seperately by each processor so that <span style="font-family: monospace;">combine_plot_fields.x</span>
2005has to be called anyway after PALM has been finished.</p>
2006
2007
2008     
2009     
2010      <p><br>
2011
2012
2013      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Old formats:</span></p>
2014
2015
2016
2017     
2018     
2019      <p>Beside
2020the NetCDF format,&nbsp;2d cross section data and 3d volume data
2021can
2022also be output, for historical reasons, in a different (binary) format
2023using parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>.</p>
2024
2025
2026     
2027     
2028      <p>By
2029assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format
2030      </span>= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>,
2031the 3d volume data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_DATA">PLOT3D_DATA</a>.
2032Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
2033the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.&nbsp;
2034The order of data on the file follows the order used in the assignment
2035for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
2036= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v'</span>,...&nbsp;
2037means that the file starts with the pressure data, followed by the
2038v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both instantaneous and time
2039averaged data are written on this file! Additional to this file, PALM
2040creates
2041a second binary file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_COOR">PLOT3D_COOR</a>)
2042with coordinate information needed by <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>.
2043As third and
2044fourth file two ASCII files are created (AVS-FLD-format, local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD">PLOT3D_FLD</a>
2045and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT3D_FLD_COOR">PLOT3D_FLD_COOR</a>),
2046which describe the contents of the data file and/or coordinate file
2047and are used by AVS. However, AVS expects the content description in
2048one file. This needs the local file PLOT3D_FLD_COOR to be appended to
2049the file
2050PLOT3D_FLD (by suitable OUTPUT command in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2051configuration file: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
2052PLOT3D_FLD_COOR &gt;&gt; PLOT3D_FLD</span>&rdquo;)
2053after PALM has
2054finished.&nbsp;To reduce the amount of data, output to this file
2055can be done
2056in
2057compressed form (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>).
2058Further details about plotting 3d volume data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS </span>can be found in
2059      <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">chapter
20604.5.5</a>.</p>
2061
2062
2063By assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format </span>=
2064      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>,
2065the cross section data is output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY">PLOT2D_XY</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>, and <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
2066Output is in FORTRAN binary format&nbsp;readable by
2067the plot software&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.&nbsp;
2068The order of data on the files follows the order used in the assignment
2069for <b>data_output</b> (e.g. <b>data_output</b>
2070= <span style="font-style: italic;">'p_xy'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v_xy_av'</span>,...&nbsp;
2071means that the file containing the horizontal cross section data starts
2072with the instantaneous pressure data, followed by the
2073temporally averaged v-component of the velocity, etc.). Both
2074instantaneous and time averaged data are written on this
2075file!Additional to these binary files, PALM
2076creates NAMELIST parameter files
2077(local names <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</a>,
2078      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL</a>,
2079      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>,
2080      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_XZ_LOCAL</a>,
2081      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>,
2082      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL">PLOT2D_YZ_LOCAL</a>)
2083which can be used as parameter input files for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html">iso2d</a>.
2084That needs local files with suffix _LOCAL to be appended to the
2085respective files with suffix _GLOBAL (by
2086suitable OUTPUT commands in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
2087configuration file, e.g.: &ldquo;<span style="font-family: monospace;">cat
2088PLOT2D_XY_LOCAL &gt;&gt; PLOT2D_XY_GLOBAL</span>&rdquo;)
2089after PALM has
2090finished. Cross sections can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> using the
2091respective data and
2092parameter file. The plot layout is steered via the parameter input
2093file.
2094The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2095parameters are determined by a set of mostly internal PALM parameters
2096(exception: <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do2d">z_max_do2d</a>).
2097All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter input
2098file.&nbsp;Further details about plotting 2d cross sections with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d </span>can be found
2099in <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">chapter
21004.5.4</a>.<br>
2101
2102
2103      <br>
2104
2105
2106      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important:</span><br>
2107
2108
2109There
2110is no guarantee that iso2d- and avs-output will be available in future
2111PALM versions (later than 3.0). </td>
2112
2113
2114 </tr>
2115
2116
2117 <tr>
2118
2119
2120 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="data_output_format"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span><br>
2121
2122
2123
2124      </td>
2125
2126
2127 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10 (10) </td>
2128
2129
2130
2131      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> </td>
2132
2133
2134
2135      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Format of output data.<br>
2136
2137
2138      <br>
2139
2140
2141By
2142default, all data (profiles, time
2143series, spectra, particle data, cross sections, volume data) are output
2144in NetCDF format (see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>).
2145Exception: restart data (local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BININ">BININ</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#BINOUT">BINOUT</a>, <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>,
2146      <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a>)
2147are always output in FORTRAN binary format.<br>
2148
2149
2150      <br>
2151
2152
2153The
2154numerical precision of the NetCDF output is determined with parameter <a href="#chapter_4.1.html#netcdf_precision">netcdf_precision</a>.<br>
2155
2156
2157      <br>
2158
2159
2160The
2161maximum file size for NetCDF files is 2 GByte by default. Use the
2162parameter <a href="#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>
2163if larger files have to be created.<br>
2164
2165
2166      <br>
2167
2168
2169For historical
2170reasons, other data formats are still available. Beside 'netcdf', <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>
2171may be assigned the following values:<br>
2172
2173
2174      <br>
2175
2176
2177     
2178     
2179      <table style="text-align: left; width: 594px; height: 104px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2180
2181
2182        <tbody>
2183
2184
2185          <tr>
2186
2187
2188            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span></td>
2189
2190
2191            <td>output
2192of profiles,&nbsp;time series and spectra in ASCII format to be
2193read by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil
2194            </span>(see chapters <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">4.5.2</a>,
2195            <a href="#chapter_4.5.3.html">4.5.3</a>)</td>
2196
2197
2198          </tr>
2199
2200
2201          <tr>
2202
2203
2204            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span></td>
2205
2206
2207            <td>output
2208of 2d cross-sections in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
2209software <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
2210(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.4.html">4.5.4</a>)</td>
2211
2212
2213          </tr>
2214
2215
2216          <tr>
2217
2218
2219            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span></td>
2220
2221
2222            <td>output
2223of 3d volume data in FORTRAN binary format to be read by the graphic
2224software <span style="font-weight: bold;">AVS</span>
2225(see chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.5.html">4.5.5</a>)</td>
2226
2227
2228          </tr>
2229
2230
2231       
2232       
2233        </tbody>
2234     
2235     
2236      </table>
2237
2238
2239      <br>
2240
2241
2242Multiple
2243values can be assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span>,
2244i.e. if the user wants to have both the "old" data format suitable for <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span> as well as
2245cross section data in NetCDF format, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
2246      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'netcdf'</span> has to be
2247assigned.<br>
2248
2249
2250      <br>
2251
2252
2253      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span>
2254There is no guarantee that the "old" formats will be available in
2255future PALM versions (beyond 3.0)!<br>
2256
2257
2258 </td>
2259
2260
2261 </tr>
2262
2263
2264 <tr>
2265
2266
2267
2268      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2269     
2270     
2271      <p><a name="data_output_pr"></a><b>data_output_pr</b></p>
2272
2273
2274
2275      </td>
2276
2277
2278 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
227910&nbsp; <br>
2280
2281
2282
2283(100)</td>
2284
2285
2286 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100
2287* ' '</i></td>
2288
2289
2290 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2291     
2292     
2293      <p>Quantities for which vertical profiles (horizontally averaged)
2294are to be output.&nbsp; </p>
2295
2296
2297 
2298     
2299     
2300      <p>By default vertical
2301profile data is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>.
2302The file's format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing
2303NetCDF data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
2304
2305
2306     
2307     
2308      <p>For
2309historical reasons, data can also be output in ASCII-format on local
2310file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>
2311which is readable by the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>. See
2312parameter <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
2313for defining the format in which data shall be output.<br>
2314
2315
2316 </p>
2317
2318
2319
2320     
2321     
2322      <p>For horizontally averaged vertical
2323profiles always <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
2324vertical
2325grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are output to file. Vertical
2326profile data refers to the total domain but profiles for subdomains can
2327also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).&nbsp;
2328      </p>
2329
2330
2331 
2332     
2333     
2334      <p>The temporal interval of the output times of
2335profiles is
2336assigned via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>.
2337Within the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>,
2338the profiles are ordered with respect to their
2339output times.</p>
2340
2341
2342     
2343     
2344      <p>Profiles can also be temporally
2345averaged (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>).<br>
2346
2347
2348
2349      </p>
2350
2351
2352 
2353     
2354     
2355      <p>The following list shows the values which can be
2356assigned to <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_pr</span>.
2357The profile data is either defined on
2358u-v-levels (variables marked in <font color="#ff6600">red</font>)
2359or
2360on w-levels (<font color="#33ff33">green</font>).
2361According to this,
2362the
2363z-coordinates of the individual profiles vary. Beyond that, with a
2364Prandtl layer switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
2365the lowest output
2366level is z = zu(1) instead of z = zw(0) for profiles <i>w''
2367u'',w''v"</i>, <i>wu</i> and <i>wv</i>
2368. Turbulence quantities such as&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">w*u* &nbsp;</span>or <span style="font-style: italic;">u*2</span> are calculated from turbulent fluctuations that are defined as deviations from the instantaneous horizontal average.
2369
2370
2371 </p>
2372
2373
2374 
2375     
2376     
2377      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
2378
2379
2380 <tbody>
2381
2382
2383 <tr>
2384
2385
2386 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u</i></font></td>
2387
2388
2389
2390            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2391velocity (in m/s).</td>
2392
2393
2394 </tr>
2395
2396
2397 <tr>
2398
2399
2400 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v</i></font></td>
2401
2402
2403
2404            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2405velocity (in m/s).</td>
2406
2407
2408 </tr>
2409
2410
2411 <tr>
2412
2413
2414 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w</i></font></td>
2415
2416
2417
2418            <td style="vertical-align: top;">w-component of the
2419velocity (in m/s).</td>
2420
2421
2422 </tr>
2423
2424
2425 <tr>
2426
2427
2428 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt</i></font></td>
2429
2430
2431
2432            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature (in
2433K).</td>
2434
2435
2436 </tr>
2437
2438
2439 <tr>
2440
2441
2442 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>vpt</i></font></td>
2443
2444
2445
2446            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Virtual potential
2447temperature (in K).</td>
2448
2449
2450 </tr>
2451
2452
2453 <tr>
2454
2455
2456 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>lpt</i></font></td>
2457
2458
2459
2460            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential liquid water
2461temperature (in K).</td>
2462
2463
2464 </tr>
2465
2466
2467 <tr>
2468
2469
2470 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>q</i></font></td>
2471
2472
2473
2474            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total water content
2475(in kg/kg).</td>
2476
2477
2478 </tr>
2479
2480
2481 <tr>
2482
2483
2484 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>qv</i></font></td>
2485
2486
2487
2488            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Specific humidity (in
2489kg/kg).</td>
2490
2491
2492 </tr>
2493
2494
2495 <tr>
2496
2497
2498 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>ql</i></font></td>
2499
2500
2501
2502            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Liquid water content
2503(in kg/kg).</td>
2504
2505
2506 </tr>
2507
2508
2509 <tr>
2510
2511
2512            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">rho</span></td>
2513
2514
2515            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Potential density (in kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
2516
2517
2518          </tr>
2519
2520
2521          <tr>
2522
2523
2524 <td style="vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic;"><font color="#ff6600">s</font></td>
2525
2526
2527
2528            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Scalar concentration (in
2529kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</td>
2530
2531
2532 </tr>
2533
2534
2535 <tr>
2536
2537
2538            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(255, 102, 0);">sa</span></td>
2539
2540
2541            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Salinity (in psu).</td>
2542
2543
2544          </tr>
2545
2546
2547          <tr>
2548
2549
2550 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e</i></font></td>
2551
2552
2553
2554            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Turbulent kinetic energy
2555(TKE, subgrid-scale) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2556
2557
2558
2559          </tr>
2560
2561
2562 <tr>
2563
2564
2565 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>e*</i></font></td>
2566
2567
2568
2569            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation energy
2570(resolved) (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2571
2572
2573
2574          </tr>
2575
2576
2577 <tr>
2578
2579
2580 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>km</i></font></td>
2581
2582
2583
2584            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for
2585momentum (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
2586
2587
2588 </tr>
2589
2590
2591 <tr>
2592
2593
2594
2595            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>kh</i></font></td>
2596
2597
2598
2599            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Eddy diffusivity for heat
2600(in m<sup>2</sup>/s).</td>
2601
2602
2603 </tr>
2604
2605
2606 <tr>
2607
2608
2609 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>l</i></font></td>
2610
2611
2612
2613            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length (in m).</td>
2614
2615
2616
2617          </tr>
2618
2619
2620 <tr>
2621
2622
2623 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"u"</i></font></td>
2624
2625
2626
2627            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2628subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2629
2630
2631
2632          </tr>
2633
2634
2635 <tr>
2636
2637
2638 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*u*</i></font></td>
2639
2640
2641
2642            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the
2643resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2644
2645
2646
2647          </tr>
2648
2649
2650 <tr>
2651
2652
2653 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wu</i></font></td>
2654
2655
2656
2657            <td style="vertical-align: top;">u-component of the total
2658vertical momentum flux (<i>w"u"</i> + <i>w*u*</i>)
2659(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2660
2661
2662 </tr>
2663
2664
2665
2666          <tr>
2667
2668
2669 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"v"</i></font></td>
2670
2671
2672
2673            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2674subgrid-scale vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2675
2676
2677
2678          </tr>
2679
2680
2681 <tr>
2682
2683
2684 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*v*</i></font></td>
2685
2686
2687
2688            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the
2689resolved vertical momentum flux (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2690
2691
2692
2693          </tr>
2694
2695
2696 <tr>
2697
2698
2699 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wv</i></font></td>
2700
2701
2702
2703            <td style="vertical-align: top;">v-component of the total
2704vertical momentum flux (<i>w"v"</i> + <i>w*v*</i>)
2705(in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).</td>
2706
2707
2708 </tr>
2709
2710
2711
2712          <tr>
2713
2714
2715 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"pt"</i></font></td>
2716
2717
2718
2719            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2720sensible heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
2721
2722
2723 </tr>
2724
2725
2726 <tr>
2727
2728
2729 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*</i></font></td>
2730
2731
2732
2733            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
2734sensible
2735heat flux (in K m/s).</td>
2736
2737
2738 </tr>
2739
2740
2741 <tr>
2742
2743
2744 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wpt</i></font></td>
2745
2746
2747
2748            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
2749heat flux (<i>w"pt"</i> + <i>w*pt*</i>)
