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30  <title>PALM chapter 4.1</title>
31</head>
32
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34<body>
35
36
37
38
39
40
41<h3><a name="chapter4.1"></a>4.1
42Initialization parameters</h3>
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50<br>
51
52
53
54
55
56
57<table style="text-align: left; width: 100%;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
58
59
60
61
62
63
64 <tbody>
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72    <tr>
73
74
75
76
77
78
79 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Parameter name</b></font></td>
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Type</b></font></td>
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
96     
97     
98     
99     
100     
101     
102      <p><b><font size="4">Default</font></b> <br>
103
104
105
106
107
108
109 <b><font size="4">value</font></b></p>
110
111
112
113
114
115
116 </td>
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><font size="4"><b>Explanation</b></font></td>
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132    </tr>
133
134
135
136
137
138
139 <tr>
140
141
142
143
144
145
146 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
147     
148     
149     
150     
151     
152     
153      <p><a name="adjust_mixing_length"></a><b>adjust_mixing_length</b></p>
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161      </td>
162
163
164
165
166
167
168 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
177
178
179
180
181
182
183 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
184     
185     
186     
187     
188     
189     
190      <p style="font-style: normal;">Near-surface adjustment of the
191mixing length to the Prandtl-layer law.&nbsp; </p>
192
193
194
195
196
197
198 
199     
200     
201     
202     
203     
204     
205      <p>Usually
206the mixing length in LES models l<sub>LES</sub>
207depends (as in PALM) on the grid size and is possibly restricted
208further in case of stable stratification and near the lower wall (see
209parameter <a href="#wall_adjustment">wall_adjustment</a>).
210With <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>
211the Prandtl' mixing length l<sub>PR</sub> = kappa * z/phi
212is calculated
213and the mixing length actually used in the model is set l = MIN (l<sub>LES</sub>,
214l<sub>PR</sub>). This usually gives a decrease of the
215mixing length at
216the bottom boundary and considers the fact that eddy sizes
217decrease in the vicinity of the wall.&nbsp; </p>
218
219
220
221
222
223
224 
225     
226     
227     
228     
229     
230     
231      <p style="font-style: normal;"><b>Warning:</b> So
232far, there is
233no good experience with <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> !&nbsp; </p>
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241     
242     
243     
244     
245     
246     
247      <p>With <b>adjust_mixing_length</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> and the
248Prandtl-layer being
249switched on (see <a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
250      <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*)** 2+neumann'</span>
251should always be set as the lower boundary condition for the TKE (see <a href="#bc_e_b">bc_e_b</a>),
252otherwise the near-surface value of the TKE is not in agreement with
253the Prandtl-layer law (Prandtl-layer law and Prandtl-Kolmogorov-Ansatz
254should provide the same value for K<sub>m</sub>). A warning
255is given,
256if this is not the case.</p>
257
258
259
260
261
262
263 </td>
264
265
266
267
268
269
270 </tr>
271
272
273
274
275
276
277 <tr>
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
286     
287     
288     
289     
290     
291     
292      <p><a name="alpha_surface"></a><b>alpha_surface</b></p>
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300      </td>
301
302
303
304
305
306
307 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
308
309
310
311
312
313
314 </td>
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
323
324
325
326
327
328
329 </td>
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
338     
339     
340     
341     
342     
343     
344      <p style="font-style: normal;">Inclination of the model domain
345with respect to the horizontal (in degrees).&nbsp; </p>
346
347
348
349
350
351
352 
353     
354     
355     
356     
357     
358     
359      <p style="font-style: normal;">By means of <b>alpha_surface</b>
360the model domain can be inclined in x-direction with respect to the
361horizontal. In this way flows over inclined surfaces (e.g. drainage
362flows, gravity flows) can be simulated. In case of <b>alpha_surface
363      </b>/= <span style="font-style: italic;">0</span>
364the buoyancy term
365appears both in
366the equation of motion of the u-component and of the w-component.<br>
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374      </p>
375
376
377
378
379
380
381 
382     
383     
384     
385     
386     
387     
388      <p style="font-style: normal;">An inclination
389is only possible in
390case of cyclic horizontal boundary conditions along x AND y (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
391and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>) and <a href="#topography">topography</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'flat'</span>. </p>
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399     
400     
401     
402     
403     
404     
405      <p>Runs with inclined surface still require additional
406user-defined code as well as modifications to the default code. Please
407ask the <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/PALM_group.html#0">PALM
408developer&nbsp; group</a>.</p>
409
410
411
412
413
414
415 </td>
416
417
418
419
420
421
422 </tr>
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430    <tr>
431
432
433
434
435
436
437 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
438     
439     
440     
441     
442     
443     
444      <p><a name="bc_e_b"></a><b>bc_e_b</b></p>
445
446
447
448
449
450
451 </td>
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
460
461
462
463
464
465
466 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
475     
476     
477     
478     
479     
480     
481      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
482TKE.&nbsp; </p>
483
484
485
486
487
488
489 
490     
491     
492     
493     
494     
495     
496      <p><b>bc_e_b</b> may be
497set to&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
498or <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*) ** 2+neumann'</span>.
499      <b>bc_e_b</b>
500= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
501yields to
502e(k=0)=e(k=1) (Neumann boundary condition), where e(k=1) is calculated
503via the prognostic TKE equation. Choice of <span style="font-style: italic;">'(u*)**2+neumann'</span>
504also yields to
505e(k=0)=e(k=1), but the TKE at the Prandtl-layer top (k=1) is calculated
506diagnostically by e(k=1)=(us/0.1)**2. However, this is only allowed if
507a Prandtl-layer is used (<a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>).
508If this is not the case, a warning is given and <b>bc_e_b</b>
509is reset
510to <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.&nbsp;
511      </p>
512
513
514
515
516
517
518 
519     
520     
521     
522     
523     
524     
525      <p style="font-style: normal;">At the top
526boundary a Neumann
527boundary condition is generally used: (e(nz+1) = e(nz)).</p>
528
529
530
531
532
533
534 </td>
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542    </tr>
543
544
545
546
547
548
549 <tr>
550
551
552
553
554
555
556 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
557     
558     
559     
560     
561     
562     
563      <p><a name="bc_lr"></a><b>bc_lr</b></p>
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571      </td>
572
573
574
575
576
577
578 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
595condition along x (for all quantities).<br>
596
597
598
599
600
601
602 <br>
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along x.<br>
611
612
613
614
615
616
617 <br>
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625      <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_lr</span> may
626also be
627assigned the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet/radiation'</span>
628(inflow from left, outflow to the right) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'radiation/dirichlet'</span>
629(inflow from
630right, outflow to the left). This requires the multi-grid method to be
631used for solving the Poisson equation for perturbation pressure (see <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
632and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along y (see&nbsp;<a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).<br>
633
634
635
636
637
638
639 <br>
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647In case of these non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a Dirichlet condition
648is used at the inflow for all quantities (initial vertical profiles -
649see <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
650- are fixed during the run) except u, to which a Neumann (zero
651gradient) condition is applied. At the outflow, a radiation condition is used for all velocity components, while a Neumann (zero
652gradient) condition is used for the scalars. For perturbation
653pressure Neumann (zero gradient) conditions are assumed both at the
654inflow and at the outflow.<br>
655
656
657
658
659
660
661 <br>
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a filter is applied to the
670velocity field in the vicinity of the outflow in order to suppress any
671reflections of outgoing disturbances (see <a href="#km_damp_max">km_damp_max</a>
672and <a href="#outflow_damping_width">outflow_damping_width</a>).<br>
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680      <br>
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688In order to maintain a turbulent state of the flow, it may be
689neccessary to continuously impose perturbations on the horizontal
690velocity field in the vicinity of the inflow throughout the whole run.
691This can be switched on using <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>.
692The horizontal range to which these perturbations are applied is
693controlled by the parameters <a href="#inflow_disturbance_begin">inflow_disturbance_begin</a>
694and <a href="#inflow_disturbance_end">inflow_disturbance_end</a>.
695The vertical range and the perturbation amplitude are given by <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_level_b</a>,
696      <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_level_t</a>,
697and <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">disturbance_amplitude</a>.
698The time interval at which perturbations are to be imposed is set by <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#dt_disturb">dt_disturb</a>.<br>
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706      <br>
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714In case of non-cyclic horizontal boundaries <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#call_psolver_at_all_substeps">call_psolver
715at_all_substeps</a> = .T. should be used.<br>
716
717
718
719
720
721
722 <br>
723
724
725
726
727
728
729 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Note:</span><br>
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737Using non-cyclic lateral boundaries requires very sensitive adjustments
738of the inflow (vertical profiles) and the bottom boundary conditions,
739e.g. a surface heating should not be applied near the inflow boundary
740because this may significantly disturb the inflow. Please check the
741model results very carefully.</td>
742
743
744
745
746
747
748 </tr>
749
750
751
752
753
754
755 <tr>
756
757
758
759
760
761
762 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
763     
764     
765     
766     
767     
768     
769      <p><a name="bc_ns"></a><b>bc_ns</b></p>
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777      </td>
778
779
780
781
782
783
784 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'cyclic'</span></td>
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Boundary
801condition along y (for all quantities).<br>
802
803
804
805
806
807
808 <br>
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816By default, a cyclic boundary condition is used along y.<br>
817
818
819
820
821
822
823 <br>
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831      <span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_ns</span> may
832also be
833assigned the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet/radiation'</span>
834(inflow from rear ("north"), outflow to the front ("south")) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'radiation/dirichlet'</span>
835(inflow from front ("south"), outflow to the rear ("north")). This
836requires the multi-grid
837method to be used for solving the Poisson equation for perturbation
838pressure (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
839and it also requires cyclic boundary conditions along x (see<br>
840
841
842
843
844
845
846 <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>).<br>
847
848
849
850
851
852
853 <br>
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861In case of these non-cyclic lateral boundaries, a Dirichlet condition
862is used at the inflow for all quantities (initial vertical profiles -
863see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
864- are fixed during the run) except u, to which a Neumann (zero
865gradient) condition is applied. At the outflow, a radiation condition is used for all velocity components, while a Neumann (zero
866gradient) condition is used for the scalars. For perturbation
867pressure Neumann (zero gradient) conditions are assumed both at the
868inflow and at the outflow.<br>
869
870
871
872
873
874
875 <br>
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883For further details regarding non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions
884see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>.</td>
885
886
887
888
889
890
891 </tr>
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899    <tr>
900
901
902
903
904
905
906 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
907     
908     
909     
910     
911     
912     
913      <p><a name="bc_p_b"></a><b>bc_p_b</b></p>
914
915
916
917
918
919
920 </td>
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
929
930
931
932
933
934
935 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
944     
945     
946     
947     
948     
949     
950      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
951perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
952
953
954
955
956
957
958 
959     
960     
961     
962     
963     
964     
965      <p>Allowed values
966are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>,
967      <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
968and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann+inhomo'</span>.&nbsp;
969      <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
970sets
971p(k=0)=0.0,&nbsp; <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
972sets p(k=0)=p(k=1). <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann+inhomo'</span>
973corresponds to an extended Neumann boundary condition where heat flux
974or temperature inhomogeneities near the
975surface (pt(k=1))&nbsp; are additionally regarded (see Shen and
976LeClerc
977(1995, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc.,
9781209)). This condition is only permitted with the Prandtl-layer
979switched on (<a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>),
980otherwise the run is terminated.&nbsp; </p>
981
982
983
984
985
986
987 
988     
989     
990     
991     
992     
993     
994      <p>Since
995at the bottom boundary of the model the vertical
996velocity
997disappears (w(k=0) = 0.0), the consistent Neumann condition (<span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann+inhomo'</span>)
998dp/dz = 0 should
999be used, which leaves the vertical component w unchanged when the
1000pressure solver is applied. Simultaneous use of the Neumann boundary
1001conditions both at the bottom and at the top boundary (<a href="#bc_p_t">bc_p_t</a>)
1002usually yields no consistent solution for the perturbation pressure and
1003should be avoided.</p>
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010 </td>
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017 </tr>
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024 <tr>
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1032     
1033     
1034     
1035     
1036     
1037     
1038      <p><a name="bc_p_t"></a><b>bc_p_t</b></p>
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046      </td>
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1070     
1071     
1072     
1073     
1074     
1075     
1076      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
1077perturbation pressure.&nbsp; </p>
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084 
1085     
1086     
1087     
1088     
1089     
1090     
1091      <p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1092(p(k=nz+1)= 0.0) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1093(p(k=nz+1)=p(k=nz)).&nbsp; </p>
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100 
1101     
1102     
1103     
1104     
1105     
1106     
1107      <p>Simultaneous use
1108of Neumann boundary conditions both at the
1109top and bottom boundary (<a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>)
1110usually yields no consistent solution for the perturbation pressure and
1111should be avoided. Since at the bottom boundary the Neumann
1112condition&nbsp; is a good choice (see <a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>),
1113a Dirichlet condition should be set at the top boundary.</p>
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120 </td>
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128    </tr>
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135 <tr>
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1143     
1144     
1145     
1146     
1147     
1148     
1149      <p><a name="bc_pt_b"></a><b>bc_pt_b</b></p>
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157      </td>
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20</td>
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1181     
1182     
1183     
1184     
1185     
1186     
1187      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
1188potential temperature.&nbsp; </p>
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195 
1196     
1197     
1198     
1199     
1200     
1201     
1202      <p>Allowed values
1203are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1204(pt(k=0) = const. = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>
1205+ <a href="#pt_surface_initial_change">pt_surface_initial_change</a>;
1206the user may change this value during the run using user-defined code)
1207and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1208(pt(k=0)=pt(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216When a constant surface sensible heat flux is used (<a href="#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>), <b>bc_pt_b</b>
1217= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1218must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
1219the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226     
1227     
1228     
1229     
1230     
1231     
1232      <p>In the <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled</a> atmosphere executable,&nbsp;<a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_pt_b">bc_pt_b</a> is internally set and does not need to be prescribed.</p>
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240      </td>
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247 </tr>
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254 <tr>
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1262     
1263     
1264     
1265     
1266     
1267     
1268      <p><a name="pc_pt_t"></a><b>bc_pt_t</b></p>
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276      </td>
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'initial_ gradient'</span></td>
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1300     
1301     
1302     
1303     
1304     
1305     
1306      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
1307potential temperature.&nbsp; </p>
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314 
1315     
1316     
1317     
1318     
1319     
1320     
1321      <p>Allowed are the
1322values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>(pt(k=nz+1)
1323does not change during the run), <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1324(pt(k=nz+1)=pt(k=nz)), and <span style="font-style: italic;">'initial_gradient'</span>.
1325With the 'initial_gradient'-condition the value of the temperature
1326gradient at the top is
1327calculated from the initial
1328temperature profile (see <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>,
1329      <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>)
1330by bc_pt_t_val = (pt_init(k=nz+1) -
1331pt_init(k=nz)) / dzu(nz+1).<br>
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339Using this value (assumed constant during the
1340run) the temperature boundary values are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348     
1349     
1350     
1351     
1352     
1353     
1354      <ul>
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361 
1362       
1363       
1364       
1365       
1366       
1367       
1368        <p style="font-style: normal;">pt(k=nz+1) =
1369pt(k=nz) +
1370bc_pt_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377 
1378     
1379     
1380     
1381     
1382     
1383     
1384      </ul>
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391 
1392     
1393     
1394     
1395     
1396     
1397     
1398      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
1399equation for the temperature is solved).<br>
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407When a constant sensible heat flux is used at the top boundary (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_heatflux">top_heatflux</a>),
1408      <b>bc_pt_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1409must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
1410the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417 </td>
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425    </tr>
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432 <tr>
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
1440     
1441     
1442     
1443     
1444     
1445     
1446      <p><a name="bc_q_b"></a><b>bc_q_b</b></p>
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454      </td>
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1478     
1479     
1480     
1481     
1482     
1483     
1484      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
1485specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p>
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492 
1493     
1494     
1495     
1496     
1497     
1498     
1499      <p>Allowed
1500values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1501(q(k=0) = const. = <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>
1502+ <a href="#q_surface_initial_change">q_surface_initial_change</a>;
1503the user may change this value during the run using user-defined code)
1504and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1505(q(k=0)=q(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513When a constant surface latent heat flux is used (<a href="#surface_waterflux">surface_waterflux</a>), <b>bc_q_b</b>
1514= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1515must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
1516the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524      </td>
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531 </tr>
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538 <tr>
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1546     
1547     
1548     
1549     
1550     
1551     
1552      <p><a name="bc_q_t"></a><b>bc_q_t</b></p>
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560      </td>
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">C
1568* 20</span></td>
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1584     
1585     
1586     
1587     
1588     
1589     
1590      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
1591specific humidity / total water content.&nbsp; </p>
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598 
1599     
1600     
1601     
1602     
1603     
1604     
1605      <p>Allowed
1606are the values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1607(q(k=nz) and q(k=nz+1) do
1608not change during the run) and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.
1609With the Neumann boundary
1610condition the value of the humidity gradient at the top is calculated
1611from the
1612initial humidity profile (see <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>,
1613      <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>)
1614by: bc_q_t_val = ( q_init(k=nz) - q_init(k=nz-1)) / dzu(nz).<br>
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622Using this value (assumed constant during the run) the humidity
1623boundary values
1624are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631 
1632     
1633     
1634     
1635     
1636     
1637     
1638      <ul>
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645 
1646       
1647       
1648       
1649       
1650       
1651       
1652        <p style="font-style: normal;">q(k=nz+1) =q(k=nz) +
1653bc_q_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660 
1661     
1662     
1663     
1664     
1665     
1666     
1667      </ul>
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674 
1675     
1676     
1677     
1678     
1679     
1680     
1681      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up tp k=nz the prognostic
1682equation for q is solved). </p>
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689 </td>
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696 </tr>
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703 <tr>
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1712     
1713     
1714     
1715     
1716     
1717     
1718      <p><a name="bc_s_b"></a><b>bc_s_b</b></p>
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725 </td>
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1749     
1750     
1751     
1752     
1753     
1754     
1755      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
1756scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p>
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763 
1764     
1765     
1766     
1767     
1768     
1769     
1770      <p>Allowed values
1771are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1772(s(k=0) = const. = <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>
1773+ <a href="#s_surface_initial_change">s_surface_initial_change</a>;
1774the user may change this value during the run using user-defined code)
1775and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1776(s(k=0) =
1777s(k=1)).&nbsp; <br>
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785When a constant surface concentration flux is used (<a href="#surface_scalarflux">surface_scalarflux</a>), <b>bc_s_b</b>
1786= <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
1787must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
1788the surface flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796      </td>
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803 </tr>
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810 <tr>
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1818     
1819     
1820     
1821     
1822     
1823     
1824      <p><a name="bc_s_t"></a><b>bc_s_t</b></p>
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832      </td>
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
1856     
1857     
1858     
1859     
1860     
1861     
1862      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
1863scalar concentration.&nbsp; </p>
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870 
1871     
1872     
1873     
1874     
1875     
1876     
1877      <p>Allowed are the
1878values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
1879(s(k=nz) and s(k=nz+1) do
1880not change during the run) and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.