2750(in K
2751m/s).</td>
2752
2753
2754 </tr>
2755
2756
2757 <tr>
2758
2759
2760 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*BC</i></font></td>
2761
2762
2763
2764            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2765sensible heat flux using the
2766Bott-Chlond scheme (in K m/s).</td>
2767
2768
2769 </tr>
2770
2771
2772 <tr>
2773
2774
2775 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wptBC</i></font></td>
2776
2777
2778
2779            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical sensible
2780heat flux using the Bott-Chlond scheme
2781(<i>w"pt"</i>
2782+ <i>w*pt*BC</i>) (in K m/s).</td>
2783
2784
2785 </tr>
2786
2787
2788 <tr>
2789
2790
2791
2792            <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"vpt"</i></font></td>
2793
2794
2795
2796            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2797buoyancy flux (in K m/s).</td>
2798
2799
2800 </tr>
2801
2802
2803 <tr>
2804
2805
2806 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*vpt*</i></font></td>
2807
2808
2809
2810            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical
2811buoyancy
2812flux (in K m/s).</td>
2813
2814
2815 </tr>
2816
2817
2818 <tr>
2819
2820
2821 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wvpt</i></font></td>
2822
2823
2824
2825            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical buoyancy
2826flux (w"vpt" + w*vpt*) (in K m/s).</td>
2827
2828
2829 </tr>
2830
2831
2832 <tr>
2833
2834
2835 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"q"</i></font></td>
2836
2837
2838
2839            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2840water flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2841
2842
2843 </tr>
2844
2845
2846 <tr>
2847
2848
2849 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*q*</i></font></td>
2850
2851
2852
2853            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical water
2854flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2855
2856
2857 </tr>
2858
2859
2860 <tr>
2861
2862
2863 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wq</i></font></td>
2864
2865
2866
2867            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical water flux
2868(w"q" + w*q*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2869
2870
2871 </tr>
2872
2873
2874 <tr>
2875
2876
2877 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"qv"</i></font></td>
2878
2879
2880
2881            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2882latent heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2883
2884
2885 </tr>
2886
2887
2888 <tr>
2889
2890
2891 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*qv*</i></font></td>
2892
2893
2894
2895            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical latent
2896heat flux (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2897
2898
2899 </tr>
2900
2901
2902 <tr>
2903
2904
2905 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>wqv</i></font></td>
2906
2907
2908
2909            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical latent
2910heat
2911flux (w"qv" + w*qv*) (in kg/kg m/s).</td>
2912
2913
2914 </tr>
2915
2916
2917 <tr>
2918
2919
2920
2921            <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w"s"</i></font></td>
2922
2923
2924
2925            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale vertical
2926scalar concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
2927
2928
2929
2930          </tr>
2931
2932
2933 <tr>
2934
2935
2936 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*s*</i></font></td>
2937
2938
2939
2940            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Resolved vertical scalar
2941concentration flux (in kg/m<sup>3</sup> m/s).</td>
2942
2943
2944 </tr>
2945
2946
2947
2948          <tr>
2949
2950
2951 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>ws</i></font></td>
2952
2953
2954
2955            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total vertical scalar
2956concentration flux (w"s" + w*s*) (in kg/m<sup>3 </sup>m/s).</td>
2957
2958
2959
2960          </tr>
2961
2962
2963 <tr>
2964
2965
2966            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w"sa"</span></td>
2967
2968
2969            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Subgrid-scale vertical
2970salinity flux (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
2971
2972
2973          </tr>
2974
2975
2976          <tr>
2977
2978
2979            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">w*sa*</span></td>
2980
2981
2982            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Resolved vertical salinity flux (in psu m/s).</td>
2983
2984
2985          </tr>
2986
2987
2988          <tr>
2989
2990
2991            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined"><span style="font-style: italic; color: rgb(51, 255, 51);">wsa</span></td>
2992
2993
2994            <td align="undefined" valign="undefined">Total vertical salinity flux (w"sa" + w*sa*) (in psu<sup> </sup>m/s).</td>
2995
2996
2997          </tr>
2998
2999
3000          <tr>
3001
3002
3003 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*e*</i></font></td>
3004
3005
3006
3007            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical flux of
3008perturbation energy (resolved)</td>
3009
3010
3011 </tr>
3012
3013
3014 <tr>
3015
3016
3017 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>u*2</i></font></td>
3018
3019
3020
3021            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
3022u-velocity
3023component (resolved)</td>
3024
3025
3026 </tr>
3027
3028
3029 <tr>
3030
3031
3032 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>v*2</i></font></td>
3033
3034
3035
3036            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the
3037v-velocity
3038component (resolved)</td>
3039
3040
3041 </tr>
3042
3043
3044 <tr>
3045
3046
3047 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2</i></font></td>
3048
3049
3050
3051            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the w-velocity
3052component (resolved)</td>
3053
3054
3055 </tr>
3056
3057
3058 <tr>
3059
3060
3061 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6600"><i>pt*2</i></font></td>
3062
3063
3064
3065            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variance of the potential
3066temperature (resolved)</td>
3067
3068
3069 </tr>
3070
3071
3072 <tr>
3073
3074
3075 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*3</i></font></td>
3076
3077
3078
3079            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment of the
3080w-velocity component (resolved)</td>
3081
3082
3083 </tr>
3084
3085
3086 <tr>
3087
3088
3089 <td style="vertical-align: middle;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>Sw</i></font></td>
3090
3091
3092
3093            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Skewness of the
3094w-velocity
3095component (resolved, S<sub>w</sub>
3096= W<sup>3</sup>/(w<sup>2</sup>)<sup>1.5</sup>)</td>
3097
3098
3099
3100          </tr>
3101
3102
3103 <tr>
3104
3105
3106 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*2pt*</i></font></td>
3107
3108
3109
3110            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
3111
3112
3113
3114          </tr>
3115
3116
3117 <tr>
3118
3119
3120 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#33ff33"><i>w*pt*2</i></font></td>
3121
3122
3123
3124            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Third moment (resolved)</td>
3125
3126
3127
3128          </tr>
3129
3130
3131 <tr>
3132
3133
3134 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*u*u*/dz</i></font></td>
3135
3136
3137
3138            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3139shear
3140(resolved)</td>
3141
3142
3143 </tr>
3144
3145
3146 <tr>
3147
3148
3149 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w*p*/dz</i></font></td>
3150
3151
3152
3153            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3154turbulent transport of pressure
3155fluctuations (resolved)</td>
3156
3157
3158 </tr>
3159
3160
3161 <tr>
3162
3163
3164 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font color="#ff6666"><i>w"e/dz</i></font></td>
3165
3166
3167
3168            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Energy production by
3169transport of resolved-scale TKE</td>
3170
3171
3172 </tr>
3173
3174
3175 
3176       
3177       
3178        </tbody>
3179     
3180     
3181      </table>
3182
3183
3184 <br>
3185
3186
3187Beyond that, initial profiles (t=0) of some
3188variables can additionally be
3189output (this output is only done once
3190with the first plot output and not repeated with the profile output at
3191later
3192times). The names of these profiles result from the ones specified
3193above leaded by a hash "#".&nbsp; Allowed values are:<br>
3194
3195
3196 
3197     
3198     
3199      <ul>
3200
3201
3202
3203       
3204       
3205        <p><i>#u</i>, <i>#v</i>, <i>#pt</i>,
3206        <i>#km</i>, <i>#kh</i>, <i>#l, #lpt, #q, #qv, #s, #sa, #vpt</i></p>
3207
3208
3209
3210     
3211     
3212      </ul>
3213
3214
3215 
3216     
3217     
3218      <p>Profile names preceded by a hash automatically imply that
3219profiles for these variables are also output at later times. It is not
3220necessary and not allowed to specify the same profile name with and
3221without hash simultaneously(this would lead to an NetCDF error). </p>
3222      <p>These initial profiles have been either set by
3223the user or
3224have been calculated by a 1d-model prerun.</p>
3225
3226
3227The
3228user is allowed to extend the above list of quantities by defining his
3229own output quantities (see the user-parameter <a href="chapter_4.3.html#data_output_pr_user">data_output_pr_user</a>).<br>
3230
3231
3232      <br>
3233
3234
3235In case
3236of ASCII data output to local file PLOT1D_DATA,
3237PALM additionally creates a NAMELIST parameter file (local name <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_PAR">PLOT1D_PAR</a>)
3238which can be used as parameter input file for the plot software <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/profil_intro.html">profil</a>.
3239Profiles can be directly plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
3240using these two files. The
3241plot layout is
3242steered via the parameter input file. The values of these <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>-parameters
3243are determined by
3244a set of PALM parameters (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>,
3245      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>,
3246      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#z_max_do1d">z_max_do1d</a>,
3247      <a href="chapter_4.2.html#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>,
3248etc.) All parameter values can be changed by editing the parameter
3249input
3250file. <br>
3251
3252
3253      <br>
3254
3255
3256Further details about plotting vertical
3257profiles with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil </span>can
3258be found in <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
32594.5.2</a></td>
3260
3261
3262 </tr>
3263
3264
3265 <tr>
3266
3267
3268 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3269     
3270     
3271      <p><a name="data_output_2d_on_each_pe"></a><b>data_output_2d_on</b>
3272      <br>
3273
3274
3275 <b>_each_pe</b></p>
3276
3277
3278 </td>
3279
3280
3281 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3282
3283
3284 </td>
3285
3286
3287 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span><br>
3288
3289
3290 </td>
3291
3292
3293
3294      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output 2d cross section
3295data by one or
3296all processors.&nbsp; 
3297     
3298     
3299      <p>In runs with several processors, by
3300default, each processor
3301outputs cross section data of its subdomain&nbsp;into an individual
3302file. After PALM
3303has finished, the contents of these files have to be sampled into one
3304file<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> using
3305the program <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt>.&nbsp; </p>
3306
3307
3308
3309     
3310     
3311      <p>Alternatively, by assigning <b>data_output_2d_on_each_pe</b>
3312= <i>.F.,</i>
3313the respective data is gathered on PE0 and output is done directly
3314into one file, so <tt>combine_plot_fields.x</tt> does not
3315have to be
3316called. However, in case of very large numbers of horizontal
3317gridpoints, sufficient
3318memory is required on PE0. </p>
3319
3320
3321 </td>
3322
3323
3324 </tr>
3325
3326
3327
3328    <tr>
3329
3330
3331 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3332     
3333     
3334      <p><a name="disturbance_amplitude"></a><b>disturbance<br>
3335
3336
3337
3338_amplitude</b></p>
3339
3340
3341 </td>
3342
3343
3344 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3345
3346
3347 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.25</i></td>
3348
3349
3350
3351      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3352     
3353     
3354      <p>Maximum
3355perturbation amplitude of the random perturbations
3356imposed to the horizontal velocity field (in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
3357
3358
3359
3360     
3361     
3362      <p>The parameter <a href="#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>
3363describes how to impose random perturbations to the horizontal velocity
3364field. Since the perturbation procedure includes two filter operations,
3365the amplitude assigned by <b>disturbance_amplitude</b> is
3366only an
3367approximate value of the real magnitude of the perturbation.</p>
3368
3369
3370 </td>
3371
3372
3373
3374    </tr>
3375
3376
3377 <tr>
3378
3379
3380 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3381     
3382     
3383      <p><a name="disturbance_energy_limit"></a><b>disturbance_energy</b>
3384      <br>
3385
3386
3387 <b>_limit</b></p>
3388
3389
3390 </td>
3391
3392
3393 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3394
3395
3396 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.01</i></td>
3397
3398
3399
3400      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3401     
3402     
3403      <p lang="en-GB">Upper
3404limit value of the perturbation energy of
3405the velocity field used as a criterion for imposing random
3406perturbations (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
3407      </p>
3408
3409
3410 
3411     
3412     
3413      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3414describes how to impose
3415random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field. The perturbation
3416energy is defined as the volume average (over the total model domain)
3417of the squares of the deviations of the velocity components from the
3418mean flow (horizontal average). If the perturbation energy exceeds the
3419assigned value, random perturbations to the fields of horizontal
3420velocities are imposed no more. The value of this parameter usually
3421must be determined by trial and error (it depends e.g. on the total
3422number of grid points).</span> </font> </p>
3423
3424
3425 </td>
3426
3427
3428
3429    </tr>
3430
3431
3432 <tr>
3433
3434
3435 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3436     
3437     
3438      <p><a name="disturbance_level_b"></a><b>disturbance_level_b</b></p>
3439
3440
3441
3442      </td>
3443
3444
3445 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3446
3447
3448
3449      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(3) or<br>
3450
3451
3452zu(nz*2/3)<br>
3453
3454
3455see right</i></td>
3456
3457
3458
3459      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3460     
3461     
3462      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Lower
3463limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
3464imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
3465      </font></font> </p>
3466
3467
3468 
3469     
3470     
3471      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
3472parameter must hold the condition zu(3) &lt;= <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
3473&lt;= zu(</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-2</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">. Additionally, <b>disturbance_level_b</b>
3474&lt;= </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_t</font></span></a>
3475      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">must
3476also hold.</font></span></p>
3477
3478
3479     
3480     
3481      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_b</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz * 2 / 3) </span>(negative).</span></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
3482
3483
3484 
3485     
3486     
3487      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
3488parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3489describes how to impose
3490random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
3491      </font> </p>
3492
3493
3494 </td>
3495
3496
3497 </tr>
3498
3499
3500 <tr>
3501
3502
3503 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3504     
3505     
3506      <p><a name="disturbance_level_t"></a><b>disturbance_level_t</b></p>
3507
3508
3509
3510      </td>
3511
3512
3513 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3514
3515
3516
3517      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nz/3) or<br>
3518
3519
3520zu(nzt-3)<br>
3521
3522
3523see right</i></td>
3524
3525
3526
3527      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3528     
3529     
3530      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Upper
3531limit of the vertical range for which random perturbations are to be
3532imposed on the horizontal wind field (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">m).&nbsp;
3533      </font></font> </p>
3534
3535
3536 
3537     
3538     
3539      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This
3540parameter must hold the condition <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
3541&lt;= zu<i>(</i></font></span><i><a href="chapter_4.1.html#nz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">nz-2</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)</font></span></i><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
3542Additionally, </font></span><a href="#disturbance_level_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">disturbance_level_b</font></span></a>
3543      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">&lt;=
3544      <b>disturbance_level_t</b>
3545must also hold.</font></span></p>
3546
3547
3548      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>) </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">the default value is <span style="font-weight: bold;">disturbance_level_t</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nzt - 3</span>)</span></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;"><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span>(negative)</span></span><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-family: Thorndale,serif;">.</span></span>
3549     
3550     
3551      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The
3552parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
3553describes how to impose
3554random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
3555      </font> </p>
3556
3557
3558 </td>
3559
3560
3561 </tr>
3562
3563
3564 <tr>
3565
3566
3567 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3568     
3569     
3570      <p><a name="do2d_at_begin"></a><b>do2d_at_begin</b></p>
3571
3572
3573
3574      </td>
3575
3576
3577 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3578
3579
3580 </td>
3581
3582
3583
3584      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3585
3586
3587 </td>
3588
3589
3590
3591      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3592     
3593     
3594      <p>Output of 2d
3595cross section data at the beginning of a run.&nbsp; </p>
3596
3597
3598 
3599     
3600     
3601      <p>The
3602temporal intervals of output times of 2d cross section data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
3603are usually determined with parameters <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
3604and <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>.