1881With the Neumann boundary
1882condition the value of the scalar concentration gradient at the top is
1883calculated
1884from the initial scalar concentration profile (see <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>, <a href="#s_vertical_gradient">s_vertical_gradient</a>)
1885by: bc_s_t_val = (s_init(k=nz) - s_init(k=nz-1)) / dzu(nz).<br>
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893Using this value (assumed constant during the run) the concentration
1894boundary values
1895are calculated as </p>
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902 
1903     
1904     
1905     
1906     
1907     
1908     
1909      <ul>
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916 
1917       
1918       
1919       
1920       
1921       
1922       
1923        <p style="font-style: normal;">s(k=nz+1) = s(k=nz) +
1924bc_s_t_val * dzu(nz+1)</p>
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931 
1932     
1933     
1934     
1935     
1936     
1937     
1938      </ul>
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945 
1946     
1947     
1948     
1949     
1950     
1951     
1952      <p style="font-style: normal;">(up to k=nz the prognostic
1953equation for the scalar concentration is
1954solved).</p>
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961 </td>
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968 </tr>
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975 <tr>
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bc_sa_t"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bc_sa_t</span></td>
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span></td>
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2004     
2005     
2006     
2007     
2008     
2009     
2010      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the salinity.&nbsp; </p>
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017 
2018     
2019     
2020     
2021     
2022     
2023     
2024      <p>This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>).</p>
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031     
2032     
2033     
2034     
2035     
2036     
2037      <p style="font-style: normal;">Allowed are the
2038values <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>(sa(k=nz+1)
2039does not change during the run) and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
2040(sa(k=nz+1)=sa(k=nz))<span style="font-style: italic;"></span>.&nbsp;<br>
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047      <br>
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055When a constant salinity flux is used at the top boundary (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>),
2056      <b>bc_sa_t</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>
2057must be used, because otherwise the resolved scale may contribute to
2058the top flux so that a constant value cannot be guaranteed.</p>
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065      </td>
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072    </tr>
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079    <tr>
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2087     
2088     
2089     
2090     
2091     
2092     
2093      <p><a name="bc_uv_b"></a><b>bc_uv_b</b></p>
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101      </td>
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2125     
2126     
2127     
2128     
2129     
2130     
2131      <p style="font-style: normal;">Bottom boundary condition of the
2132horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p>
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139 
2140     
2141     
2142     
2143     
2144     
2145     
2146      <p>Allowed
2147values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet' </span>and
2148      <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>. <b>bc_uv_b</b>
2149= <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>
2150yields the
2151no-slip condition with u=v=0 at the bottom. Due to the staggered grid
2152u(k=0) and v(k=0) are located at z = - 0,5 * <a href="#dz">dz</a>
2153(below the bottom), while u(k=1) and v(k=1) are located at z = +0,5 *
2154dz. u=v=0 at the bottom is guaranteed using mirror boundary
2155condition:&nbsp; </p>
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162 
2163     
2164     
2165     
2166     
2167     
2168     
2169      <ul>
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176 
2177       
2178       
2179       
2180       
2181       
2182       
2183        <p style="font-style: normal;">u(k=0) = - u(k=1) and v(k=0) = -
2184v(k=1)</p>
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191 
2192     
2193     
2194     
2195     
2196     
2197     
2198      </ul>
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205 
2206     
2207     
2208     
2209     
2210     
2211     
2212      <p style="font-style: normal;">The
2213Neumann boundary condition
2214yields the free-slip condition with u(k=0) = u(k=1) and v(k=0) =
2215v(k=1).
2216With Prandtl - layer switched on, the free-slip condition is not
2217allowed (otherwise the run will be terminated)<font color="#000000">.</font></p>
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225      </td>
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232 </tr>
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239 <tr>
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2247     
2248     
2249     
2250     
2251     
2252     
2253      <p><a name="bc_uv_t"></a><b>bc_uv_t</b></p>
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261      </td>
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span></td>
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2285     
2286     
2287     
2288     
2289     
2290     
2291      <p style="font-style: normal;">Top boundary condition of the
2292horizontal velocity components u and v.&nbsp; </p>
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299 
2300     
2301     
2302     
2303     
2304     
2305     
2306      <p>Allowed
2307values are <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet_0'</span>
2308and <span style="font-style: italic;">'neumann'</span>.
2309The
2310Dirichlet condition yields u(k=nz+1) = ug(nz+1) and v(k=nz+1) =
2311vg(nz+1),
2312Neumann condition yields the free-slip condition with u(k=nz+1) =
2313u(k=nz) and v(k=nz+1) = v(k=nz) (up to k=nz the prognostic equations
2314for the velocities are solved). The special condition&nbsp;<span style="font-style: italic;">'dirichlet_0'</span> can be used for channel flow, it yields the no-slip condition u(k=nz+1) = ug(nz+1) = 0 and v(k=nz+1) =
2315vg(nz+1) = 0.</p>
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322     
2323     
2324     
2325     
2326     
2327     
2328      <p>In the <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled</a> ocean executable, <a href="chapter_4.2.html#bc_uv_t">bc_uv_t</a>&nbsp;is internally set ('neumann') and does not need to be prescribed.</p>
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335 </td>
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342 </tr>
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349 <tr>
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="bottom_salinityflux"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">bottom_salinityflux</span></td>
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377      <td style="vertical-align: top;">
2378     
2379     
2380     
2381     
2382     
2383     
2384      <p>Kinematic salinity flux near the surface (in psu m/s).&nbsp;</p>
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391This parameter only comes into effect for ocean runs (see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>).
2392     
2393     
2394     
2395     
2396     
2397     
2398      <p>The
2399respective salinity flux value is used
2400as bottom (horizontally homogeneous) boundary condition for the salinity equation. This additionally requires that a Neumann
2401condition must be used for the salinity, which is currently the only available condition.<br>
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408 </p>
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415 </td>
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422    </tr>
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429    <tr>
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_height"></a>building_height</span></td>
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459 <td>Height
2460of a single building in m.<br>
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467 <br>
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474 <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_height</span> must
2475be less than the height of the model domain. This parameter requires
2476the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
2477= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485    </tr>
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492 <tr>
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_x"></a>building_length_x</span></td>
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521 <td><span style="font-style: italic;"></span>Width of a single
2522building in m.<br>
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529 <br>
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_length_x</span>
2538must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">3
2539*&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#dx">dx</a> and no more than <span style="font-style: italic;">(&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#nx">nx</a><span style="font-style: italic;"> - 1 ) </span><span style="font-style: italic;"> * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
2540      </span><span style="font-style: italic;">- <a href="#building_wall_left">building_wall_left</a></span>.
2541This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
2542= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550    </tr>
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557 <tr>
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_length_y"></a>building_length_y</span></td>
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">50.0</span></td>
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586 <td>Depth
2587of a single building in m.<br>
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594 <br>
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_length_y</span>
2603must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">3
2604*&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#dy">dy</a> and no more than <span style="font-style: italic;">(&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#ny">ny</a><span style="font-style: italic;"> - 1 )&nbsp;</span><span style="font-style: italic;"> * <a href="#dy">dy</a></span><span style="font-style: italic;"> - <a href="#building_wall_south">building_wall_south</a></span>. This parameter requires
2605the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
2606= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.</td>
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614    </tr>
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621 <tr>
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_left"></a>building_wall_left</span></td>
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in x-direction</span></td>
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651      <td>x-coordinate of the left building wall (distance between the
2652left building wall and the left border of the model domain) in m.<br>
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660      <br>
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_left</span>
2669must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">1
2670*&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#dx">dx</a> and less than <span style="font-style: italic;">( <a href="#nx">nx</a>&nbsp;
2671- 1 ) * <a href="#dx">dx</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_x">building_length_x</a></span>.
2672This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
2673= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.<br>
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681      <br>
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689The default value&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_left</span>
2690= <span style="font-style: italic;">( ( <a href="#nx">nx</a>&nbsp;+
26911 ) * <a href="#dx">dx</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_x">building_length_x</a> ) / 2</span>
2692centers the building in x-direction.&nbsp;<font color="#000000">Due to the staggered grid the building will be displaced by -0.5 <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx">dx</a> in x-direction and -0.5 <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy">dy</a> in y-direction.</font> </td>
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699 </tr>
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706 <tr>
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="building_wall_south"></a>building_wall_south</span></td>
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;"></span><span style="font-style: italic;">building centered in y-direction</span></td>
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737      <td>y-coordinate of the South building wall (distance between the
2738South building wall and the South border of the model domain) in m.<br>
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746      <br>
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754Currently, <span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_south</span>
2755must be at least <span style="font-style: italic;">1
2756*&nbsp;</span><a style="font-style: italic;" href="#dy">dy</a> and less than <span style="font-style: italic;">( <a href="#ny">ny</a>&nbsp;
2757- 1 ) * <a href="#dy">dy</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_y">building_length_y</a></span>.
2758This parameter requires the use of&nbsp;<a href="#topography">topography</a>
2759= <span style="font-style: italic;">'single_building'</span>.<br>
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767      <br>
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775The default value&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">building_wall_south</span>
2776= <span style="font-style: italic;">( ( <a href="#ny">ny</a>&nbsp;+
27771 ) * <a href="#dy">dy</a> -&nbsp; <a href="#building_length_y">building_length_y</a> ) / 2</span>
2778centers the building in y-direction.&nbsp;<font color="#000000">Due to the staggered grid the building will be displaced by -0.5 <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dx">dx</a> in x-direction and -0.5 <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dy">dy</a> in y-direction.</font> </td>
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785 </tr>
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792 <tr>
2793
2794      <td><a name="canopy_mode"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">canopy_mode</span></td>
2795
2796      <td>C * 20</td>
2797
2798      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">'block'</span></td>
2799
2800      <td>Canopy mode.<br>
2801
2802      <br>
2803
2804      <font color="#000000">
2805Besides using the default value, that will create a horizontally
2806homogeneous plant canopy that extends over the total horizontal
2807extension of the model domain, the user may add code to the user
2808interface subroutine <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init_plant_canopy">user_init_plant_canopy</a>
2809to allow further canopy&nbsp;modes. <br>
2810
2811      <br>
2812
2813The setting of <a href="#canopy_mode">canopy_mode</a> becomes only active, if&nbsp;<a href="#plant_canopy">plant_canopy</a> has been set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> and a non-zero <a href="#drag_coefficient">drag_coefficient</a> has been defined.</font></td>
2814
2815    </tr>
2816
2817    <tr>
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="cloud_droplets"></a>cloud_droplets</span><br>
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833      </td>
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847 </td>
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span><br>
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862 </td>
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on
2871usage of cloud droplets.<br>
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878 <br>
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886      <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="font-family: monospace;"></span>
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891Cloud droplets require to use&nbsp;particles (i.e. the NAMELIST group <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">particles_par</span> has to be included in the parameter file<span style="font-family: monospace;"></span>). Then each particle is a representative for a certain number of droplets. The droplet
2892features (number of droplets, initial radius, etc.) can be steered with
2893the&nbsp; respective particle parameters (see e.g. <a href="#chapter_4.2.html#radius">radius</a>).
2894The real number of initial droplets in a grid cell is equal to the
2895initial number of droplets (defined by the particle source parameters <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif"> </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pst"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pst</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psl"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psl</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psr"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psr</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pss"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pss</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psn"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psn</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#psb"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">psb</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdx"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdx</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">, </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdy"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdy</font></span></a>
2896      <span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">and
2897      </font></span><a href="chapter_4.2.html#pdz"><span lang="en-GB"><font face="Thorndale, serif">pdz</font></span></a><span lang="en-GB"></span><span lang="en-GB"></span>)
2898times the <a href="#initial_weighting_factor">initial_weighting_factor</a>.<br>
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906      <br>
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914In case of using cloud droplets, the default condensation scheme in
2915PALM cannot be used, i.e. <a href="#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
2916must be set <span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span>.<br>
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924      </td>
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931 </tr>
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938 <tr>
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2946     
2947     
2948     
2949     
2950     
2951     
2952      <p><a name="cloud_physics"></a><b>cloud_physics</b></p>
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960      </td>
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L<br>
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974 </td>
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
2990     
2991     
2992     
2993     
2994     
2995     
2996      <p>Parameter to switch
2997on the condensation scheme.&nbsp; </p>
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005For <b>cloud_physics =</b> <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>, equations
3006for the
3007liquid water&nbsp;
3008content and the liquid water potential temperature are solved instead
3009of those for specific humidity and potential temperature. Note
3010that a grid volume is assumed to be either completely saturated or
3011completely
3012unsaturated (0%-or-100%-scheme). A simple precipitation scheme can
3013additionally be switched on with parameter <a href="#precipitation">precipitation</a>.
3014Also cloud-top cooling by longwave radiation can be utilized (see <a href="#radiation">radiation</a>)<br>
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021 <b><br>
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029cloud_physics =</b> <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.
3030      </span>requires&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>
3031=<span style="font-style: italic;"> .TRUE.</span> .<br>
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039Detailed information about the condensation scheme is given in the
3040description of the <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM-1/Dokumentationen/Cloud_physics/wolken.pdf">cloud
3041physics module</a> (pdf-file, only in German).<br>
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048 <br>
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056This condensation scheme is not allowed if cloud droplets are simulated
3057explicitly (see <a href="#cloud_droplets">cloud_droplets</a>).<br>
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065      </td>
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072 </tr>
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079 <tr>
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="conserve_volume_flow"></a>conserve_volume_flow</span></td>
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108 <td>Conservation
3109of volume flow in x- and y-direction.<br>
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116 <br>
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123 <span style="font-weight: bold;">conserve_volume_flow</span>
3124= <span style="font-style: italic;">.TRUE.</span>
3125guarantees that the volume flow through the xz- or yz-cross-section of
3126the total model domain remains constant (equal to the initial value at
3127t=0) throughout the run.<br>
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135      </td>
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142 </tr>
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149 <tr>
3150
3151      <td><a name="cthf"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">cthf</span></td>
3152
3153      <td>R</td>
3154
3155      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
3156
3157      <td>Average heat flux that is prescribed at the top of the plant canopy.<br>
3158
3159
3160      <br>
3161
3162
3163If <a href="../../../../../DEVELOPER_VERSION/chapter_4.1_adjusted.html#plant_canopy">plant_canopy</a> is set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>, the user can prescribe a heat flux at the top of the plant canopy.<br>
3164
3165
3166It is assumed that solar radiation penetrates the canopy and warms the
3167foliage which, in turn, warms the air in contact with it. <br>
3168
3169
3170Note: Instead of using the value prescribed by <a href="../../../../../DEVELOPER_VERSION/chapter_4.1_adjusted.html#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>,
3171the near surface heat flux is determined from an exponential function
3172that is dependent on the cumulative leaf_area_index (Shaw and Schumann
3173(1992, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 61, 47-64)).</td>
3174
3175    </tr>
3176
3177    <tr>
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3185     
3186     
3187     
3188     
3189     
3190     
3191      <p><a name="cut_spline_overshoot"></a><b>cut_spline_overshoot</b></p>
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199      </td>
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span></td>
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3222     
3223     
3224     
3225     
3226     
3227     
3228      <p>Cuts off of
3229so-called overshoots, which can occur with the
3230upstream-spline scheme.&nbsp; </p>
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237 
3238     
3239     
3240     
3241     
3242     
3243     
3244      <p><font color="#000000">The cubic splines tend to overshoot in
3245case of discontinuous changes of variables between neighbouring grid
3246points.</font><font color="#ff0000"> </font><font color="#000000">This
3247may lead to errors in calculating the advection tendency.</font>
3248Choice
3249of <b>cut_spline_overshoot</b> = <i>.TRUE.</i>
3250(switched on by
3251default)
3252allows variable values not to exceed an interval defined by the
3253respective adjacent grid points. This interval can be adjusted
3254seperately for every prognostic variable (see initialization parameters
3255      <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_pt">overshoot_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#overshoot_limit_u">overshoot_limit_u</a>,
3256etc.). This might be necessary in case that the
3257default interval has a non-tolerable effect on the model
3258results.&nbsp; </p>
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265 
3266     
3267     
3268     
3269     
3270     
3271     
3272      <p>Overshoots may also be removed
3273using the parameters <a href="#ups_limit_e">ups_limit_e</a>,
3274      <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>,
3275etc. as well as by applying a long-filter (see <a href="#long_filter_factor">long_filter_factor</a>).</p>
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283      </td>
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290 </tr>
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297 <tr>
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3305     
3306     
3307     
3308     
3309     
3310     
3311      <p><a name="damp_level_1d"></a><b>damp_level_1d</b></p>
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319      </td>
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">zu(nz+1)</span></td>
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3343     
3344     
3345     
3346     
3347     
3348     
3349      <p>Height where
3350the damping layer begins in the 1d-model
3351(in m).&nbsp; </p>
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358 
3359     
3360     
3361     
3362     
3363     
3364     
3365      <p>This parameter is used to
3366switch on a damping layer for the
33671d-model, which is generally needed for the damping of inertia
3368oscillations. Damping is done by gradually increasing the value
3369of the eddy diffusivities about 10% per vertical grid level
3370(starting with the value at the height given by <b>damp_level_1d</b>,
3371or possibly from the next grid pint above), i.e. K<sub>m</sub>(k+1)
3372=
33731.1 * K<sub>m</sub>(k).
3374The values of K<sub>m</sub> are limited to 10 m**2/s at
3375maximum.&nbsp; <br>
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383This parameter only comes into effect if the 1d-model is switched on
3384for
3385the initialization of the 3d-model using <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
3386= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.
3387      <br>
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394 </p>
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401 </td>
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408 </tr>
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415 <tr>
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dissipation_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dissipation_1d</span><br>
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430      </td>
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445      </td>
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459 <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br>
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466 </td>
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Calculation method for
3475the energy dissipation term in the TKE equation of the 1d-model.<br>
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483      <br>
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491By default the dissipation is calculated as in the 3d-model using diss
3492= (0.19 + 0.74 * l / l_grid) * e**1.5 / l.<br>
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499 <br>
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507Setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">dissipation_1d</span>
3508= <span style="font-style: italic;">'detering'</span>
3509forces the dissipation to be calculated as diss = 0.064 * e**1.5 / l.<br>
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517      </td>
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524 </tr>
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532    <tr>
3533
3534      <td><a name="drag_coefficient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">drag_coefficient</span></td>
3535
3536      <td>R</td>
3537
3538      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
3539
3540      <td>Drag coefficient used in the plant canopy model.<br>
3541
3542      <br>
3543
3544This parameter has to be non-zero, if the parameter <a href="#plant_canopy">plant_canopy</a> is set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>.</td>
3545
3546    </tr>
3547
3548    <tr>
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3556     
3557     
3558     
3559     
3560     
3561     
3562      <p><a name="dt"></a><b>dt</b></p>
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569 </td>
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">variable</span></td>
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3593     
3594     
3595     
3596     
3597     
3598     
3599      <p>Time step for
3600the 3d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p>
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607 
3608     
3609     
3610     
3611     
3612     
3613     
3614      <p>By default, (i.e.