3605By assigning <b>do2d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
3606an additional output
3607will be made at the
3608beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
3609starting times of restart runs).</p>
3610
3611
3612 </td>
3613
3614
3615 </tr>
3616
3617
3618 <tr>
3619
3620
3621
3622      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3623     
3624     
3625      <p><a name="do3d_at_begin"></a><b>do3d_at_begin</b></p>
3626
3627
3628
3629      </td>
3630
3631
3632 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3633
3634
3635 </td>
3636
3637
3638
3639      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3640
3641
3642 </td>
3643
3644
3645
3646      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Output of 3d volume data
3647at the beginning
3648of a run.<br>
3649
3650
3651      <br>
3652
3653
3654The temporal intervals of output times of
36553d volume data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>)
3656is usually determined with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>.
3657By assigning <b>do3d_at_begin</b> = <i>.T.</i>
3658an additional output
3659will be made at the
3660beginning of a run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the respective
3661starting times of restart runs).</td>
3662
3663
3664 </tr>
3665
3666
3667 <tr>
3668
3669
3670 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3671     
3672     
3673      <p><a name="do3d_compress"></a><b>do3d_compress</b></p>
3674
3675
3676
3677      </td>
3678
3679
3680 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
3681
3682
3683 </td>
3684
3685
3686
3687      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.F.<br>
3688
3689
3690 </td>
3691
3692
3693
3694      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3695     
3696     
3697      <p>Output of data
3698for 3d plots in compressed form.&nbsp; </p>
3699
3700
3701 
3702     
3703     
3704      <p>This
3705parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3706= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
3707
3708
3709     
3710     
3711      <p>Output
3712of 3d volume data may need huge amounts of disc storage
3713(up to several Terabytes ore more). Data compression can serve to
3714reduce this requirement. PALM is able to output 3d data in compressed
3715form using 32-bit integers, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_compress</span>
3716= <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> is
3717assigned. This
3718yields a loss of accuracy, but the file size is clearly reduced. The
3719parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_precision">do3d_precision</a>
3720can be used to separately define the number of significant digits for
3721each quantity.<br>
3722
3723
3724 </p>
3725
3726
3727 
3728     
3729     
3730      <p>So far compressed data
3731output is only possible for Cray-T3E
3732machines. Additional information for
3733handling compressed data is given in <a href="chapter_4.5.6.html">chapter
37344.5.6</a>.</p>
3735
3736
3737 </td>
3738
3739
3740 </tr>
3741
3742
3743 <tr>
3744
3745
3746 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3747     
3748     
3749      <p><a name="do3d_precision"></a><b>do3d_precision</b></p>
3750
3751
3752
3753      </td>
3754
3755
3756 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C *
37577&nbsp; <br>
3758
3759
3760
3761&nbsp; (100)</td>
3762
3763
3764 <td style="vertical-align: top;">see
3765right<br>
3766
3767
3768 </td>
3769
3770
3771 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3772     
3773     
3774      <p>Significant digits in case of compressed data
3775output.&nbsp; </p>
3776
3777
3778 
3779     
3780     
3781      <p>This parameter only applies for
3782&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
3783= <span style="font-style: italic;">'avs'</span>.</p>
3784
3785
3786     
3787     
3788      <p>In
3789case that data compression is used for output of 3d data
3790(see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#do3d_compress">do3d_compress</a>),
3791this parameter determines the number of significant digits
3792which are to be output.<br>
3793
3794
3795 </p>
3796
3797
3798 
3799     
3800     
3801      <p>Fewer digits
3802clearly reduce the amount
3803of data. Assignments have to be given separately for each individual
3804quantity via a character string of the form <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;quantity
3805name&gt;&lt;number of
3806significant digits&gt;'</span>, e.g. <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.
3807Only those quantities listed in <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a>
3808are admitted. Up to 9 significant digits are allowed (but large values
3809are not very reasonable
3810because they do not effect a significant compression).<br>
3811
3812
3813 </p>
3814
3815
3816
3817     
3818     
3819      <p>The default assignment is <span style="font-weight: bold;">do3d_precision</span>
3820= <span style="font-style: italic;">'u2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'v2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'w2'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'p5'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'pt2'</span>.</p>
3821
3822
3823 </td>
3824
3825
3826
3827    </tr>
3828
3829
3830    <tr>
3831
3832
3833 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3834     
3835     
3836      <p><a name="dt_laufparameter"></a><b>dt</b></p>
3837
3838
3839
3840      </td>
3841
3842
3843 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3844
3845
3846
3847      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable</i></td>
3848
3849
3850
3851      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3852     
3853     
3854      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">Time
3855step to be used by the 3d-model (</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
3856      </font></font> </p>
3857
3858
3859 
3860     
3861     
3862      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">This parameter</font></span>
3863      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">is
3864described in
3865detail with the initialization parameters (see</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">).
3866Additionally, it may be
3867used as a run parameter and then applies to all restart runs (until it
3868is changed again). A switch from a constant time step to a variable
3869time step can be achieved with <b>dt</b> = <i>-1.0</i>.</span>
3870      </font> </p>
3871
3872
3873 </td>
3874
3875
3876 </tr>
3877
3878
3879 <tr>
3880
3881
3882 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_averaging_input"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span><br>
3883
3884
3885
3886      </td>
3887
3888
3889 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
3890
3891
3892 </td>
3893
3894
3895
3896      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
3897
3898
3899 </td>
3900
3901
3902
3903      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval
3904of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging (in s).<br>
3905
3906
3907      <br>
3908
3909
3910By
3911default, data from each timestep within the interval defined by <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>
3912are used for calculating the temporal average. By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>
3913&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
3914the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
3915reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
3916average's statistics.<br>
3917
3918
3919      <br>
3920
3921
3922      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">With
3923variable time step (see <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>),
3924the number of time levels entering the average can vary from one
3925averaging interval to the next (for a more detailed explanation see </span></font><font><a href="#averaging_interval"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval</font></span></a>)</font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">. It
3926is approximately given by the quotient of <span style="font-weight: bold;">averaging_interval</span> /
3927MAX(<span style="font-weight: bold;"> dt_averaging_input</span>,
3928      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>) (which
3929gives a more or less exact value if a fixed timestep is used and if
3930this is an integral divisor of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span>).</span></font>&nbsp;
3931      <br>
3932
3933
3934      <br>
3935
3936
3937      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
3938
3939
3940With
3941an averaging interval of 100.0 s and <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input</span> =
3942      <span style="font-style: italic;">10.0</span>,
3943the time levels entering the average have a (minimum) distance of 10.0
3944s (their distance may of course be larger if the current timestep is
3945larger than 10.0 s), so the average is calculated from the data of
3946(maximum) 10 time levels.<br>
3947
3948
3949      <br>
3950
3951
3952      <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">It
3953is allowed
3954to change <b>dt_averaging_input</b> during a job chain. If
3955the last averaging
3956interval of the run previous to the change could not be completed (i.e.
3957has to be finished in the current run), the individual profiles and/or
3958spectra entering the averaging are not uniformly distributed over the
3959averaging interval.<br>
3960
3961
3962      <br>
3963
3964
3965      </span></font>Parameter&nbsp;<a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>&nbsp;can
3966be used to define&nbsp;a different temporal interval&nbsp;for
3967vertical profile data and spectra.<br>
3968
3969
3970 </td>
3971
3972
3973 </tr>
3974
3975
3976
3977    <tr>
3978
3979
3980 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3981     
3982     
3983      <p><a name="dt_averaging_input_pr"></a><b>dt_averaging_input_pr</b></p>
3984
3985
3986
3987      </td>
3988
3989
3990 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3991
3992
3993
3994      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_<br>
3995
3996
3997averaging_<br>
3998
3999
4000input</a></span></td>
4001
4002
4003
4004      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4005     
4006     
4007      <p lang="en-GB">Temporal
4008interval of&nbsp;data which are subject to temporal averaging of <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">vertical
4009profiles and/or spectra&nbsp;(</font></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><font size="3">s).&nbsp;
4010      </font></font> </p>
4011
4012
4013 
4014     
4015     
4016      <p>By default, data from
4017each timestep within the interval defined by<font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"> </span></font><a href="#averaging_interval_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and </font></span><a href="#averaging_interval_sp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">averaging_interval_sp</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span>are
4018used for calculating the temporal average.&nbsp;By choosing <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_averaging_input_pr</span>
4019&gt; <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>,
4020the number of time levels entering the average can be minimized. This
4021reduces the CPU-time of a run but may worsen the quality of the
4022average's statistics. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span></font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font><span lang="en-GB"></span><br>
4023
4024
4025 </p>
4026
4027
4028     
4029     
4030      <p>For
4031more explanations see parameter <a href="#dt_averaging_input">dt_averaging_input</a>.<a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB"></span></font></p>
4032
4033
4034      </td>
4035
4036
4037
4038    </tr>
4039
4040
4041 <tr>
4042
4043
4044      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_coupling"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span></td>
4045
4046
4047      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4048
4049
4050      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
4051
4052
4053      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temporal interval for the data exchange in case of <a href="chapter_3.8.html">runs with coupled models</a> (e.g. atmosphere - ocean) (in s).<br>
4054
4055
4056      <br>
4057
4058
4059This parameter has an effect only in case of a run with coupled models. It is available starting from version 3.3a. <br>
4060
4061
4062      <br>
4063
4064
4065This parameter specifies the temporal interval at which data are
4066exchanged at the interface between coupled models (currently: interface
4067between atmosphere and ocean). If this parameter is not explicitly
4068specified in the parameter files for both coupled models, or if there
4069is an inconsistency between its values for both coupled models,
4070the&nbsp;execution will terminate and an informative error message will
4071be given.&nbsp;In order to ensure synchronous coupling throughout the simulation, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_coupling</span> should be chosen larger than
4072      <a href="#dt_max">dt_max</a>.</td>
4073
4074
4075    </tr>
4076
4077
4078    <tr>
4079
4080
4081 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output</span><br>
4082
4083
4084
4085      </td>
4086
4087
4088 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4089
4090
4091 </td>
4092
4093
4094
4095      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span><br>
4096
4097
4098
4099      </td>
4100
4101
4102 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4103     
4104     
4105      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
4106at which&nbsp;data (3d volume data (instantaneous or time
4107averaged),
4108cross sections (instantaneous or time averaged), vertical profiles,
4109spectra) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
4110
4111
4112
4113      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
4114data output&nbsp;is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>, <a href="#data_output_sp">data_output_sp</a>, and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
4115parameter can be used to
4116assign the temporal interval at which these data shall be
4117output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
4118simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_data_output</a>,
4119which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4120time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
4121takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output +
4122dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
4123+ 2*<b>dt_data_output</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
4124+ 3*<b>dt_data_output</b>,
4125etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
4126the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
4127deviate
4128from these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
4129
4130
4131      <br>
4132
4133
4134Individual temporal
4135intervals for the different output quantities can be assigned using
4136parameters <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a>, <a href="#dt_dosp">dt_dosp</a>,
4137and <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>.</font></span>
4138      </td>
4139
4140
4141 </tr>
4142
4143
4144 <tr>
4145
4146
4147 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_data_output_av</span><br>
4148
4149
4150
4151      </td>
4152
4153
4154 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4155
4156
4157 </td>
4158
4159
4160
4161      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
4162&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
4163
4164
4165output</a></i>
4166      </td>
4167
4168
4169 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4170     
4171     
4172      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal interval</font>
4173at which time averaged 3d volume data and/or 2d cross section data
4174shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></p>
4175
4176
4177      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If data
4178output of time averaged 2d and 3d data is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
4179parameter can be used to
4180assign the temporal interval at which they shall be
4181output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
4182simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>,
4183which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4184time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
4185takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_data_output_av +
4186dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
4187+ 2*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
4188+ 3*<b>dt_data_output_av</b>,
4189etc. Since output is only done at the discrete time levels given by
4190the&nbsp;timestep used, the actual output times can slightly
4191deviate from
4192these theoretical values</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.<br>
4193
4194
4195      <br>
4196
4197
4198      </font></span>The
4199length of the averaging interval is controlled via parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#averaging_interval">averaging_interval</a>.</td>
4200
4201
4202
4203    </tr>
4204
4205
4206    <tr>
4207
4208
4209 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4210     
4211     
4212      <p><a name="dt_disturb"></a><b>dt_disturb</b></p>
4213
4214
4215
4216      </td>
4217
4218
4219 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4220
4221
4222
4223      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
4224
4225
4226
4227      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4228     
4229     
4230      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4231interval</font> at which random
4232perturbations are to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field
4233(</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font>
4234      </p>
4235
4236
4237 
4238     
4239     
4240      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The parameter </font></span><a href="#create_disturbances"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">create_disturbances</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">
4241describes how to impose
4242random perturbations to the horizontal velocity field</span></font><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.</span>
4243      </font> </p>
4244
4245
4246 </td>
4247
4248
4249 </tr>
4250
4251
4252 <tr>
4253
4254
4255 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4256     
4257     
4258      <p><a name="dt_dopr"></a><b>dt_dopr</b></p>
4259
4260
4261
4262      </td>
4263
4264
4265 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4266
4267
4268
4269      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
4270&nbsp;<a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
4271
4272
4273output</a></i></td>
4274
4275
4276
4277      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4278     
4279     
4280      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Temporal
4281interval at
4282which data&nbsp;of vertical profiles shall be output (to local
4283file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PR_NETCDF</a>
4284or/and </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">PLOT1D_DATA</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
4285      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
4286      </font></span> </p>
4287
4288
4289 
4290     
4291     
4292      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
4293horizontally averaged vertical profiles is switched on (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">this
4294parameter can be used to
4295assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
4296be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, which has
4297zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4298time is the beginning
4299of the simulation, thus t = 0,&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">i.e. output
4300takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_dopr + dt_dopr</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> + 2*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
4301      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span>
4302+ 3*<b>dt_dopr</b>,
4303etc.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Since
4304profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
4305interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
4306If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
4307example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
4308the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If the
4309model uses a variable time step, these
4310deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
4311different for each output time.<br>
4312
4313
4314 </font></span></p>
4315
4316
4317
4318     
4319     
4320      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
4321order to
4322guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
4323      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
4324should be equal or a little bit
4325larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr</b>
4326= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
4327      </span>and 3600.0
4328seconds are to be simulated, then <b>end_time</b>
4329&gt;= 3600.0 should be chosen.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>&nbsp; </font></span>
4330      </p>
4331
4332
4333 
4334     
4335     
4336      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">A selection of
4337profiles to be output can be done via parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_pr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output_pr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">.&nbsp;</font></span>
4338      </p>
4339
4340
4341 </td>
4342
4343
4344 </tr>
4345
4346
4347 <tr>
4348
4349
4350 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_dopr_listing"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dopr_listing</span><br>
4351
4352
4353
4354      </td>
4355
4356
4357 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
4358
4359
4360 </td>
4361
4362
4363
4364      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
4365
4366
4367
4368      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4369     
4370     
4371      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4372interval</font> at which data <font face="Thorndale">of
4373vertical
4374profiles shall be output (output for printouts, local file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) (</font></span>in
4375      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font></span>
4376      </p>
4377
4378
4379 
4380     
4381     
4382      <p>T<span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pr1d"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">his
4383parameter can be used to
4384assign the temporal interval at which profile data shall be output.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> Reference
4385time is the beginning
4386of the simulation, thus t = 0. For example if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
4387= 1800.0,
4388then output takes place at t = 1800.0, 3600.0, 5400.0, etc. Since
4389profiles can not be calculated for times lying within a time step
4390interval, the output times can deviate from these theoretical values.
4391If a time step ranges from t = 1799.8 to t = 1800.2, then in the
4392example above the output would take place at t = 1800.2. In general,
4393the output always lie between t = 1800.0 and t = 1800.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(numbers
4394are related to
4395the
4396example above). If the model uses a variable time step, these
4397deviations from the theoretical output times will of course be
4398different for each output time.<br>
4399
4400
4401 </font></span></p>
4402
4403
4404
4405     
4406     
4407      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In
4408order to
4409guarantee an output of profile data at the end of a simulation (see </font></span><font><a href="chapter_4.1.html#end_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">end_time</font></span></a></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">) in any way</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">,&nbsp;
4410      <span style="font-weight: bold;">end_time</span>
4411should be a little bit
4412larger than the respective theoretical output time. For example, if <b>dt_dopr_listing</b>
4413= <i>900.0</i><span style="font-style: italic;">
4414      </span>and 3600.0
4415seconds are to be simulated, then it should be at least&nbsp; <b>end_time</b>
4416&gt; 3600.0 + </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. If
4417variable time steps are used
4418(which is the default), <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
4419should be properly estimated.&nbsp; </font></span> </p>
4420
4421
4422
4423     
4424     
4425      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Data
4426and output
4427format of the file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">LIST_PROFIL</font></span></a>
4428      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">is
4429internally fixed. In this file
4430the profiles of the most important model variables are arranged in
4431adjacent columns.</font></span> </p>
4432
4433
4434 </td>
4435
4436
4437 </tr>
4438
4439
4440
4441    <tr>
4442
4443
4444 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4445     
4446     
4447      <p><a name="dt_dots"></a><b>dt_dots</b></p>
4448
4449
4450
4451      </td>
4452
4453
4454 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4455
4456
4457
4458      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
4459
4460
4461
4462      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4463     
4464     
4465      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
4466interval</font> at which&nbsp;time series data shall be
4467output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;</font>
4468      </p>
4469
4470
4471 
4472     
4473     
4474      <p>The default interval for the output of timeseries
4475is calculated as shown below (this tries to minimize the number of
4476calls of <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">flow_statistics</span>)</p>
4477
4478
4479     
4480     
4481      <p style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4482IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
4483== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
4484
4485
4486&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4487      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4488MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
4489
4490
4491&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4492ELSE<br>
4493
4494
4495&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4496      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4497MIN( dt_run_control, <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
4498)<br>
4499
4500
4501&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4502ENDIF</p>
4503
4504
4505     
4506     
4507      <p>This parameter can be used to
4508assign the temporal interval at which data points shall be output. <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
4509time is the beginning of
4510&nbsp;the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_dots</b>,
45112*<b>dt_dots</b>, 3*<b>dt_dots</b>, etc. The
4512actual output times can
4513deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
4514Is <b>dt_dots</b> &lt; </font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dt"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, then data
4515of the time series are
4516written after each time step (if this is requested it should be <b>dt_dots</b>
4517= <i>0</i>).</font></span></p>
4518
4519
4520     
4521     
4522      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The default
4523value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>
4524is calculated as follows:</font></span></p>
4525
4526
4527&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4528IF ( <a href="#averaging_interval_pr">averaging_interval_pr</a>
4529== 0.0 )&nbsp; THEN<br>
4530
4531
4532&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4533      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4534MIN( <a href="#dt_run_control">dt_run_control</a>, <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> )<br>
4535
4536
4537&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4538ELSE<br>
4539
4540
4541&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4542      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span> =
4543MIN( <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_run_control</span>,
4544      <a href="#dt_averaging_input_pr">dt_averaging_input_pr</a>
4545)<br>
4546
4547
4548&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
4549ENDIF<br>
4550
4551
4552      <br>
4553
4554
4555(which minimizes the number of calls of
4556routine flow_statistics).<br>
4557
4558
4559     
4560     
4561      <p>By default time series data
4562is output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_TS_NETCDF</a>.
4563Because of the default settings of <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_dots</span>,
4564it will&nbsp;generally be created for each model run. The file's
4565format is NetCDF.&nbsp; Further details about processing NetCDF
4566data are given in chapter <a href="chapter_4.5.1.html">4.5.1</a>.</p>
4567
4568
4569The
4570file contains the following timeseries quantities (the first column
4571gives the name of the quantities as used in the NetCDF file):<br>
4572
4573
4574     
4575     
4576      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
4577
4578
4579 <tbody>
4580
4581
4582 <tr>
4583
4584
4585 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E<br>
4586
4587
4588
4589            </td>
4590
4591
4592 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total
4593kinetic energy of
4594the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)
4595(normalized with respect to the total number of grid points).</td>
4596
4597
4598
4599          </tr>
4600
4601
4602 <tr>
4603
4604
4605 <td style="font-style: italic; vertical-align: middle;">E*<br>
4606
4607
4608
4609            </td>
4610
4611
4612 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Perturbation
4613kinetic
4614energy of the flow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>)<sup>
4615            </sup>(normalized
4616with respect to the total number of grid
4617points)</td>
4618
4619
4620 </tr>
4621
4622
4623 <tr>
4624
4625
4626 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">dt<br>
4627
4628
4629
4630            </td>
4631
4632
4633 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Time step
4634size (in s).</td>
4635
4636
4637 </tr>
4638
4639
4640 <tr>
4641
4642
4643 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">u<sub>*</sub></td>
4644
4645
4646
4647            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Friction velocity (in
4648m/s)
4649(horizontal average).</td>
4650
4651
4652 </tr>
4653
4654
4655 <tr>
4656
4657
4658 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w<sub>*</sub></td>
4659
4660
4661
4662            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Vertical velocity scale
4663of
4664the CBL (in m/s) (horizontal average)</td>
4665
4666
4667 </tr>
4668
4669
4670 <tr>
4671
4672
4673
4674            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">th<sub>*</sub></td>
4675
4676
4677
4678            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Temperature
4679scale (Prandtl layer), defined as <i>w"pt"0
4680/&nbsp;</i><i>u<sub>*</sub></i>
4681(horizontal
4682average) (in K).</td>
4683
4684
4685 </tr>
4686
4687
4688 <tr>
4689
4690
4691 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">umax<br>
4692
4693
4694
4695            </td>
4696
4697
4698 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4699u-component of the
4700velocity (in m/s).</td>
4701
4702
4703 </tr>
4704
4705
4706 <tr>
4707
4708
4709 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">vmax<br>
4710
4711
4712
4713            </td>
4714
4715
4716 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4717v-component of the
4718velocity (in m/s).</td>
4719
4720
4721 </tr>
4722
4723
4724 <tr>
4725
4726
4727 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wmax<br>
4728
4729
4730
4731            </td>
4732
4733
4734 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
4735w-component of the
4736velocity (in m/s).</td>
4737
4738
4739 </tr>
4740
4741
4742 <tr>
4743
4744
4745 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_old<br>
4746
4747
4748
4749            </td>
4750
4751
4752 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence
4753of the velocity
4754field before the pressure
4755solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
4756grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
4757
4758
4759 </tr>
4760
4761
4762 <tr>
4763
4764
4765 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">div_new</td>
4766
4767
4768
4769            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Divergence of the
4770velocity
4771field after the pressure
4772solver has been called (normalized with respect to the total number of
4773grid points) (in 1/s).</td>
4774
4775
4776 </tr>
4777
4778
4779 <tr>
4780
4781
4782 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_wpt</td>
4783
4784
4785
4786            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
4787boundary layer (horizontal average)
4788determined by the height of the minimum sensible heat flux (in m).</td>
4789
4790
4791
4792          </tr>
4793
4794
4795 <tr>
4796
4797
4798 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">z_i_pt</td>
4799
4800
4801
4802            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Height of the convective
4803boundary layer (horizontal average)
4804determined by the temperature profile (in m).</td>
4805
4806
4807 </tr>
4808
4809
4810 <tr>
4811
4812
4813
4814            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"0</td>
4815
4816
4817
4818            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale sensible
4819heat flux near the surface (horizontal
4820average)
4821between z = 0 and z = z<sub>p</sub> = zu(1) (there it
4822corresponds to
4823the total heat flux) (in K m/s).</td>
4824
4825
4826 </tr>
4827
4828
4829 <tr>
4830
4831
4832 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">w"pt"</td>
4833
4834
4835
4836            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Subgrid-scale heat flux
4837(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K
4838m/s).</td>
4839
4840
4841 </tr>
4842
4843
4844 <tr>
4845
4846
4847 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">wpt</td>
4848
4849
4850
4851            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Total heat flux
4852(horizontal average) for z = zw(1) (in K m/s).</td>
4853
4854
4855 </tr>
4856
4857
4858 <tr>
4859
4860
4861
4862            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(0)</td>
4863
4864
4865
4866            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature at
4867the surface (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
4868
4869
4870 </tr>
4871
4872
4873 <tr>
4874
4875
4876
4877            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">pt(zp)</td>
4878
4879
4880
4881            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Potential temperature for
4882z = zu(1) (horizontal average) (in K).</td>
4883
4884
4885 </tr>
4886
4887
4888 <tr>
4889
4890
4891
4892            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptx</td>
4893
4894
4895
4896            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4897using upstream scheme along x with
4898upstream-spline advection switched on.</td>
4899
4900
4901 </tr>
4902
4903
4904 <tr>
4905
4906
4907
4908            <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splpty</td>
4909
4910
4911
4912            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4913using upstream scheme along y with
4914upstream-spline
4915advection switched on.</td>
4916
4917
4918 </tr>
4919
4920
4921 <tr>
4922
4923
4924 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">splptz</td>
4925
4926
4927
4928            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Percentage of grid points
4929using upstream scheme along z with
4930upstream-spline
4931advection switched on.<br>
4932
4933
4934 </td>
4935
4936
4937 </tr>
4938
4939
4940 <tr>
4941
4942
4943 <td style="vertical-align: top; font-style: italic;">L</td>
4944
4945
4946
4947            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Monin-Obukhov length.</td>
4948
4949
4950
4951          </tr>
4952
4953
4954 
4955       
4956       
4957        </tbody> 
4958     
4959     
4960      </table>
4961
4962
4963      <br>
4964
4965
4966Additionally, the
4967user can add his own timeseries quantities to the file, by using the
4968user-interface subroutines<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init">user_init</a> </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_statistics">user_statistics</a></span>.
4969These routines contain (as comment lines) a simple example how to do
4970this.<br>
4971
4972
4973      <br>
4974
4975
4976Time series data refers to the total
4977domain, but time series for subdomains can also be output (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#statistic_regions">statistic_regions</a>).