3615if a Runge-Kutta scheme is used, see <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
3616the value of the time step is calculating after each time step
3617(following the time step criteria) and
3618used for the next step.</p>
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625 
3626     
3627     
3628     
3629     
3630     
3631     
3632      <p>If the user assigns <b>dt</b>
3633a value, then the time step is
3634fixed to this value throughout the whole run (whether it fulfills the
3635time step
3636criteria or not). However, changes are allowed for restart runs,
3637because <b>dt</b> can also be used as a <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_laufparameter">run
3638parameter</a>.&nbsp; </p>
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645 
3646     
3647     
3648     
3649     
3650     
3651     
3652      <p>In case that the
3653calculated time step meets the condition<br>
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660 </p>
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667 
3668     
3669     
3670     
3671     
3672     
3673     
3674      <ul>
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682       
3683       
3684       
3685       
3686       
3687       
3688        <p><b>dt</b> &lt; 0.00001 * <a href="chapter_4.2.html#dt_max">dt_max</a> (with dt_max
3689= 20.0)</p>
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696 
3697     
3698     
3699     
3700     
3701     
3702     
3703      </ul>
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710 
3711     
3712     
3713     
3714     
3715     
3716     
3717      <p>the simulation will be
3718aborted. Such situations usually arise
3719in case of any numerical problem / instability which causes a
3720non-realistic increase of the wind speed.&nbsp; </p>
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727 
3728     
3729     
3730     
3731     
3732     
3733     
3734      <p>A
3735small time step due to a large mean horizontal windspeed
3736speed may be enlarged by using a coordinate transformation (see <a href="#galilei_transformation">galilei_transformation</a>),
3737in order to spare CPU time.<br>
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744 </p>
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751 
3752     
3753     
3754     
3755     
3756     
3757     
3758      <p>If the
3759leapfrog timestep scheme is used (see <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>)
3760a temporary time step value dt_new is calculated first, with dt_new = <a href="chapter_4.2.html#fcl_factor">cfl_factor</a>
3761* dt_crit where dt_crit is the maximum timestep allowed by the CFL and
3762diffusion condition. Next it is examined whether dt_new exceeds or
3763falls below the
3764value of the previous timestep by at
3765least +5 % / -2%. If it is smaller, <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt</span>
3766= dt_new is immediately used for the next timestep. If it is larger,
3767then <span style="font-weight: bold;">dt </span>=
37681.02 * dt_prev
3769(previous timestep) is used as the new timestep, however the time
3770step is only increased if the last change of the time step is dated
3771back at
3772least 30 iterations. If dt_new is located in the interval mentioned
3773above, then dt
3774does not change at all. By doing so, permanent time step changes as
3775well as large
3776sudden changes (increases) in the time step are avoided.</p>
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783 </td>
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791    </tr>
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798 <tr>
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
3806     
3807     
3808     
3809     
3810     
3811     
3812      <p><a name="dt_pr_1d"></a><b>dt_pr_1d</b></p>
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820      </td>
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3844     
3845     
3846     
3847     
3848     
3849     
3850      <p>Temporal
3851interval of vertical profile output of the 1D-model
3852(in s).&nbsp; </p>
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859 
3860     
3861     
3862     
3863     
3864     
3865     
3866      <p>Data are written in ASCII
3867format to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#LIST_PROFIL_1D">LIST_PROFIL_1D</a>.
3868This parameter is only in effect if the 1d-model has been switched on
3869for the
3870initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
3871= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879      </td>
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886 </tr>
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893 <tr>
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3901     
3902     
3903     
3904     
3905     
3906     
3907      <p><a name="dt_run_control_1d"></a><b>dt_run_control_1d</b></p>
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915      </td>
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">60.0</span></td>
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3938     
3939     
3940     
3941     
3942     
3943     
3944      <p>Temporal interval of
3945runtime control output of the 1d-model
3946(in s).&nbsp; </p>
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953 
3954     
3955     
3956     
3957     
3958     
3959     
3960      <p>Data are written in ASCII
3961format to file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.
3962This parameter is only in effect if the 1d-model is switched on for the
3963initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
3964= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972      </td>
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979 </tr>
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986 <tr>
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
3994     
3995     
3996     
3997     
3998     
3999     
4000      <p><a name="dx"></a><b>dx</b></p>
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008      </td>
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td>
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4031     
4032     
4033     
4034     
4035     
4036     
4037      <p>Horizontal grid
4038spacing along the x-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p>
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045 
4046     
4047     
4048     
4049     
4050     
4051     
4052      <p>Along
4053x-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p>
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060     
4061     
4062     
4063     
4064     
4065     
4066      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
4067and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074 </td>
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082    </tr>
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089 <tr>
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4097     
4098     
4099     
4100     
4101     
4102     
4103      <p><a name="dy"></a><b>dy</b></p>
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111      </td>
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.0</span></td>
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4134     
4135     
4136     
4137     
4138     
4139     
4140      <p>Horizontal grid
4141spacing along the y-direction (in m).&nbsp; </p>
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148 
4149     
4150     
4151     
4152     
4153     
4154     
4155      <p>Along y-direction only a constant grid spacing is allowed.</p>
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162     
4163     
4164     
4165     
4166     
4167     
4168      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
4169and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176 </td>
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184    </tr>
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191 <tr>
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
4199     
4200     
4201     
4202     
4203     
4204     
4205      <p><a name="dz"></a><b>dz</b></p>
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213      </td>
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235 </td>
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4243     
4244     
4245     
4246     
4247     
4248     
4249      <p>Vertical grid
4250spacing (in m).&nbsp; </p>
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257 
4258     
4259     
4260     
4261     
4262     
4263     
4264      <p>This parameter must be
4265assigned by the user, because no
4266default value is given.<br>
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273 </p>
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280 
4281     
4282     
4283     
4284     
4285     
4286     
4287      <p>By default, the
4288model uses constant grid spacing along z-direction, but it can be
4289stretched using the parameters <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>
4290and <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>.
4291In case of stretching, a maximum allowed grid spacing can be given by <a href="#dz_max">dz_max</a>.<br>
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298 </p>
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305 
4306     
4307     
4308     
4309     
4310     
4311     
4312      <p>Assuming
4313a constant <span style="font-weight: bold;">dz</span>,
4314the scalar levels (zu) are calculated directly by:&nbsp; </p>
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322     
4323     
4324     
4325     
4326     
4327     
4328      <ul>
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335 
4336       
4337       
4338       
4339       
4340       
4341       
4342        <p>zu(0) = - dz * 0.5&nbsp; <br>
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350zu(1) = dz * 0.5</p>
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357 
4358     
4359     
4360     
4361     
4362     
4363     
4364      </ul>
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371 
4372     
4373     
4374     
4375     
4376     
4377     
4378      <p>The w-levels lie
4379half between them:&nbsp; </p>
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386 
4387     
4388     
4389     
4390     
4391     
4392     
4393      <ul>
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400 
4401       
4402       
4403       
4404       
4405       
4406       
4407        <p>zw(k) =
4408( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5</p>
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415 
4416     
4417     
4418     
4419     
4420     
4421     
4422      </ul>
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429 </td>
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436 </tr>
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444    <tr>
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="dz_max"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span></td>
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">9999999.9</span></td>
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed maximum vertical grid
4473spacing (in m).<br>
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480      <br>
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487If the vertical grid is stretched
4488(see <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>
4489and <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>),
4490      <span style="font-weight: bold;">dz_max</span> can
4491be used to limit the vertical grid spacing.</td>
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498    </tr>
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505    <tr>
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4514     
4515     
4516     
4517     
4518     
4519     
4520      <p><a name="dz_stretch_factor"></a><b>dz_stretch_factor</b></p>
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528      </td>
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">1.08</span></td>
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4551     
4552     
4553     
4554     
4555     
4556     
4557      <p>Stretch factor for a
4558vertically stretched grid (see <a href="#dz_stretch_level">dz_stretch_level</a>).&nbsp;
4559      </p>
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566 
4567     
4568     
4569     
4570     
4571     
4572     
4573      <p>The stretch factor should not exceed a value of
4574approx. 1.10 -
45751.12, otherwise the discretization errors due to the stretched grid not
4576negligible any more. (refer Kalnay de Rivas)</p>
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583 </td>
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590 </tr>
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598    <tr>
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4606     
4607     
4608     
4609     
4610     
4611     
4612      <p><a name="dz_stretch_level"></a><b>dz_stretch_level</b></p>
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620      </td>
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">100000.0</span><br>
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642 </td>
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4651     
4652     
4653     
4654     
4655     
4656     
4657      <p>Height level
4658above/below which the grid is to be stretched
4659vertically (in m).&nbsp; </p>
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666 
4667     
4668     
4669     
4670     
4671     
4672     
4673      <p>For <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a> = .F., <b>dz_stretch_level </b>is the height level (in m)&nbsp;<span style="font-weight: bold;">above </span>which the grid is to be stretched
4674vertically. The vertical grid
4675spacings <a href="#dz">dz</a>
4676above this level are calculated as&nbsp; </p>
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683 
4684     
4685     
4686     
4687     
4688     
4689     
4690      <ul>
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697 
4698       
4699       
4700       
4701       
4702       
4703       
4704        <p><b>dz</b>(k+1)
4705= <b>dz</b>(k) * <a href="#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a></p>
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713     
4714     
4715     
4716     
4717     
4718     
4719      </ul>
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726 
4727     
4728     
4729     
4730     
4731     
4732     
4733      <p>and used as spacings for the scalar levels (zu).
4734The
4735w-levels are then defined as:&nbsp; </p>
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742 
4743     
4744     
4745     
4746     
4747     
4748     
4749      <ul>
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756 
4757       
4758       
4759       
4760       
4761       
4762       
4763        <p>zw(k)
4764= ( zu(k) + zu(k+1) ) * 0.5.
4765
4766 
4767     
4768      </p>
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773     
4774     
4775     
4776     
4777      </ul>
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782     
4783     
4784     
4785     
4786      <p>For <a href="#ocean">ocean</a> = .T., <b>dz_stretch_level </b>is the height level (in m, negative) <span style="font-weight: bold;">below</span> which the grid is to be stretched
4787vertically. The vertical grid
4788spacings <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dz">dz</a> below this level are calculated correspondingly as
4789
4790 
4791     
4792      </p>
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797     
4798     
4799     
4800     
4801      <ul>
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806       
4807       
4808       
4809       
4810        <p><b>dz</b>(k-1)
4811= <b>dz</b>(k) * <a href="chapter_4.1.html#dz_stretch_factor">dz_stretch_factor</a>.</p>
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816     
4817     
4818     
4819     
4820      </ul>
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827 </td>
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834 </tr>
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842    <tr>
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="e_init"></a>e_init</span></td>
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866      <td>Initial subgrid-scale TKE in m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-2</sup>.<br>
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874      <br>
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881This
4882option prescribes an initial&nbsp;subgrid-scale TKE from which the initial diffusion coefficients K<sub>m</sub> and K<sub>h</sub> will be calculated if <span style="font-weight: bold;">e_init</span> is positive. This option only has an effect if&nbsp;<a href="#km_constant">km_constant</a> is not set.</td>
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888    </tr>
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894    <tr>
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><a name="e_min"></a>e_min</span></td>
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923 <td>Minimum
4924subgrid-scale TKE in m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-2</sup>.<br>
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932      <br>
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939This
4940option&nbsp;adds artificial viscosity to the flow by ensuring that
4941the
4942subgrid-scale TKE does not fall below the minimum threshold <span style="font-weight: bold;">e_min</span>.</td>
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949 </tr>
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957    <tr>
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
4965     
4966     
4967     
4968     
4969     
4970     
4971      <p><a name="end_time_1d"></a><b>end_time_1d</b></p>
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979      </td>
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">864000.0</span><br>
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001 </td>
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5010     
5011     
5012     
5013     
5014     
5015     
5016      <p>Time to be
5017simulated for the 1d-model (in s).&nbsp; </p>
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024 
5025     
5026     
5027     
5028     
5029     
5030     
5031      <p>The
5032default value corresponds to a simulated time of 10 days.
5033Usually, after such a period the inertia oscillations have completely
5034decayed and the solution of the 1d-model can be regarded as stationary
5035(see <a href="#damp_level_1d">damp_level_1d</a>).
5036This parameter is only in effect if the 1d-model is switched on for the
5037initialization of the 3d-model with <a href="#initializing_actions">initializing_actions</a>
5038= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>.</p>
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046      </td>
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053 </tr>
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060 <tr>
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5068     
5069     
5070     
5071     
5072     
5073     
5074      <p><a name="fft_method"></a><b>fft_method</b></p>
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082      </td>
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 20</td>
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'system-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104 <span style="font-style: italic;">specific'</span></td>
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5113     
5114     
5115     
5116     
5117     
5118     
5119      <p>FFT-method to
5120be used.<br>
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127 </p>
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134 
5135     
5136     
5137     
5138     
5139     
5140     
5141      <p><br>
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149The fast fourier transformation (FFT) is used for solving the
5150perturbation pressure equation with a direct method (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
5151and for calculating power spectra (see optional software packages,
5152section <a href="chapter_4.2.html#spectra_package">4.2</a>).</p>
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160     
5161     
5162     
5163     
5164     
5165     
5166      <p><br>
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174By default, system-specific, optimized routines from external
5175vendor libraries are used. However, these are available only on certain
5176computers and there are more or less severe restrictions concerning the
5177number of gridpoints to be used with them.<br>
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184 </p>
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191 
5192     
5193     
5194     
5195     
5196     
5197     
5198      <p>There
5199are two other PALM internal methods available on every
5200machine (their respective source code is part of the PALM source code):</p>
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208     
5209     
5210     
5211     
5212     
5213     
5214      <p>1.: The <span style="font-weight: bold;">Temperton</span>-method
5215from Clive Temperton (ECWMF) which is computationally very fast and
5216switched on with <b>fft_method</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'temperton-algorithm'</span>.
5217The number of horizontal gridpoints (nx+1, ny+1) to be used with this
5218method must be composed of prime factors 2, 3 and 5.<br>
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225 </p>
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
52332.: The <span style="font-weight: bold;">Singleton</span>-method
5234which is very slow but has no restrictions concerning the number of
5235gridpoints to be used with, switched on with <b>fft_method</b>
5236= <span style="font-style: italic;">'singleton-algorithm'</span>.
5237      </td>
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244 </tr>
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251 <tr>
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5259     
5260     
5261     
5262     
5263     
5264     
5265      <p><a name="galilei_transformation"></a><b>galilei_transformation</b></p>
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273      </td>
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Application of a
5297Galilei-transformation to the
5298coordinate
5299system of the model.<br>
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306     
5307     
5308     
5309     
5310     
5311     
5312      <p>With <b>galilei_transformation</b>
5313= <i>.T.,</i> a so-called
5314Galilei-transformation is switched on which ensures that the coordinate
5315system of the model is moved along with the geostrophical wind.
5316Alternatively, the model domain can be moved along with the averaged
5317horizontal wind (see <a href="#use_ug_for_galilei_tr">use_ug_for_galilei_tr</a>,
5318this can and will naturally change in time). With this method,
5319numerical inaccuracies of the Piascek - Williams - scheme (concerns in
5320particular the momentum advection) are minimized. Beyond that, in the
5321majority of cases the lower relative velocities in the moved system
5322permit a larger time step (<a href="#dt">dt</a>).
5323Switching the transformation on is only worthwhile if the geostrophical
5324wind (ug, vg)
5325and the averaged horizontal wind clearly deviate from the value 0. In
5326each case, the distance the coordinate system has been moved is written
5327to the file <a href="chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.&nbsp;
5328      </p>
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335 
5336     
5337     
5338     
5339     
5340     
5341     
5342      <p>Non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
5343and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>), the specification
5344of a gestrophic
5345wind that is not constant with height
5346as well as e.g. stationary inhomogeneities at the bottom boundary do
5347not allow the use of this transformation.</p>
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354 </td>
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361 </tr>
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369    <tr>
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5377     
5378     
5379     
5380     
5381     
5382     
5383      <p><a name="grid_matching"></a><b>grid_matching</b></p>
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391      </td>
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 6</td>
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'match'</span></td>
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Variable to adjust the
5414subdomain
5415sizes in parallel runs.<br>
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422 <br>
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430For <b>grid_matching</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
5431the subdomains are forced to have an identical
5432size on all processors. In this case the processor numbers in the
5433respective directions of the virtual processor net must fulfill certain
5434divisor conditions concerning the grid point numbers in the three
5435directions (see <a href="#nx">nx</a>, <a href="#ny">ny</a>
5436and <a href="#nz">nz</a>).
5437Advantage of this method is that all PEs bear the same computational
5438load.<br>
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445 <br>
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453There is no such restriction by default, because then smaller
5454subdomains are allowed on those processors which
5455form the right and/or north boundary of the virtual processor grid. On
5456all other processors the subdomains are of same size. Whether smaller
5457subdomains are actually used, depends on the number of processors and
5458the grid point numbers used. Information about the respective settings
5459are given in file <a href="file:///home/raasch/public_html/PALM_group/home/raasch/public_html/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_3.4.html#RUN_CONTROL">RUN_CONTROL</a>.<br>
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467      <br>
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475When using a multi-grid method for solving the Poisson equation (see <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/%7Eraasch/PALM_group/doc/app/chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>)
5476only <b>grid_matching</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>
5477is allowed.<br>
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484 <br>
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491 <b>Note:</b><br>
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499In some cases for small processor numbers there may be a very bad load
5500balancing among the
5501processors which may reduce the performance of the code.</td>
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508 </tr>
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516    <tr>
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_begin"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531begin</b></td>
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(10,</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553 <span style="font-style: italic;">nx/2 or ny/2)</span></td>
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Lower
5562limit of the horizontal range for which random perturbations are to be
5563imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br>
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570 <br>
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578If non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
5579or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
5580this parameter gives the gridpoint number (counted horizontally from
5581the inflow)&nbsp; from which on perturbations are imposed on the
5582horizontal velocity field. Perturbations must be switched on with
5583parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>.</td>
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591    </tr>
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598 <tr>
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="inflow_disturbance_end"></a><b>inflow_disturbance_<br>
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613end</b></td>
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(100,</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635 <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*nx or</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642 <span style="font-style: italic;">3/4*ny)</span></td>
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Upper
5650limit of the horizontal range for which random perturbations are
5651to be imposed on the horizontal velocity field (gridpoints).<br>
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658 <br>
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666If non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
5667or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
5668this parameter gives the gridpoint number (counted horizontally from
5669the inflow)&nbsp; unto which perturbations are imposed on the
5670horizontal
5671velocity field. Perturbations must be switched on with parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#create_disturbances">create_disturbances</a>.</td>
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679    </tr>
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686 <tr>
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
5694     
5695     
5696     
5697     
5698     
5699     
5700      <p><a name="initializing_actions"></a><b>initializing_actions</b></p>
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708      </td>
5709
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 100</td>
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730 </td>
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
5738     
5739     
5740     
5741     
5742     
5743     
5744      <p style="font-style: normal;">Initialization actions
5745to be carried out.&nbsp; </p>
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752 
5753     
5754     
5755     
5756     
5757     
5758     
5759      <p style="font-style: normal;">This parameter does not have a
5760default value and therefore must be assigned with each model run. For
5761restart runs <b>initializing_actions</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'read_restart_data'</span>
5762must be set. For the initial run of a job chain the following values
5763are allowed:&nbsp; </p>
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770 
5771     
5772     
5773     
5774     
5775     
5776     
5777      <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>
5778      </p>
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785 
5786     
5787     
5788     
5789     
5790     
5791     
5792      <ul>
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799 
5800       
5801       
5802       
5803       
5804       
5805       
5806        <p>A horizontal wind profile consisting
5807of linear sections (see <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>,
5808        <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient">ug_vertical_gradient</a>,
5809        <a href="#ug_vertical_gradient_level">ug_vertical_gradient_level</a>
5810and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>, <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient">vg_vertical_gradient</a>,
5811        <a href="#vg_vertical_gradient_level">vg_vertical_gradient_level</a>,
5812respectively) as well as a vertical temperature (humidity) profile
5813consisting of
5814linear sections (see <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>,
5815        <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>,
5816        <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>
5817and <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>)
5818are assumed as initial profiles. The subgrid-scale TKE is set to 0 but K<sub>m</sub>
5819and K<sub>h</sub> are set to very small values because
5820otherwise no TKE
5821would be generated.</p>
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828 
5829     
5830     
5831     
5832     
5833     
5834     
5835      </ul>
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842 
5843     
5844     
5845     
5846     
5847     
5848     
5849      <p style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles' </p>
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857     
5858     
5859     
5860     
5861     
5862     
5863      <ul>
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870 
5871       
5872       
5873       
5874       
5875       
5876       
5877        <p>The arrays of the 3d-model are initialized with
5878the
5879(stationary) solution of the 1d-model. These are the variables e, kh,
5880km, u, v and with Prandtl layer switched on rif, us, usws, vsws. The
5881temperature (humidity) profile consisting of linear sections is set as
5882for 'set_constant_profiles' and assumed as constant in time within the
58831d-model. For steering of the 1d-model a set of parameters with suffix
5884"_1d" (e.g. <a href="#end_time_1d">end_time_1d</a>,
5885        <a href="#damp_level_1d">damp_level_1d</a>)
5886is available.</p>
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893 
5894     
5895     
5896     
5897     
5898     
5899     
5900      </ul>
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907 
5908     
5909     
5910     
5911     
5912     
5913     
5914      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'by_user'</span></p>
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921     
5922     
5923     
5924     
5925     
5926     
5927      <p style="margin-left: 40px;">The initialization of the arrays
5928of the 3d-model is under complete control of the user and has to be
5929done in routine <a href="chapter_3.5.1.html#user_init_3d_model">user_init_3d_model</a>
5930of the user-interface.<span style="font-style: italic;"></span></p>
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937     
5938     
5939     
5940     
5941     
5942     
5943      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_vortex'</span>
5944      </p>
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951 
5952     
5953     
5954     
5955     
5956     
5957     
5958      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The initial
5959velocity field of the
59603d-model corresponds to a
5961Rankine-vortex with vertical axis. This setting may be used to test
5962advection schemes. Free-slip boundary conditions for u and v (see <a href="#bc_uv_b">bc_uv_b</a>, <a href="#bc_uv_t">bc_uv_t</a>)
5963are necessary. In order not to distort the vortex, an initial
5964horizontal wind profile constant
5965with height is necessary (to be set by <b>initializing_actions</b>
5966= <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>)
5967and some other conditions have to be met (neutral stratification,
5968diffusion must be
5969switched off, see <a href="#km_constant">km_constant</a>).