4978However, the following time series always present the values of the
4979total model domain (even with output for subdomains): <i>umax</i>,
4980      <i>vmax</i>, <i>wmax</i>, <i>div_old</i>,
4981      <i>div_new</i>.</td>
4982
4983
4984 </tr>
4985
4986
4987 <tr>
4988
4989
4990 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4991     
4992     
4993      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xy"></a><b>dt_do2d_xy</b></p>
4994
4995
4996
4997      </td>
4998
4999
5000 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5001
5002
5003
5004      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5005&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5006
5007
5008output</a></i></td>
5009
5010
5011
5012      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5013     
5014     
5015      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5016interval</font> at which&nbsp;horizontal cross section data
5017shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5018      </font> </p>
5019
5020
5021 
5022     
5023     
5024      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5025horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5026      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5027      </font></span><a href="#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
5028parameter can be used to
5029assign the temporal interval at which cross section data shall be
5030output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can be skipped at the beginning of a
5031simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>,
5032which has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5033time is the beginning of the simulation, i.e. output
5034takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xy + dt_do2d_xy</b>,
5035      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
5036+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
5037+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xy</b>,
5038etc. The actual output times can deviate from these theoretical values
5039(see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5040
5041
5042
5043      </font></span></p>
5044
5045
5046 
5047     
5048     
5049      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5050has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5051the time t = 0 or at the
5052respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5053
5054
5055
5056      </td>
5057
5058
5059 </tr>
5060
5061
5062 <tr>
5063
5064
5065 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5066     
5067     
5068      <p><a name="dt_do2d_xz"></a><b>dt_do2d_xz</b></p>
5069
5070
5071
5072      </td>
5073
5074
5075 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5076
5077
5078
5079      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5080&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5081
5082
5083output</a></i></td>
5084
5085
5086
5087      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5088     
5089     
5090      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5091interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross sections data
5092(xz) shall be output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5093      </font> </p>
5094
5095
5096 
5097     
5098     
5099      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5100horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5101      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5102      </font></span><a href="#section_xz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_xz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
5103this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
5104cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5105be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, which
5106has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference time is the beginning of
5107the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_xz
5108+ dt_do2d_xz</b>,
5109      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
5110+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
5111+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_xz</b>, etc. The actual output times
5112can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5113
5114
5115
5116      </font></span></p>
5117
5118
5119 
5120     
5121     
5122      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5123has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5124the time t = 0 or at the
5125respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5126
5127
5128
5129      </td>
5130
5131
5132 </tr>
5133
5134
5135 <tr>
5136
5137
5138 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5139     
5140     
5141      <p><a name="dt_do2d_yz"></a><b>dt_do2d_yz</b></p>
5142
5143
5144
5145      </td>
5146
5147
5148 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5149
5150
5151
5152      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5153&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5154
5155
5156output</a></i></td>
5157
5158
5159
5160      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5161     
5162     
5163      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5164interval</font> at which&nbsp;vertical cross section data
5165(yz) shall be output (</font>in s<font face="Thorndale">).&nbsp;
5166      </font> </p>
5167
5168
5169 
5170     
5171     
5172      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
5173horizontal cross sections is switched on (see </font></span><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>
5174      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">and
5175      </font></span><a href="#section_yz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">section_yz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
5176this parameter can be used to assign the temporal interval at which
5177cross section data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5178be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, which
5179has zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5180time is the beginning of
5181the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do2d_yz
5182+ dt_do2d_yz</b>,
5183      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
5184+ 2*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz
5185      </span>+ 3*<b>dt_do2d_yz</b>, etc. The actual output
5186times
5187can deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5188
5189
5190
5191      </font></span></p>
5192
5193
5194 
5195     
5196     
5197      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do2d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do2d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5198has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5199the time t = 0 or at the
5200respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5201
5202
5203
5204      </td>
5205
5206
5207 </tr>
5208
5209
5210 <tr>
5211
5212
5213 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5214     
5215     
5216      <p><a name="dt_do3d"></a><b>dt_do3d</b></p>
5217
5218
5219
5220      </td>
5221
5222
5223 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5224
5225
5226
5227      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
5228&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_data_output">dt_data_<br>
5229
5230
5231output</a></i></td>
5232
5233
5234
5235      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5236     
5237     
5238      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5239interval</font> at which 3d volume data shall be output (</font>in
5240      <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp; </font> </p>
5241
5242
5243
5244     
5245     
5246      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If
5247output of
52483d-volume data is switched on (see </font></span><font><a href="#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a>)<span style="font-family: thorndale;">, this parameter can be used
5249to assign
5250th</span></font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">e temporal
5251interval at which 3d-data shall be output. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Output can
5252be skipped at the beginning of a simulation using parameter <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, which has
5253zero value by default. </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Reference
5254time is the
5255beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>skip_time_do3d
5256+ dt_do3d</b>,
5257      <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
5258+ 2*<b>dt_do3d</b>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span>
5259+ 3*<b>dt_do3d</b>, etc. The actual output times can
5260deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). <br>
5261
5262
5263
5264      </font></span></p>
5265
5266
5267 
5268     
5269     
5270      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Parameter </font></span><a href="#do3d_at_begin"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">do3d_at_begin</font></span></a>
5271has to be used if an additional output is wanted at the start of a run <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(thus at
5272the time t = 0 or at the
5273respective starting times of restart runs).</font></span> </p>
5274
5275
5276
5277      </td>
5278
5279
5280 </tr>
5281
5282
5283 <tr>
5284
5285
5286      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dt_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_max</span></td>
5287
5288
5289      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5290
5291
5292      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">20.0</span></td>
5293
5294
5295      <td>Maximum
5296allowed value of the timestep (in s).<br>
5297
5298
5299      <br>
5300
5301
5302By default,
5303the maximum timestep is restricted to be 20 s. This might be o.k. for
5304simulations of any kind of atmospheric turbulence but may have to be
5305changed for other situations.</td>
5306
5307
5308    </tr>
5309
5310
5311    <tr>
5312
5313
5314 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5315     
5316     
5317      <p><a name="dt_restart"></a><b>dt_restart</b></p>
5318
5319
5320
5321      </td>
5322
5323
5324 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5325
5326
5327
5328      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
5329
5330
5331
5332      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5333     
5334     
5335      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5336interval</font> at which a new
5337restart run is to be carried out (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s). </font> </p>
5338
5339
5340 
5341     
5342     
5343      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">For a
5344description
5345how to assign restart times manually see run time parameter </font></span><a href="#restart_time"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">restart_time</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_restart</span>
5346does not show any effect, if <span style="font-weight: bold;">restart_time</span>
5347has not been set.</font></span></p>
5348
5349     
5350      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
5351and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
5352
5353
5354 </td>
5355
5356
5357 </tr>
5358
5359
5360
5361    <tr>
5362
5363
5364 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5365     
5366     
5367      <p><a name="dt_run_control"></a><b>dt_run_control</b></p>
5368
5369
5370
5371      </td>
5372
5373
5374 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5375
5376
5377
5378      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>60.0</i></td>
5379
5380
5381
5382      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5383     
5384     
5385      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
5386interval</font> at which run control
5387output is to be made (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5388      </font> </p>
5389
5390
5391 
5392     
5393     
5394      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
5395information is output to the local ASCII-file </font></span><a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">RUN_CONTROL</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">. At each
5396output time, one line
5397with information about the size of the time step, maximum speeds, total
5398kinetic energy etc. is written to this file. Reference time is the
5399beginning of the simulation, i.e. output takes place at times t = <b>dt_run_control</b>,
54002*<b>dt_run_control</b>, 3*<b>dt_run_control</b>,
5401etc., and always at
5402the beginning of a model run (thus at the time t = 0 or at the
5403respective starting times of restart runs). The actual output times can
5404deviate from these theoretical values (see </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr_zeitpunkte"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">).<br>
5405
5406
5407
5408      </font></span></p>
5409
5410
5411 
5412     
5413     
5414      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Run control
5415information is output after each time step can be achieved via <b>dt_run_control</b>
5416= <i>0.0</i>.</font></span> </p>
5417
5418
5419 </td>
5420
5421
5422
5423    </tr>
5424
5425
5426 <tr>
5427
5428
5429 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5430     
5431     
5432      <p><a name="end_time"></a><b>end_time</b></p>
5433
5434
5435
5436      </td>
5437
5438
5439 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5440
5441
5442
5443      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
5444
5445
5446
5447      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5448     
5449     
5450      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Simulation time of the 3D
5451model (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
5452      </font> </p>
5453
5454
5455 
5456     
5457     
5458      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">The simulation time
5459is starting from the beginning of the initialization run (t = 0), not
5460starting from the beginning of the respective restart run.</font></span></p>
5461
5462     
5463      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
5464and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
5465
5466
5467 </td>
5468
5469
5470 </tr>
5471
5472
5473 <tr>
5474
5475
5476 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5477     
5478     
5479      <p><a name="force_print_header"></a><b>force_print_header</b></p>
5480
5481
5482
5483      </td>
5484
5485
5486 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
5487
5488
5489
5490      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
5491
5492
5493
5494      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5495     
5496     
5497      <p>Steering of
5498header output to the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
5499      </p>
5500
5501
5502 
5503     
5504     
5505      <p>By default, informations about the model
5506parameters in use are
5507output to the beginning of file RUN_CONTROL for initial runs only
5508(these informations are identical to that which are output to the local
5509file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#HEADER">HEADER</a>).
5510With <b>force_print_header</b> = <i>.T.</i>,
5511these informations are
5512also output to <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
5513at restart runs.</p>
5514
5515
5516 </td>
5517
5518
5519 </tr>
5520
5521
5522 <tr>
5523
5524
5525 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5526     
5527     
5528      <p><a name="mg_cycles"></a><b>mg_cycles</b></p>
5529
5530
5531
5532      </td>
5533
5534
5535 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5536
5537
5538
5539      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>-1</i></td>
5540
5541
5542
5543      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5544     
5545     
5546      <p>Number of
5547cycles to be used with the multi-grid scheme.<br>
5548
5549
5550 <br>
5551
5552
5553
5554This parameter determines the number of cycles to be carried out in the
5555multi-grid method used for solving the Poisson equation for
5556perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
5557The type of the cycles can be set with <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>.<br>
5558
5559
5560
5561      </p>
5562
5563
5564 <br>
5565
5566
5567By default (<b>mg_cyles</b> = <i>-
55681</i>), the
5569number of cycles
5570depends on the requested accuracy of the scheme (see <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>)
5571and may vary from time step to time step. In this case, the CPU time
5572for a run will be difficult to estimate, since it heavily depends on
5573the total number of the cycles to be carried out.<br>
5574
5575
5576 <br>
5577
5578
5579
5580By assigning <b>mg_cycles</b> a value (&gt;=<span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>), the number of
5581cycles can be
5582fixed so that the CPU time can be clearly estimated. <br>
5583
5584
5585 <br>
5586
5587
5588
5589      <b>Note:</b> When using a fixed number of cycles, the user
5590must
5591examine the local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>
5592regularly to check whether the divergence of the velocity field is
5593sufficiently reduced by the pressure solver. It should be reduced at
5594least by two orders of magnitude. For cyclic boundary conditions along
5595both horizontal directions (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
5596and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">2</span> is typically a
5597good choice, for
5598non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions <span style="font-weight: bold;">mg_cycles</span>
5599= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span> may be
5600sufficient.</td>
5601
5602
5603 </tr>
5604
5605
5606 <tr>
5607
5608
5609 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mg_switch_to_pe0_level"></a><b>mg_switch_to_pe0_<br>
5610
5611
5612
5613level</b></td>
5614
5615
5616 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5617
5618
5619
5620      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
5621
5622
5623 </td>
5624
5625
5626 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
5627level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
5628
5629
5630 <br>
5631
5632
5633
5634In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
5635the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
5636the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
5637gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
5638The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
5639gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
5640It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
5641determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
5642this level.</td>
5643
5644
5645 </tr>
5646
5647
5648 <tr>
5649
5650
5651 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span><br>
5652
5653
5654
5655      </td>
5656
5657
5658 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
5659
5660
5661 </td>
5662
5663
5664
5665      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
5666
5667
5668 </td>
5669
5670
5671
5672      <td style="vertical-align: top;">All NetCDF files - except those containing 3d
5673volume data - will have 64
5674bit offset format if&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span>
5675= .TRUE..<br>
5676
5677
5678      <br>
5679
5680
5681By
5682default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
5683GByte. Using <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit</span> = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
5684GByte.<br>
5685
5686
5687      <br>
5688
5689
5690The 64 bit offset format for those NetCDF files containing 3d volume data (<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_NETCDF</span>,
5691      <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">DATA_3D_AV_NETCDF</span>)
5692is controlled independently by the switch <a href="#netcdf_64bit_3d">netcdf_64bit_3d</a>.<br>
5693
5694
5695      <br>
5696
5697
5698      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>
5699
5700
5701Some
5702(PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.<br>
5703
5704
5705
5706      </td>
5707
5708
5709 </tr>
5710
5711
5712    <tr>
5713
5714
5715      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_64bit_3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span></td>
5716
5717
5718      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
5719
5720
5721      <td style="vertical-align: top;">.T.</td>
5722
5723
5724      <td style="vertical-align: top;">NetCDF files containing 3d
5725volume data will have 64 bit offset format if&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span>
5726= .TRUE..<br><br>
5727
5728
5729By
5730default, the maximum file size of the NetCDF files opened by PALM is 2
5731GByte. Using <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_64bit_3d</span> = .TRUE. allows file sizes larger than 2
5732GByte.<br><br>
5733
5734
5735The 64 bit offset format for all other NetCDF files (<span style="font-style: italic;">not</span> containing 3d volume data) is controlled independently by the switch <a href="chapter_4.2.html#netcdf_64bit">netcdf_64bit</a>.<br><br>
5736
5737
5738      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Warning:</span><br>
5739
5740
5741Some
5742(PD or commercial) software may not support the 64 bit offset format.</td>
5743
5744
5745    </tr>
5746
5747
5748    <tr>
5749
5750
5751
5752      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5753     
5754     
5755      <p><a name="ngsrb"></a><b>ngsrb</b></p>
5756
5757
5758 </td>
5759
5760
5761
5762      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5763
5764
5765 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
5766
5767
5768
5769      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Grid
5770level at which data shall be gathered on PE0.<br>
5771
5772
5773 <br>
5774
5775
5776
5777In case of a run using several PEs and the multigrid method for solving
5778the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>),
5779the value of this parameter defines on which grid level the data are
5780gathered on PE0 in order to allow for a further coarsening of the grid.
5781The finest grid defines the largest grid level. By default, the
5782gathering level is determined automatically and displayed in file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
5783It is only possible to gather data from a level larger than the one
5784determined automatically. A test run may be neccessary to determine
5785this level.</td>
5786
5787
5788 </tr>
5789
5790
5791 <tr>
5792
5793
5794 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5795     
5796     
5797      <p><a name="normalizing_region"></a><b>normalizing_region</b></p>
5798
5799
5800
5801      </td>
5802
5803
5804 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5805
5806
5807
5808      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span><br>
5809
5810
5811 </td>
5812
5813
5814
5815      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5816     
5817     
5818      <p>Determines the
5819subdomain from which the normalization
5820quantities are calculated.&nbsp; </p>
5821
5822
5823 
5824     
5825     
5826      <p>If output
5827data of the horizontally averaged vertical profiles
5828(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
5829is to be normalized (see <a href="#cross_normalized_x">cross_normalized_x</a>,
5830      <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>),
5831the respective normalization quantities are by default calculated from
5832the averaged data of the total model domain (<b>normalizing_region</b>
5833= <i>0</i>) and are thus representative for the total
5834domain. Instead
5835of that, normalization quantities can also be calculated for a
5836subdomain. The wanted subdomain can be given with the parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">normalizing_region</span>,
5837where <i>1</i>
5838&lt;= <b>normalizing_region</b> &lt;= <i>9 </i>must
5839hold. These
5840quantities are then used for normalizing of all profiles (even for that
5841of the total domain).</p>
5842
5843
5844 </td>
5845
5846
5847 </tr>
5848
5849
5850 <tr>
5851
5852
5853 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5854     
5855     
5856      <p><a name="nsor"></a><b>nsor</b></p>
5857
5858
5859
5860      </td>
5861
5862
5863 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5864
5865
5866
5867      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>20</i></td>
5868
5869
5870
5871      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5872     
5873     
5874      <p>Number of
5875iterations to be used with the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
5876
5877
5878 
5879     
5880     
5881      <p>This
5882parameter is only effective if the SOR-scheme is selected
5883as pressure solver (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
5884= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>).
5885The number of
5886iterations necessary for a sufficient convergence of the scheme depends
5887on the grid point numbers and is to be determined by appropriate test
5888runs (the default value will not at all be sufficient for larger grid
5889point numbers). The number of iterations used for the first call of the
5890SOR-scheme (t = 0) is determined via the parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>.</p>
5891
5892
5893
5894      </td>
5895
5896
5897 </tr>
5898
5899
5900 <tr>
5901
5902
5903 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5904     
5905     
5906      <p><a name="nz_do3d"></a><b>nz_do3d</b></p>
5907
5908
5909
5910      </td>
5911
5912
5913 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5914
5915
5916
5917      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>nz+1</i></td>
5918
5919
5920
5921      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> Limits the output of 3d
5922volume data along the vertical direction (grid point index k).<br>
5923
5924
5925      <br>
5926
5927
5928By
5929default, data for all grid points along z are output. The parameter <span style="font-weight: bold;">nz_do3d</span>
5930can be used to limit the output up to a certain vertical grid point
5931(e.g. in order to reduce the amount of output data). It affects all
5932output of volume data ("normal" output to file, see <a href="#data_output">data_output</a>, as well as output
5933for <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span>-software,
5934see <a href="#mode_dvrp">mode_dvrp</a>).</td>
5935
5936
5937
5938    </tr>
5939
5940
5941 <tr>
5942
5943
5944 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5945     
5946     
5947      <p><a name="omega_sor"></a><b>omega_sor</b></p>
5948
5949
5950
5951      </td>
5952
5953
5954 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
5955
5956
5957
5958      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.8</i></td>
5959
5960
5961
5962      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5963     
5964     
5965      <p>Convergence
5966factor to be used with the the SOR-scheme.&nbsp; </p>
5967
5968
5969 
5970     
5971     
5972      <p>If
5973the SOR-scheme is selected (<a href="#psolver">psolver</a>
5974= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>),
5975this parameter
5976determines the value of the convergence factor, where <i>1.0</i>
5977&lt;= <b>omega_sor</b> &lt; <i>2.0 </i>.