5970The center of the vortex is located at jc = (nx+1)/2. It
5971extends from k = 0 to k = nz+1. Its radius is 8 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
5972and the exponentially decaying part ranges to 32 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
5973(see init_rankine.f90). </div>
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980 
5981     
5982     
5983     
5984     
5985     
5986     
5987      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_ptanom'</span>
5988      </p>
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993
5994
5995 
5996     
5997     
5998     
5999     
6000     
6001     
6002      <ul>
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009 
6010       
6011       
6012       
6013       
6014       
6015       
6016        <p>A 2d-Gauss-like shape disturbance
6017(x,y) is added to the
6018initial temperature field with radius 10.0 * <a href="#dx">dx</a>
6019and center at jc = (nx+1)/2. This may be used for tests of scalar
6020advection schemes
6021(see <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>).
6022Such tests require a horizontal wind profile constant with hight and
6023diffusion
6024switched off (see <span style="font-style: italic;">'initialize_vortex'</span>).
6025Additionally, the buoyancy term
6026must be switched of in the equation of motion&nbsp; for w (this
6027requires the user to comment out the call of <span style="font-family: monospace;">buoyancy</span> in the
6028source code of <span style="font-family: monospace;">prognostic_equations.f90</span>).</p>
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036     
6037     
6038     
6039     
6040     
6041     
6042      </ul>
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049 
6050     
6051     
6052     
6053     
6054     
6055     
6056      <p style="font-style: normal;">Values may be
6057combined, e.g. <b>initializing_actions</b> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles
6058initialize_vortex'</span>, but the values of <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_constant_profiles'</span>,
6059      <span style="font-style: italic;">'set_1d-model_profiles'</span>
6060, and <span style="font-style: italic;">'by_user'</span>
6061must not be given at the same time.</p>
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068 
6069     
6070     
6071     
6072     
6073     
6074     
6075      <p style="font-style: italic;"> </p>
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082 </td>
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089 </tr>
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097    <tr>
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6105     
6106     
6107     
6108     
6109     
6110     
6111      <p><a name="km_constant"></a><b>km_constant</b></p>
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119      </td>
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>variable<br>
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142(computed from TKE)</i></td>
6143
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6150     
6151     
6152     
6153     
6154     
6155     
6156      <p>Constant eddy
6157diffusivities are used (laminar
6158simulations).&nbsp; </p>
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165 
6166     
6167     
6168     
6169     
6170     
6171     
6172      <p>If this parameter is
6173specified, both in the 1d and in the
61743d-model constant values for the eddy diffusivities are used in
6175space and time with K<sub>m</sub> = <b>km_constant</b>
6176and K<sub>h</sub> = K<sub>m</sub> / <a href="chapter_4.2.html#prandtl_number">prandtl_number</a>.
6177The prognostic equation for the subgrid-scale TKE is switched off.
6178Constant eddy diffusivities are only allowed with the Prandtl layer (<a href="#prandtl_layer">prandtl_layer</a>)
6179switched off.</p>
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186 </td>
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193 </tr>
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199
6200 <tr>
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6208     
6209     
6210     
6211     
6212     
6213     
6214      <p><a name="km_damp_max"></a><b>km_damp_max</b></p>
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222      </td>
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.5*(dx
6238or dy)</span></td>
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245 <td style="vertical-align: top;">Maximum
6246diffusivity used for filtering the velocity field in the vicinity of
6247the outflow (in m<sup>2</sup>/s).<br>
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253
6254 <br>
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
6263or <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
6264a smoothing has to be applied to the
6265velocity field in the vicinity of the outflow in order to suppress any
6266reflections of outgoing disturbances. Smoothing is done by increasing
6267the eddy diffusivity along the horizontal direction which is
6268perpendicular to the outflow boundary. Only velocity components
6269parallel to the outflow boundary are filtered (e.g. v and w, if the
6270outflow is along x). Damping is applied from the bottom to the top of
6271the domain.<br>
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278 <br>
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286The horizontal range of the smoothing is controlled by <a href="#outflow_damping_width">outflow_damping_width</a>
6287which defines the number of gridpoints (counted from the outflow
6288boundary) from where on the smoothing is applied. Starting from that
6289point, the eddy diffusivity is linearly increased (from zero to its
6290maximum value given by <span style="font-weight: bold;">km_damp_max</span>)
6291until half of the damping range width, from where it remains constant
6292up to the outflow boundary. If at a certain grid point the eddy
6293diffusivity calculated from the flow field is larger than as described
6294above, it is used instead.<br>
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301 <br>
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309The default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">km_damp_max</span>
6310has been empirically proven to be sufficient.</td>
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317 </tr>
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6323
6324 <tr>
6325
6326      <td><a name="lad_surface"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">lad_surface</span></td>
6327
6328      <td>R</td>
6329
6330      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span></td>
6331
6332      <td>Surface value of the leaf area density (in m<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>3</sup>).<br>
6333
6334      <br>
6335
6336This
6337parameter assigns the value of the leaf area density <span style="font-weight: bold;">lad</span> at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
6338the leaf area density profile is constructed with <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient">lad_vertical_gradient</a>
6339and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient_level">lad_vertical_gradient_level
6340      </a>.</td>
6341
6342    </tr>
6343
6344    <tr>
6345
6346      <td><a name="lad_vertical_gradient"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">lad_vertical_gradient</span></td>
6347
6348      <td>R (10)</td>
6349
6350      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">10 * 0.0</span></td>
6351
6352      <td>Gradient(s) of the leaf area density (in&nbsp;m<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>4</sup>).<br>
6353
6354      <br>
6355
6356     
6357      <p>This leaf area density gradient
6358holds starting from the height&nbsp;
6359level defined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient_level">lad_vertical_gradient_level</a>
6360(precisely: for all uv levels k where zu(k) &gt; lad_vertical_gradient_level, lad(k) is set: lad(k) = lad(k-1) + dzu(k) * <b>lad_vertical_gradient</b>)
6361up to the level defined by <a href="#pch_index">pch_index</a>. Above that level lad(k) will automatically set to 0.0. A total of 10 different gradients for 11 height intervals (10 intervals
6362if <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient_level">lad_vertical_gradient_level</a>(1)
6363= <i>0.0</i>) can be assigned. The leaf area density at the surface is
6364assigned via <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_surface">lad_surface</a>.&nbsp;
6365      </p>
6366
6367      </td>
6368
6369    </tr>
6370
6371    <tr>
6372
6373      <td><a name="lad_vertical_gradient_level"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">lad_vertical_gradient_level</span></td>
6374
6375      <td>R (10)</td>
6376
6377      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">10 * 0.0</span></td>
6378
6379      <td>Height level from which on the&nbsp;gradient
6380of the leaf area density defined by <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient">lad_vertical_gradient_level</a>
6381is effective (in m).<br>
6382
6383      <br>
6384
6385The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. The
6386default values result in a leaf area density that is constant with height uup to the top of the plant canopy layer defined by <a href="#pch_index">pch_index</a>. For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#lad_vertical_gradient">lad_vertical_gradient</a>.</td>
6387
6388    </tr>
6389
6390    <tr>
6391
6392      <td><a name="leaf_surface_concentration"></a><b>leaf_surface_concentration</b></td>
6393
6394      <td>R</td>
6395
6396      <td><i>0.0</i></td>
6397
6398      <td>Concentration of a passive scalar at the surface of a leaf (in K m/s).<br>
6399
6400
6401      <br>
6402
6403
6404This parameter is only of importance in cases in that both, <a href="../../../../../DEVELOPER_VERSION/chapter_4.1_adjusted.html#plant_canopy">plant_canopy</a> and <a href="../../../../../DEVELOPER_VERSION/chapter_4.1_adjusted.html#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>, are set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>.