5978The optimum value of <b>omega_sor</b>
5979depends on the number of grid points along the different directions in
5980space. For non-equidistant grids it can only be determined by
5981appropriate test runs.</p>
5982
5983
5984 </td>
5985
5986
5987 </tr>
5988
5989
5990 <tr>
5991
5992
5993 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5994     
5995     
5996      <p><a name="prandtl_number"></a><b>prandtl_number</b></p>
5997
5998
5999
6000      </td>
6001
6002
6003 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6004
6005
6006
6007      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0</i></td>
6008
6009
6010
6011      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6012     
6013     
6014      <p>Ratio of the
6015eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat (K<sub>m</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>).&nbsp;
6016      </p>
6017
6018
6019 
6020     
6021     
6022      <p>For runs with constant eddy diffusivity (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_constant">km_constant</a>),
6023this parameter can be used to assign the Prandtl number (ratio K<sub>m</sub>
6024/ K<sub>h</sub>).</p>
6025
6026
6027 </td>
6028
6029
6030 </tr>
6031
6032
6033 <tr>
6034
6035
6036      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="precipitation_amount_interval"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">precipitation_amount_</span><br style="font-weight: bold;">
6037
6038
6039      <span style="font-weight: bold;">interval</span></td>
6040
6041
6042      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6043
6044
6045      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>value of
6046&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_<br>
6047
6048
6049xy</a></i></td>
6050
6051
6052      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6053     
6054     
6055      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Temporal
6056interval</font> for which the precipitation amount (in mm) shall be calculated and output (</font>in <font face="Thorndale">s).&nbsp;
6057      </font> </p>
6058
6059
6060 
6061     
6062     
6063      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#section_xy"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">This
6064parameter requires <a href="chapter_4.1.html#precipitation">precipitation</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>The interval must be smaller or equal than the output interval for 2d horizontal cross sections given by </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_do2d_xy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dt_do2d_xy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">). The output of the precipitation amount also requires setting of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> =<span style="font-style: italic;"> 'pra*'</span>.<br>
6065
6066
6067
6068      </font></span></p>
6069
6070
6071 <span lang="en-GB"></span></td>
6072
6073
6074    </tr>
6075
6076
6077    <tr>
6078
6079
6080
6081      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6082     
6083     
6084      <p><a name="profile_columns"></a><b>profile_columns</b></p>
6085
6086
6087
6088      </td>
6089
6090
6091 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
6092
6093
6094
6095      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>3</i></td>
6096
6097
6098
6099      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6100     
6101     
6102      <p>Number of
6103coordinate systems to be plotted<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>
6104in one row by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
6105      </p>
6106
6107
6108 
6109     
6110     
6111      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
6112= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
6113
6114
6115     
6116     
6117      <p>It
6118determines the layout of plots of
6119horizontally averaged profiles (<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
6120when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
6121Generally, the number and sequence of coordinate systems (panels) to be
6122plotted on one page are
6123determined by <a href="#cross_profiles">cross_profiles</a>.
6124      <b>profile_columns</b>
6125determines how many panels are to be
6126arranged next to each other in one row (number of columns). The
6127respective number of rows on a page is assigned by <a href="#profile_rows">profile_rows</a>.
6128According to their order given by <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>,
6129the panels are arranged beginning in the top row from left to right and
6130then continued in the following row. If the number of panels cranz
6131&gt; <b>profile_columns</b> * <b>profile_rows</b>,
6132the remaining
6133panels are drawn on an additional page. If cranz &lt; <b>profile_columns</b>,
6134then <b>profile_columns</b> = cranz is automatically set.
6135If
6136row&nbsp; contains any panel, then the value of <b>profile_rows</b>
6137is reduced automatically.</p>
6138
6139
6140 </td>
6141
6142
6143 </tr>
6144
6145
6146 <tr>
6147
6148
6149
6150      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6151     
6152     
6153      <p><a name="profile_rows"></a><b>profile_rows</b></p>
6154
6155
6156
6157      </td>
6158
6159
6160 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
6161
6162
6163
6164      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>2</i></td>
6165
6166
6167
6168      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6169     
6170     
6171      <p>Number of rows
6172of coordinate systems to be plotted on one page
6173by <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
6174      </p>
6175
6176
6177 
6178     
6179     
6180      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
6181= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
6182
6183
6184     
6185     
6186      <p>It
6187determines the layout of plots of horizontally averaged
6188profiles. See <a href="#profile_columns">profile_columns</a>.</p>
6189
6190
6191
6192      </td>
6193
6194
6195 </tr>
6196
6197
6198 <tr>
6199
6200
6201 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6202     
6203     
6204      <p><a name="psolver"></a><b>psolver</b></p>
6205
6206
6207
6208      </td>
6209
6210
6211 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
6212
6213
6214
6215      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'poisfft'</i></td>
6216
6217
6218
6219      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6220     
6221     
6222      <p>Scheme to be
6223used to solve the Poisson equation for the
6224perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
6225
6226
6227 <br>
6228
6229
6230
6231The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
6232
6233
6234 
6235     
6236     
6237      <table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
6238
6239
6240 <tbody>
6241
6242
6243 <tr>
6244
6245
6246 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>poisfft</i></td>
6247
6248
6249
6250            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct method using FFT
6251along x and y, solution of a
6252tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
6253FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
6254used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
6255
6256
6257
6258This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
6259Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
6260
6261
6262
6263          </tr>
6264
6265
6266 <tr>
6267
6268
6269 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6270           
6271           
6272            <p><i>poisfft_</i>
6273            <br>
6274
6275
6276 <i>hybrid</i></p>
6277
6278
6279
6280            </td>
6281
6282
6283 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Direct
6284method using FFT
6285along x and y, solution of a
6286tridiagonal matrix along z, and backward
6287FFT (see Siano, institute reports, volume 54). The FFT routines to be
6288used can be determined via the initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#fft_method">fft_method</a>.<br>
6289
6290
6291
6292This solver is specially optimized for 1d domain decompositions.
6293Vectorization is optimized for domain decompositions along x only.</td>
6294
6295
6296
6297          </tr>
6298
6299
6300 <tr>
6301
6302
6303 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>multigrid</i></td>
6304
6305
6306
6307            <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6308           
6309           
6310            <p>Multi-grid
6311scheme (see Uhlenbrock, diploma thesis). v-
6312and
6313w-cycles (see <a href="#cycle_mg">cycle_mg</a>)
6314are implemented. The convergence of the iterative scheme can be
6315steered by the number of v-/w-cycles to be carried out for each call of
6316the scheme (<a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
6317and by the number of Gauss-Seidel iterations (see <a href="#ngsrb">ngsrb</a>)
6318to be carried out on each grid level. Instead the requested accuracy
6319can be given via <a href="#residual_limit">residual_limit</a>.
6320            <span style="font-weight: bold;">This is the default!</span>
6321The
6322smaller this limit is, the more cycles have to be carried out in this
6323case and the number of cycles may vary from timestep to timestep.</p>
6324
6325
6326
6327            <br>
6328
6329
6330If <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>
6331is set to its optimal value, the computing time of the
6332multi-grid scheme amounts approximately to that of the direct solver <span style="font-style: italic;">poisfft</span>, as long as
6333the number of
6334grid points in the three directions
6335of space corresponds to a power-of-two (2<sup>n</sup>)
6336where <i>n</i> &gt;= 5 must hold. With large <i>n,
6337            </i>the
6338multi-grid scheme can even be faster than the direct solver (although
6339its accuracy is several orders of magnitude worse, but this does not
6340affect the accuracy of the simulation). Nevertheless, the user should
6341always carry out some test runs in order to find out the optimum value
6342for <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>,
6343because the CPU time of a run very critically depends on this
6344parameter.
6345           
6346           
6347            <p>This scheme requires that the number of grid
6348points of
6349the
6350subdomains (or of the total domain, if only one PE is uesd) along each
6351of the directions can at least be devided once by 2 without rest.</p>
6352
6353
6354
6355With parallel runs, starting from a certain grid level the
6356data of the subdomains are possibly gathered on PE0 in order to allow
6357for a further coarsening of the grid. The grid level for gathering can
6358be manually set by <a href="#mg_switch_to_pe0_level">mg_switch_to_pe0_level</a>.<br>
6359
6360
6361
6362           
6363           
6364            <p>Using this procedure requires the subdomains to be of
6365identical size (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>).</p>
6366
6367
6368
6369            </td>
6370
6371
6372 </tr>
6373
6374
6375 <tr>
6376
6377
6378 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>sor</i></td>
6379
6380
6381
6382            <td style="vertical-align: top;">Successive over
6383relaxation
6384method (SOR). The convergence of
6385this
6386iterative scheme is steered with the parameters <a href="#omega_sor">omega_sor</a>,
6387            <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor_ini">nsor_ini</a>
6388and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#nsor">nsor</a>.&nbsp;
6389            <br>
6390
6391
6392Compared to the direct method and the multi-grid method, this
6393scheme
6394needs substantially
6395more computing time. It should only be used for test runs, e.g. if
6396errors in the other pressure solver methods are assumed.</td>
6397
6398
6399 </tr>
6400
6401
6402
6403       
6404       
6405        </tbody> 
6406     
6407     
6408      </table>
6409
6410
6411 <br>
6412
6413
6414In order to speed-up
6415performance, the Poisson equation is by default
6416only solved at the last substep of a multistep Runge-Kutta scheme (see <a href="#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
6417at_all_substeps</a> and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>).&nbsp;
6418      </td>
6419
6420
6421 </tr>
6422
6423
6424 <tr>
6425
6426
6427 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6428     
6429     
6430      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_factor"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
6431      <br>
6432
6433
6434 <b>_factor</b></p>
6435
6436
6437 </td>
6438
6439
6440 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6441
6442
6443 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0 or</i><br>
6444
6445
6446
6447      <i>0.01</i></td>
6448
6449
6450 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6451     
6452     
6453      <p>Factor for Rayleigh damping.&nbsp; </p>
6454
6455
6456 
6457     
6458     
6459      <p>A
6460so-called Rayleigh damping is applied to all prognostic
6461variables if a non-zero value is assigned to <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>.&nbsp;
6462If switched on, variables are forced towards the value of their
6463respective basic states (e.g. the geostrophic wind). The intensity of
6464damping is controlled by the value the <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6465is assigned to.
6466The damping starts weakly at a height defined by <a href="#rayleigh_damping_height">rayleigh_damping_height</a>
6467and rises according to a sin<sup>2</sup>-function to its
6468maximum value
6469at
6470the top (ocean: bottom) boundary. </p>
6471
6472
6473 
6474     
6475     
6476      <p>This method
6477effectively damps gravity waves, caused by boundary layer convection,
6478which may spread out vertically in the inversion layer and which are
6479reflected&nbsp;at the top (ocean: bottom)
6480boundary. This particularly happens with the upstream-spline scheme
6481switched on (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
6482or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
6483Therefore, with this scheme the Rayleigh damping is switched on (<b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6484= <i>0.01</i>) by default. Otherwise it remains switched
6485off.&nbsp; </p>
6486
6487
6488 
6489     
6490     
6491      <p>The Rayleigh damping factor must
6492hold the condition <i>0.0</i>
6493&lt;= <b>rayleigh_damping_factor</b>
6494&lt;= <i>1.0</i>. Large values (close to <span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span>) can cause
6495numerical instabilities.</p>
6496
6497
6498 </td>
6499
6500
6501 </tr>
6502
6503
6504 <tr>
6505
6506
6507
6508      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6509     
6510     
6511      <p><a name="rayleigh_damping_height"></a><b>rayleigh_damping</b>
6512      <br>
6513
6514
6515 <b>_height</b></p>
6516
6517
6518 </td>
6519
6520
6521 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6522
6523
6524 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6525     
6526     
6527      <p><i>2/3 *</i>
6528      <br>
6529
6530
6531      <span style="font-style: italic;">zu</span><i style="font-style: italic;">(nz)</i></p>
6532      <p> (ocean:<i style="font-style: italic;">&nbsp;</i><i>2/3 *</i>
6533      <i style="font-style: italic;"> zu(0)</i>)</p>
6534
6535
6536
6537      </td>
6538
6539
6540 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6541     
6542     
6543      <p>Height above (ocean: below) which the Rayleigh damping starts (in m).&nbsp; </p>
6544
6545
6546 
6547     
6548     
6549      <p>With
6550Rayleigh damping switched on (see <a href="#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>),
6551this parameter determines the range where damping is applied. By
6552default, Rayleigh damping will be applied in the upper (ocean: lower) third of the
6553model
6554domain.</p>
6555
6556
6557 </td>
6558
6559
6560 </tr>
6561
6562
6563 <tr>
6564
6565
6566 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6567     
6568     
6569      <p><a name="residual_limit"></a><b>residual_limit</b></p>
6570
6571
6572
6573      </td>
6574
6575
6576 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6577
6578
6579
6580      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>1.0E-6</i></td>
6581
6582
6583
6584      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6585     
6586     
6587      <p>Largest
6588residual permitted for the multi-grid scheme (in s<sup>-2</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>).&nbsp;
6589      </p>
6590
6591
6592 
6593     
6594     
6595      <p>This is a parameter to steer the accuracy of the
6596multi-grid
6597scheme (see <a href="#psolver">psolver</a>).
6598The assigned cycle (v- or w-cycle, see <a href="#mg_cycles">mg_cycles</a>)
6599is passed through until the residual falls below the limit given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">residual_limit</span>. If
6600this
6601is not the case after 1000 cycles, the PALM aborts with a corresponding
6602error message.</p>
6603
6604
6605 
6606     
6607     
6608      <p>The reciprocal value of this
6609parameter can be interpreted as
6610a factor by the divergence of the provisional
6611velocity field is approximately reduced after the multi-grid scheme has
6612been applied (thus the default value causes a reduction of the
6613divergence by approx. 6 orders of magnitude).&nbsp; </p>
6614
6615
6616 </td>
6617
6618
6619
6620    </tr>
6621
6622
6623 <tr>
6624
6625
6626 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6627     
6628     
6629      <p><a name="restart_time"></a><b>restart_time</b></p>
6630
6631
6632
6633      </td>
6634
6635
6636 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6637
6638
6639
6640      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
6641
6642
6643
6644      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6645     
6646     
6647      <p>Simulated time
6648after which a restart run is to be carried out
6649(in s). </p>
6650
6651
6652 
6653     
6654     
6655      <p>The simulated time refers to the
6656beginning of the
6657initial run (t = 0), not to the beginning of the respective
6658restart run. Restart runs can additionally be forced to be carried out
6659in regular intervals using the run time parameter <a href="#dt_restart">dt_restart</a>. </p>
6660
6661
6662 
6663     
6664     
6665      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
6666
6667
6668
6669A successful operation of this parameter requires additional
6670modifications in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-call
6671for the respective run (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
66723.3</a>).<br>
6673
6674
6675 </p>
6676
6677
6678 
6679     
6680     
6681      <p>The choice of <b>restart_time</b>
6682or <b>dt_restart</b> does
6683not override the automatic start of restart runs in case that the job
6684runs out of CPU time. <br>
6685
6686      </p>
6687
6688     
6689      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
6690and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
6691
6692
6693 </td>
6694
6695
6696 </tr>
6697
6698
6699
6700    <tr>
6701
6702
6703 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6704     
6705     
6706      <p><a name="section_xy"></a><b>section_xy</b></p>
6707
6708
6709
6710      </td>
6711
6712
6713 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6714
6715
6716
6717      </td>
6718
6719
6720 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span><br>
6721
6722
6723
6724      </td>
6725
6726
6727 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6728     
6729     
6730      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position
6731of&nbsp;cross section(s) for&nbsp;output of 2d horizontal cross
6732sections (grid point index k).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6733
6734
6735 
6736     
6737     
6738      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output
6739of
6740horizontal cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6741parameter can be used to
6742define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
6743cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xy</b>
6744the
6745corresponding vertical grid point index/indices k of the requested
6746cross section(s). The exact location (height level) of the cross
6747section depends on the variable for which the output is made: zu(k) for
6748scalars and horizontal velocities, zw(k) for the vertical velocity.
6749Information about the exact location of the cross section is contained
6750in the NetCDF output file (if the default NetCDF output is switched on;
6751see <a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>).</font></span></p>
6752
6753
6754     
6755     
6756      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6757creates the output of horizontal cross sections averaged along z. In
6758the
6759NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6760z-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span></p>
6761
6762
6763     
6764     
6765      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assignments to <b>section_xy</b>
6766does not effect the output of horizontal cross sections of variable u<sub>*</sub>
6767and theta<sub>*</sub> and the liquid water path lwp*. For
6768these quantities always only one cross
6769section (for z=zu(1)) is output.</font></span></p>
6770
6771
6772      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6773      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6774if several cross sections are selected (e.g. <b>section_xy</b>
6775= <i>1</i>, <i>10</i>, <i>15</i>),
6776then the respective data are
6777successively written to file. The output order follows the order given
6778by <b>section_xy</b>.&nbsp;</font></span></td>
6779
6780
6781
6782    </tr>
6783
6784
6785 <tr>
6786
6787
6788 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6789     
6790     
6791      <p><a name="section_xz"></a><b>section_xz</b></p>
6792
6793
6794
6795      </td>
6796
6797
6798 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6799
6800
6801
6802      </td>
6803
6804
6805 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
6806
6807
6808
6809      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6810     
6811     
6812      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
6813for&nbsp;output of 2d (xz) vertical cross sections (grid point
6814index j).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6815
6816
6817 <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6818vertical xz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">), this
6819parameter can be used to
6820define the position(s) of the cross section(s). Up to 100 positions of
6821cross sections can be selected by assigning <b>section_xz</b>
6822the
6823corresponding horizontal grid point index/indices j of the requested
6824cross section(s). The exact position (in y-direction) of the cross
6825section is given by j*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (j-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dy</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
6826on which grid the output quantity is defined. However, in
6827the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
6828default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
6829no distinction is made between the quantities and j*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dy</span> is used for all
6830positions.<br>
6831
6832
6833      <br>
6834
6835
6836Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_xz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6837creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along y. In the
6838NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6839y-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.<br>
6840
6841
6842      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"><br>
6843
6844
6845      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6846      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6847      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
6848selected (e.g. <b>section_xz</b> = <i>0</i>, <i>12</i>,
6849      <i>27</i>),
6850then the respective data are successively written to file. The output
6851order follows the order given by <b>section_xz</b>.</font></span></td>
6852
6853
6854
6855    </tr>
6856
6857
6858 <tr>
6859
6860
6861 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
6862     
6863     
6864      <p><a name="section_yz"></a><b>section_yz</b></p>
6865
6866
6867
6868      </td>
6869
6870
6871 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I(100)<br>
6872
6873
6874
6875      </td>
6876
6877
6878 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">no section</span></td>
6879
6880
6881
6882      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6883     
6884     
6885      <p lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Position of&nbsp;cross section(s)
6886for&nbsp;output of 2d (yz) vertical cross sections (grid point
6887index i).&nbsp; </font> </p>
6888
6889
6890 <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">If output of
6891vertical yz cross sections is selected (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">data_output</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">),
6892this parameter can be used to define the position(s) of the cross
6893section(s). Up to 100 positions of cross sections can be selected by
6894assigning <b>section_yz</b> the corresponding horizontal
6895grid point
6896index/indices i of the requested cross section(s). The exact position
6897(in x-direction) of the cross section is given by i*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a> <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">or (i-0.5)*</font></span><a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">dx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">, depending
6898on which grid the output quantity is defined.&nbsp;</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">However, in
6899the&nbsp;NetCDF output file </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">(if the
6900default NetCDF output is switched on; see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
6901no distinction is made between the quantities and i*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dx</span> is used for all
6902positions.<br>
6903
6904
6905      <br>
6906
6907
6908      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">Assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">section_yz</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-1</span>
6909creates the output of vertical cross sections averaged along x. In the
6910NetCDF output file these (averaged) cross sections are given the
6911x-coordinate <span style="font-style: italic;">-1.0</span>.</font></span><br>
6912
6913
6914      <span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale"> <br>
6915
6916
6917      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">In case of <span style="font-weight: bold;">data_output_format</span> =
6918      <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span> and
6919      </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale">if several cross sections are
6920selected (e.g. <b>section_yz</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">27</span>, 19), then the
6921respective data are successively written to file. The output order
6922follows the order given by <b>section_yz</b>.</font></span></td>
6923
6924
6925
6926    </tr>
6927
6928
6929 <tr>
6930
6931
6932 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span><br>
6933
6934
6935
6936      </td>
6937
6938
6939 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
6940
6941
6942 </td>
6943
6944
6945
6946      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
6947
6948
6949 </td>
6950
6951
6952
6953      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No data output before
6954this interval has passed (in s).<br>
6955
6956
6957      <br>
6958
6959
6960This
6961parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
6962this interval
6963(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. By
6964default, this
6965applies for output of instantaneous 3d volume data, cross section data,
6966spectra and vertical profile data as well as for temporally averaged 2d
6967and 3d data. Individual intervals can be assigned using parameters <a href="#skip_time_do3d">skip_time_do3d</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xy">skip_time_do2d_xy</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_xz">skip_time_do2d_xz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_do2d_yz">skip_time_do2d_yz</a>, <a href="#skip_time_dosp">skip_time_dosp</a>,&nbsp;<a href="#skip_time_dopr">skip_time_dopr</a>, and <a href="#skip_time_data_output_av">skip_time_data_output_av</a>.<br>
6968
6969
6970      <br>
6971
6972
6973      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
6974
6975
6976If
6977the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output">dt_data_output</a>
6978= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
6979and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output</span>
6980= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
6981then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.<br>
6982
6983
6984 </td>
6985
6986
6987
6988    </tr>
6989
6990
6991 <tr>
6992
6993
6994      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_data_output_av"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span></td>
6995
6996
6997      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6998
6999
7000      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7001
7002
7003data_output</a></span></td>
7004
7005
7006      <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of temporally
7007averaged 2d/3d data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7008
7009
7010      <br>
7011
7012
7013This
7014parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7015this interval
7016(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7017
7018
7019      <br>
7020
7021
7022      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7023
7024
7025If
7026the user has set <a href="#dt_data_output_av">dt_data_output_av</a>
7027= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7028and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_data_output_av</span>
7029= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7030then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s.</td>
7031
7032
7033    </tr>
7034
7035
7036    <tr>
7037
7038
7039
7040      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_dopr"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span><br>
7041
7042
7043
7044      </td>
7045
7046
7047 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7048
7049
7050 </td>
7051
7052
7053
7054      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7055
7056
7057data_output</a></span>
7058      </td>
7059
7060
7061 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7062vertical profile data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7063
7064
7065      <br>
7066
7067
7068This
7069parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7070this interval
7071(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7072
7073
7074      <br>
7075
7076
7077      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7078
7079
7080If
7081the user has set <a href="#dt_dopr">dt_dopr</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_dopr</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
7082first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7083
7084
7085 </tr>
7086
7087
7088 <tr>
7089
7090
7091
7092      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span><br>
7093
7094
7095
7096      </td>
7097
7098
7099 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7100
7101
7102 </td>
7103
7104
7105
7106      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7107
7108
7109data_output</a></span>
7110      </td>
7111
7112
7113 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7114instantaneous horizontal cross section data before this interval has
7115passed (in s).<br>
7116
7117
7118      <br>
7119
7120
7121This
7122parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7123this interval
7124(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7125
7126
7127      <br>
7128
7129
7130      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7131
7132
7133If
7134the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xy">dt_do2d_xy</a>
7135= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7136and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xy</span>
7137= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7138then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7139
7140
7141 </tr>
7142
7143
7144
7145    <tr>
7146
7147
7148 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_xz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span><br>
7149
7150
7151
7152      </td>
7153
7154
7155 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7156
7157
7158 </td>
7159
7160
7161
7162      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7163
7164
7165data_output</a></span>
7166      </td>
7167
7168
7169 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7170instantaneous vertical (xz) cross section data before this interval has
7171passed (in s).<br>
7172
7173
7174      <br>
7175
7176
7177This
7178parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7179this interval
7180(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7181
7182
7183      <br>
7184
7185
7186      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7187
7188
7189If
7190the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_xz">dt_do2d_xz</a>
7191= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7192and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_xz</span>
7193= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7194then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7195
7196
7197 </tr>
7198
7199
7200
7201    <tr>
7202
7203
7204 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do2d_yz"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span><br>
7205
7206
7207
7208      </td>
7209
7210
7211 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7212
7213
7214 </td>
7215
7216
7217
7218      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7219
7220
7221data_output</a></span>
7222      </td>
7223
7224
7225 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7226instantaneous vertical (yz) cross section data before this interval has
7227passed (in s).<br>
7228
7229
7230      <br>
7231
7232
7233This
7234parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7235this interval
7236(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7237
7238
7239      <br>
7240
7241
7242      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7243
7244
7245If
7246the user has set <a href="#dt_do2d_yz">dt_do2d_yz</a>
7247= <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span>
7248and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do2d_yz</span>
7249= <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>,
7250then the first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7251
7252
7253 </tr>
7254
7255
7256
7257    <tr>
7258
7259
7260 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="skip_time_do3d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span><br>
7261
7262
7263
7264      </td>
7265
7266
7267 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7268
7269
7270 </td>
7271
7272
7273
7274      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">value of <a href="chapter_4.2.html#skip_time_data_output">skip_time_<br>
7275
7276
7277data_output</a></span>
7278      </td>
7279
7280
7281 <td style="vertical-align: top;">No output of
7282instantaneous 3d volume data before this interval has passed (in s).<br>
7283
7284
7285      <br>
7286
7287
7288This
7289parameter causes that data output activities are starting not before
7290this interval
7291(counting from the beginning of the simulation, t=0) has passed. <br>
7292
7293
7294      <br>
7295
7296
7297      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7298
7299
7300If
7301the user has set <a href="#dt_do3d">dt_do3d</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">3600.0</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">skip_time_do3d</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">1800.0</span>, then the
7302first output will be done at t = 5400 s. </td>
7303
7304
7305 </tr>
7306
7307
7308
7309    <tr>
7310
7311
7312 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7313     
7314     
7315      <p><a name="termination_time_needed"></a><b>termination_time</b>
7316      <br>
7317
7318
7319 <b>_needed</b></p>
7320
7321
7322 </td>
7323
7324
7325 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7326
7327
7328 </td>
7329
7330
7331 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">35.0</span><br>
7332
7333
7334 </td>
7335
7336
7337
7338      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7339     
7340     
7341      <p>CPU time
7342needed for terminal actions at the end of a run in
7343batch mode (in s).<br>
7344
7345
7346 </p>
7347
7348
7349 
7350     
7351     
7352      <p>If the environment
7353variable <b>write_binary </b>is
7354set <i>true</i> (see <a href="chapter_3.3.html">chapter
73553.3</a>), PALM checks the remaining CPU time of the job after
7356each
7357timestep. Time integration must not consume the CPU time completely,
7358since several actions still have to be carried out after time
7359integration has finished (e.g. writing of binary data for the restart
7360run, carrying out output commands, copying of local files to their
7361permanent destinations, etc.) which also takes some time. The maximum
7362possible time needed for these activities plus a reserve is to be given
7363with the parameter <b>termination_time_needed</b>. Among
7364other things,
7365it depends on
7366the number of grid points used. If its value is selected too small,
7367then the
7368respective job will be prematurely aborted by the queuing system, which
7369may result in a data loss and will possibly interrupt the job chain.<br>
7370
7371
7372
7373      </p>
7374
7375
7376 
7377     
7378     
7379      <p>An abort happens in any way, if the environment
7380variable <span style="font-weight: bold;">write_binary</span>
7381is not set to <span style="font-style: italic;">true</span>
7382and if moreover the job has
7383been assigned an insufficient CPU time by <b>mrun</b>
7384option <tt><tt>-t</tt></tt>. <i><br>
7385
7386
7387
7388      </i> </p>
7389
7390
7391 
7392     
7393     
7394      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
7395
7396
7397
7398On the IBM computers of the HLRN the time used by the job <span style="font-weight: bold;">before</span> the start of
7399PALM
7400have also to be accounted for (e.g. for
7401compilation and copying of input files).</p>
7402
7403
7404 </td>
7405
7406
7407 </tr>
7408
7409
7410
7411    <tr>
7412
7413
7414 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7415     
7416     
7417      <p><a name="use_prior_plot1d_parameters"></a><b>use_prior_plot1d</b>
7418      <br>
7419
7420
7421 <b>_parameters</b></p>
7422
7423
7424 </td>
7425
7426
7427 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
7428
7429
7430 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
7431
7432
7433
7434      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7435     
7436     
7437      <p>Additional
7438plot of vertical profile data with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
7439from preceding runs of the
7440job chain.&nbsp; </p>
7441
7442
7443 
7444     
7445     
7446      <p>This parameter only applies
7447for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7448= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7449
7450
7451     
7452     
7453      <p>By
7454default, plots of horizontally averaged vertical profiles
7455(see <a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7456only contain profiles of data produced by the model
7457run. If profiles of prior times (i.e. data of preceding jobs of a
7458job chain) shall be plotted additionally (e.g. for comparison
7459purposes), <b>use_prior_plot1d_parameters</b> = <i>.T</i>.
7460must be
7461set.<br>
7462
7463
7464 </p>
7465
7466
7467 
7468     
7469     
7470      <p>For further explanation see <a href="chapter_4.5.2.html">chapter
74714.5.2</a>.</p>
7472
7473
7474 </td>
7475
7476
7477 </tr>
7478
7479
7480 <tr>
7481
7482
7483 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7484     
7485     
7486      <p><a name="z_max_do1d"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b></p>
7487
7488
7489
7490      </td>
7491
7492
7493 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7494
7495
7496
7497      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>zu(nzt+1) (model
7498top)</i></td>
7499
7500
7501 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
7502     
7503     
7504      <p>Height level up to which horizontally averaged profiles are to
7505be
7506plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>
7507(in
7508m).&nbsp; </p>
7509
7510
7511 
7512     
7513     
7514      <p>This parameter only applies for
7515&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7516= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7517
7518
7519     
7520     
7521      <p>It
7522affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
7523(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7524when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.
7525By default, profiles are plotted up to the top boundary. The height
7526level up to which profiles are plotted can be decreased by assigning <span style="font-weight: bold;">z_max_do1d</span> a smaller
7527value.
7528Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
7529vertical
7530grid points (0 &lt;= k &lt;= nz+1) are still output to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT1D_DATA">PLOT1D_DATA</a>.</p>
7531
7532
7533
7534     
7535     
7536      <p>If a normalization for the vertical axis was selected (see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>), <b>z_max_do1d</b>
7537has no effect. Instead, <a href="#z_max_do1d_normalized">z_max_do1d_normalized</a>
7538must be used.</p>
7539
7540
7541 </td>
7542
7543
7544 </tr>
7545
7546
7547 <tr>
7548
7549
7550 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7551     
7552     
7553      <p><a name="z_max_do1d_normalized"></a><b>z_max_do1d</b>
7554      <br>
7555
7556
7557 <b>_normalized</b></p>
7558
7559
7560 </td>
7561
7562
7563 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7564
7565
7566 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>determined by plot</i>
7567      <br>
7568
7569
7570 <i>data</i> <br>
7571
7572
7573 </td>
7574
7575
7576 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7577     
7578     
7579      <p>Normalized height
7580level up to which horizontally averaged
7581profiles are to be plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>.&nbsp;
7582      </p>
7583
7584
7585 
7586     
7587     
7588      <p>This parameter only applies for &nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7589= <span style="font-style: italic;">'profil'</span>.</p>
7590
7591
7592     
7593     
7594      <p>It
7595affects plots of horizontally averaged profiles
7596(<a href="#data_output_pr">data_output_pr</a>)
7597when plotted with the plot software <span style="font-weight: bold;">profil</span>,
7598if a normalization for the vertical axis is selected
7599(see <a href="#cross_normalized_y">cross_normalized_y</a>).
7600If e.g. the boundary layer height is used for normalization, then <b>z_max_do1d_normalized</b>
7601= <i>1.5</i> means that all profiles up to the height
7602level of z =
76031.5* z<sub>i </sub>are plotted.</p>
7604
7605
7606 </td>
7607
7608
7609 </tr>
7610
7611
7612
7613    <tr>
7614
7615
7616 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7617     
7618     
7619      <p><a name="z_max_do2d"></a><b>z_max_do2d</b></p>
7620
7621
7622
7623      </td>
7624
7625
7626 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
7627
7628
7629 </td>
7630
7631
7632
7633      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz)</span><br>
7634
7635
7636 </td>
7637
7638
7639
7640      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7641     
7642     
7643      <p>Height level
7644up to which 2d cross sections are to be plotted
7645with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>
7646(in m).&nbsp; </p>
7647
7648
7649 
7650     
7651     
7652      <p>This parameter only applies for
7653&nbsp;<a href="#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>
7654= <span style="font-style: italic;">'iso2d'</span>.</p>
7655
7656
7657     
7658     
7659      <p>It
7660affects plots of&nbsp; 2d vertical cross
7661sections (<a href="#data_output">data_output</a>)
7662when plotted with <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>.
7663By
7664default, vertical sections are plotted up to the top boundary. <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>In contrast, with <b>z_max_do2d
7665      </b>the
7666visualization within
7667the plot can be limited to a certain height level (0 &lt;= z
7668&lt;= <b>z_max_do2d</b>).
7669Nevertheless, <span style="font-weight: bold;">all</span>
7670grid points
7671of the complete cross section are still output to the local files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ">PLOT2D_XZ</a>
7672or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ">PLOT2D_YZ</a>.
7673The level up to which the section is visualized can later be changed by
7674manually editing the
7675file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_XZ_GLOBAL</a>
7676or <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL">PLOT2D_YZ_GLOBAL</a>
7677(the respective <span style="font-weight: bold;">iso2d</span>-parameter
7678is <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/institut/software/iso2d_beschreibung.html#YRIGHT">yright</a>).</p>
7679
7680
7681
7682      </td>
7683
7684
7685 </tr>
7686
7687
7688 
7689 
7690 
7691  </tbody>
7692</table>
7693
7694
7695<br>
7696
7697
7698
7699<br>
7700
7701
7702<h3 style="line-height: 100%;"><a name="particle_parameters"></a>Particle
7703parameters: </h3>
7704
7705
7706
7707<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span>NAMELIST group name: <span style="font-weight: bold;">particles_par<br>
7708
7709
7710
7711</span>
7712<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
7713
7714
7715 <tbody>
7716
7717
7718    <tr>
7719
7720
7721
7722      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter
7723name</b></font></td>
7724
7725
7726
7727      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
7728
7729
7730
7731      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7732     
7733     
7734      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
7735
7736
7737 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
7738
7739
7740 </td>
7741
7742
7743
7744      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7745     
7746     
7747      <p><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></p>
7748
7749
7750
7751      </td>
7752
7753
7754 </tr>
7755
7756
7757 <tr>
7758
7759
7760 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7761     
7762     
7763      <p><a name="dt_prel"></a><b>dt_prel</b></p>
7764
7765
7766
7767      </td>
7768
7769
7770 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
7771
7772
7773
7774      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>9999999.9</i></td>
7775
7776
7777
7778      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7779     
7780     
7781      <p><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">Temporal
7782interval at
7783which particles are to be released <span lang="en-GB">from
7784a particle
7785source </span>(</span></font>in <font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">s).</span>&nbsp;
7786      </font> </p>
7787
7788
7789 
7790     
7791     
7792      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By default
7793particles are released only at the beginning of a simulation
7794(t_init=0). The time of the first release (t_init) can be changed with
7795package parameter </font></span><span lang="en-GB"></span><font><a href="#particle_advection_start"><font face="Thorndale, serif">particle_advection_start</font></a>.
7796      </font><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The time of the last release can be
7797set with the package parameter <a href="#end_time_prel">end_time_prel</a>.
7798If <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>
7799has been set, additional
7800releases will be at t = t_init+<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7801t_init+2*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7802t_init+3*<span style="font-weight: bold;">dt_prel</span>,
7803etc.. Actual release times
7804may slightly deviate from thesel values (</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">see
7805e.g. </font></span><a href="#dt_dopr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dopr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">).</font></span></p>
7806
7807
7808
7809     
7810     
7811      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> The domain
7812of the particle <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">source </font></span>as
7813well as the distance of&nbsp; released particles
7814within this source </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">are determined via package
7815parameters </font></span><a href="#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
7816      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
7817      </font></span><a href="#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> By
7818default, one particle is released at all points defined by these
7819parameters. The package parameter <a href="#particles_per_point">particles_per_point</a>
7820can be used to start more than one particle per point.<br>
7821
7822
7823
7824      </font></span></p>
7825
7826
7827 
7828     
7829     
7830      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Up to 10
7831different groups of particles can be released at the same time (see </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#number_of_particle_groups"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">number_of_particle_groups</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">)
7832where each group may have a different source. All particles belonging
7833to one group have the same density ratio and the same radius. All other
7834particle features (e.g. location of the source) are
7835identical for all groups of particles.</font></span></p>
7836
7837
7838Subgrid
7839scale velocities can (optionally) be included for calculating the
7840particle advection, using the method of Weil et al. (2004, JAS, 61,
78412877-2887). This method is switched on by the package
7842parameter <a href="#use_sgs_for_particles">use_sgs_for_particles</a>.
7843This also forces the Euler/upstream method to be used for time
7844advancement of the TKE (see initialization parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#use_upstream_for_tke">use_upstream_for_tke</a>).
7845The minimum timestep during the sub-timesteps is controlled by package
7846parameter <a href="#dt_min_part">dt_min_part</a>.
7847     
7848     
7849      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">By
7850default, particles are weightless and transported passively with the
7851resolved scale flow. Particles can be given a mass and thus an inertia
7852by assigning the
7853package parameter </font></span><a href="#density_ratio"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">density_ratio</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> a
7854non-zero value (it
7855defines the ratio of the density of the fluid and the density of the
7856particles). In these cases their </font></span><a href="#radius"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">radius</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">
7857must also be defined, which affects their flow resistance. </font></span><a href="#diameter"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span> </p>
7858
7859
7860
7861     
7862     
7863      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Boundary
7864conditions for the particle transport can be defined with package
7865parameters </font></span><a href="#bc_par_t"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_t</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="#bc_par_lr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_lr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="bc_par_ns"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_ns</font></span></a>
7866      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
7867      </font></span><a href="#bc_par_b"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">bc_par_b</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.</font></span></p>
7868
7869
7870      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">Timeseries
7871of particle quantities in NetCDF format can be output to local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF">DATA_1D_PTS_NETCDF</a>
7872by using package parameter <a href="#dt_dopts">dt_dopts</a>.<br>
7873
7874
7875      </font></span>
7876     
7877     
7878      <p>For
7879analysis, additional output of
7880particle
7881information in equidistant temporal intervals can be carried out using <a href="#dt_write_particle_data">dt_write_particle_data</a>
7882(file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_DATA</a>).<br>
7883
7884
7885
7886      </p>
7887
7888
7889 
7890     
7891     
7892      <p><span style="font-family: thorndale,serif;">Statistical
7893informations</span> (e.g. the total number of particles used, the
7894number of particles exchanged between the PEs, etc.) are output to the
7895local file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_DATA">PARTICLE_INFOS</a>,
7896if switched on by the parameter <a href="#write_particle_statistics">write_particle_statistics</a>.
7897      <br>
7898
7899
7900 </p>
7901
7902
7903 
7904     
7905     
7906      <p><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">If a job
7907chain is to be carried out, particle
7908informations </font></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">for the restart run (e.g. current
7909location of
7910all
7911particles at the end of the
7912run) is output to
7913the local file</font></span> <font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font><a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_OUT</a><font><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></font>,
7914      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">which
7915must be saved at the
7916end of the run <tt><span lang="en-GB"></span></tt>and
7917given as an
7918input file to the restart run
7919under local file name</font></span> <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN">PARTICLE_RESTART_DATA_IN</a>
7920u<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">sing
7921respective file
7922connection statements in the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
7923configuration file. </font></span> <span lang="en-GB"></span></p>
7924
7925
7926     
7927     
7928      <p><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">The output of
7929particles for visualization with the graphic software <span style="font-weight: bold;">dvrp</span> is steered by
7930the package
7931parameter </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_dvrp"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">dt_dvrp</font></span></a><font face="Thorndale, serif"><span lang="en-GB">.
7932For visualization
7933purposes particles can be given a
7934diameter by the parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dvrp_psize">dvrp_psize</a>
7935(this diameter only affects the visualization). All particles have the
7936same size. Alternatively, particles can be given an individual size and
7937a </span>color <span lang="en-GB">by modifying the
7938user-interface (subroutine</span></font> <span style="font-family: monospace;">user_init_particles</span>)<span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">.
7939Particles can pull a
7940&ldquo;tail&rdquo; behind themselves to improve their
7941visualization.
7942This is steered via the parameter&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#use_particle_tails">use_particle_tails</a>.</font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#maximum_number_of_tailpoints"><span lang="en-GB"></span></a></p>
7943
7944
7945 <span lang="en-GB"></span>
7946     
7947     
7948      <p><b>So far, the
7949particle transport realized in PALM does only
7950work
7951duly in case of a constant vertical grid spacing!</b></p>
7952
7953
7954 </td>
7955
7956
7957
7958    </tr>
7959
7960
7961 <tr>
7962
7963
7964 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
7965     
7966     
7967      <p><a name="bc_par_b"></a><b>bc_par_b</b></p>
7968
7969
7970
7971      </td>
7972
7973
7974 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
7975
7976
7977
7978      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i></td>
7979
7980
7981
7982      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7983     
7984     
7985      <p>Bottom
7986boundary condition for particle transport. </p>
7987
7988
7989 
7990     
7991     
7992      <p>By
7993default, particles are reflected at the bottom boundary.
7994Alternatively, a particle absorption can set by <b>bc_par_b</b>
7995= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>.</p>
7996
7997
7998 </td>
7999
8000
8001
8002    </tr>
8003
8004
8005 <tr>
8006
8007
8008 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8009     
8010     
8011      <p><a name="bc_par_lr"></a><b>bc_par_lr</b></p>
8012
8013
8014
8015      </td>
8016
8017
8018 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8019
8020
8021
8022      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
8023
8024
8025
8026      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8027     
8028     
8029      <p>Lateral
8030boundary condition (x-direction) for particle
8031transport. </p>
8032
8033
8034 
8035     
8036     
8037      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
8038are used along x.
8039Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
8040= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_lr</b>
8041= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
8042can be set. <br>
8043
8044
8045 </p>
8046
8047
8048 
8049     
8050     
8051      <p>This lateral boundary
8052conditions should correspond to the
8053lateral boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).</p>
8054
8055
8056 </td>
8057
8058
8059
8060    </tr>
8061
8062
8063 <tr>
8064
8065
8066 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8067     
8068     
8069      <p><a name="bc_par_ns"></a><b>bc_par_ns</b></p>
8070
8071
8072
8073      </td>
8074
8075
8076 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8077
8078
8079
8080      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;cyclic&acute;</i></td>
8081
8082
8083
8084      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8085     
8086     
8087      <p>Lateral
8088boundary condition (y-direction) for particle
8089transport. </p>
8090
8091
8092 
8093     
8094     
8095      <p>By default, cyclic boundary conditions
8096are used along y.
8097Alternatively, reflection (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
8098= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>) or absorption (<b>bc_par_ns</b>
8099= <i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i>)
8100can be set.<br>
8101
8102
8103 </p>
8104
8105
8106
8107This lateral boundary conditions should correspond to the lateral
8108boundary condition used for the flow (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</td>
8109
8110
8111 </tr>
8112
8113
8114
8115    <tr>
8116
8117
8118 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8119     
8120     
8121      <p><a name="bc_par_t"></a><b>bc_par_t</b></p>
8122
8123
8124
8125      </td>
8126
8127
8128 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*15</td>
8129
8130
8131
8132      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>&acute;absorb&acute;</i></td>
8133
8134
8135
8136      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8137     
8138     
8139      <p>Top boundary
8140condition for particle transport. </p>
8141
8142
8143 
8144     
8145     
8146      <p>By default,
8147particles are absorbed at the top boundary.
8148Alternatively, a reflection condition can be set by <b>bc_par_t</b>
8149= <i>&acute;reflect&acute;</i>.</p>
8150
8151
8152 </td>
8153
8154
8155
8156    </tr>
8157
8158
8159 <tr>
8160
8161
8162 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8163     
8164     
8165      <p><a name="density_ratio"></a><b>density_ratio</b></p>
8166
8167
8168
8169      </td>
8170
8171
8172 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
8173
8174
8175
8176      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8177     
8178     
8179      <p><i>0.0, 9</i>
8180*<br>
8181
8182
8183 <i>9999999.9</i></p>
8184
8185
8186 </td>
8187
8188
8189 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8190     
8191     
8192      <p>Ratio of the density
8193of the fluid and the de