6405The value of the concentration of a passive scalar at the surface of a
6406leaf is required for the parametrisation of the sources and sinks of
6407scalar concentration due to the canopy.</td>
6408
6409    </tr>
6410
6411    <tr>
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6420     
6421     
6422     
6423     
6424     
6425     
6426      <p><a name="long_filter_factor"></a><b>long_filter_factor</b></p>
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434      </td>
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6458     
6459     
6460     
6461     
6462     
6463     
6464      <p>Filter factor
6465for the so-called Long-filter.<br>
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472 </p>
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479 
6480     
6481     
6482     
6483     
6484     
6485     
6486      <p><br>
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494This filter very efficiently
6495eliminates 2-delta-waves sometimes cauesed by the upstream-spline
6496scheme (see Mahrer and
6497Pielke, 1978: Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 818-830). It works in all three
6498directions in space. A value of <b>long_filter_factor</b>
6499= <i>0.01</i>
6500sufficiently removes the small-scale waves without affecting the
6501longer waves.<br>
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508 </p>
6509
6510
6511
6512
6513
6514
6515 
6516     
6517     
6518     
6519     
6520     
6521     
6522      <p>By default, the filter is
6523switched off (= <i>0.0</i>).
6524It is exclusively applied to the tendencies calculated by the
6525upstream-spline scheme (see <a href="#momentum_advec">momentum_advec</a>
6526and <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>),
6527not to the prognostic variables themselves. At the bottom and top
6528boundary of the model domain the filter effect for vertical
65292-delta-waves is reduced. There, the amplitude of these waves is only
6530reduced by approx. 50%, otherwise by nearly 100%.&nbsp; <br>
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538Filter factors with values &gt; <i>0.01</i> also
6539reduce the amplitudes
6540of waves with wavelengths longer than 2-delta (see the paper by Mahrer
6541and
6542Pielke, quoted above). </p>
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549 </td>
6550
6551
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556 </tr>
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563 <tr>
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6569
6570      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="loop_optimization"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span></td>
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577      <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*16</td>
6578
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">see right</span></td>
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591      <td>Method used to optimize loops for solving the prognostic equations .<br>
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
6598      <br>
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605By
6606default, the optimization method depends on the host on which PALM is
6607running. On machines with vector-type CPUs, single 3d-loops are used to
6608calculate each tendency term of each prognostic equation, while on all
6609other machines, all prognostic equations are solved within one big loop
6610over the two horizontal indices<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> i </span>and<span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;"> j </span>(giving a good cache uitilization).<br>
6611
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6617      <br>
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624The default behaviour can be changed by setting either <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'vector'</span> or <span style="font-weight: bold;">loop_optimization</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'cache'</span>.</td>
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631    </tr>
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6637
6638    <tr>
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="mixing_length_1d"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">mixing_length_1d</span><br>
6647
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653
6654      </td>
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
6662
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669      </td>
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'as_in_3d_</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
6677
6678
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683 <span style="font-style: italic;">model'</span><br>
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690 </td>
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6697
6698      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Mixing length used in the
66991d-model.<br>
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706 <br>
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714By default the mixing length is calculated as in the 3d-model (i.e. it
6715depends on the grid spacing).<br>
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722 <br>
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730By setting <span style="font-weight: bold;">mixing_length_1d</span>
6731= <span style="font-style: italic;">'blackadar'</span>,
6732the so-called Blackadar mixing length is used (l = kappa * z / ( 1 +
6733kappa * z / lambda ) with the limiting value lambda = 2.7E-4 * u_g / f).<br>
6734
6735
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741      </td>
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748 </tr>
6749
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755 <tr>
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6763     
6764     
6765     
6766     
6767     
6768     
6769      <p><a name="humidity"></a><b>humidity</b></p>
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777      </td>
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
6793
6794
6795
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6801     
6802     
6803     
6804     
6805     
6806     
6807      <p>Parameter to
6808switch on the prognostic equation for specific
6809humidity q.<br>
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815
6816 </p>
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823 
6824     
6825     
6826     
6827     
6828     
6829     
6830      <p>The initial vertical
6831profile of q can be set via parameters <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_surface">q_surface</a>, <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>
6832and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>.&nbsp;
6833Boundary conditions can be set via <a href="chapter_4.1.html#q_surface_initial_change">q_surface_initial_change</a>
6834and <a href="chapter_4.1.html#surface_waterflux">surface_waterflux</a>.<br>
6835
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842      </p>
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850If the condensation scheme is switched on (<a href="chapter_4.1.html#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
6851= .TRUE.), q becomes the total liquid water content (sum of specific
6852humidity and liquid water content).</td>
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859 </tr>
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6867    <tr>
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6875     
6876     
6877     
6878     
6879     
6880     
6881      <p><a name="momentum_advec"></a><b>momentum_advec</b></p>
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6889      </td>
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C * 10</td>
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>'pw-scheme'</i></td>
6905
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
6913     
6914     
6915     
6916     
6917     
6918     
6919      <p>Advection
6920scheme to be used for the momentum equations.<br>
6921
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927 <br>
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935The user can choose between the following schemes:<br>
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943&nbsp;<br>
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950 <br>
6951
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957 <span style="font-style: italic;">'pw-scheme'</span><br>
6958
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965      </p>
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972 
6973     
6974     
6975     
6976     
6977     
6978     
6979      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The scheme of
6980Piascek and
6981Williams (1970, J. Comp. Phys., 6,
6982392-405) with central differences in the form C3 is used.<br>
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990If intermediate Euler-timesteps are carried out in case of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>
6991= <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span>
6992the
6993advection scheme is - for the Euler-timestep - automatically switched
6994to an upstream-scheme.<br>
6995
6996
6997
6998
6999
7000
7001 </div>
7002
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008 
7009     
7010     
7011     
7012     
7013     
7014     
7015      <p> </p>
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022 
7023     
7024     
7025     
7026     
7027     
7028     
7029      <p><span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span><br>
7030
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037      </p>
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042
7043
7044 
7045     
7046     
7047     
7048     
7049     
7050     
7051      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">The
7052upstream-spline scheme is
7053used
7054(see Mahrer and Pielke,
70551978: Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 818-830). In opposite to the
7056Piascek-Williams scheme, this is characterized by much better numerical
7057features (less numerical diffusion, better preservation of flow
7058structures, e.g. vortices), but computationally it is much more
7059expensive. In
7060addition, the use of the Euler-timestep scheme is mandatory (<a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a>
7061= <span style="font-style: italic;">'</span><i>euler'</i>),
7062i.e. the
7063timestep accuracy is only of first order.
7064For this reason the advection of scalar variables (see <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a>)
7065should then also be carried out with the upstream-spline scheme,
7066because otherwise the scalar variables would
7067be subject to large numerical diffusion due to the upstream
7068scheme.&nbsp; </div>
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074
7075 
7076     
7077     
7078     
7079     
7080     
7081     
7082      <p style="margin-left: 40px;">Since
7083the cubic splines used tend
7084to overshoot under
7085certain circumstances, this effect must be adjusted by suitable
7086filtering and smoothing (see <a href="#cut_spline_overshoot">cut_spline_overshoot</a>,
7087      <a href="#long_filter_factor">long_filter_factor</a>,
7088      <a href="#ups_limit_pt">ups_limit_pt</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_u">ups_limit_u</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_v">ups_limit_v</a>, <a href="#ups_limit_w">ups_limit_w</a>).
7089This is always neccessary for runs with stable stratification,
7090even if this stratification appears only in parts of the model domain.<br>
7091
7092
7093
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098      </p>
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103
7104
7105 
7106     
7107     
7108     
7109     
7110     
7111     
7112      <div style="margin-left: 40px;">With stable
7113stratification the
7114upstream-spline scheme also
7115produces gravity waves with large amplitude, which must be
7116suitably damped (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#rayleigh_damping_factor">rayleigh_damping_factor</a>).<br>
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124      <br>
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Important: </span>The&nbsp;
7132upstream-spline scheme is not implemented for humidity and passive
7133scalars (see&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>
7134and <a href="#passive_scalar">passive_scalar</a>)
7135and requires the use of a 2d-domain-decomposition. The last conditions
7136severely restricts code optimization on several machines leading to
7137very long execution times! The scheme is also not allowed for
7138non-cyclic lateral boundary conditions (see <a href="#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
7139and <a href="#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>).</div>
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146 </td>
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154    </tr>
7155
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160
7161 <tr>
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="netcdf_precision"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span><br>
7169
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176      </td>
7177
7178
7179
7180
7181
7182
7183 <td style="vertical-align: top;">C*20<br>
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191(10)<br>
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196
7197
7198 </td>
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">single preci-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210
7211
7212 <span style="font-style: italic;">sion for all</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
7213
7214
7215
7216
7217
7218
7219 <span style="font-style: italic;">output quan-</span><br style="font-style: italic;">
7220
7221
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226 <span style="font-style: italic;">tities</span><br>
7227
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233 </td>
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240
7241      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Defines the accuracy of
7242the NetCDF output.<br>
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247
7248
7249 <br>
7250
7251
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256
7257By default, all NetCDF output data (see <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output_format">data_output_format</a>)
7258have single precision&nbsp; (4 byte) accuracy. Double precision (8
7259byte) can be choosen alternatively.<br>
7260
7261
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7267Accuracy for the different output data (cross sections, 3d-volume data,
7268spectra, etc.) can be set independently.<br>
7269
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275 <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;_NF90_REAL4'</span>
7276(single precision) or <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;_NF90_REAL8'</span>
7277(double precision) are the two principally allowed values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span>,
7278where the string <span style="font-style: italic;">'&lt;out&gt;'
7279      </span>can be chosen out of the following list:<br>
7280
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286 <br>
7287
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292
7293
7294     
7295     
7296     
7297     
7298     
7299     
7300      <table style="text-align: left; width: 284px; height: 234px;" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
7301
7302
7303
7304
7305
7306
7307 <tbody>
7308
7309
7310
7311
7312
7313
7314
7315          <tr>
7316
7317
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xy'</span><br>
7323
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329 </td>
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335
7336
7337            <td style="vertical-align: top;">horizontal cross section<br>
7338
7339
7340
7341
7342
7343
7344
7345            </td>
7346
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352 </tr>
7353
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358
7359 <tr>
7360
7361
7362
7363
7364
7365
7366 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'xz'</span><br>
7367
7368
7369
7370
7371
7372
7373 </td>
7374
7375
7376
7377
7378
7379
7380
7381            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (xz) cross
7382section<br>
7383
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389 </td>
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394
7395
7396 </tr>
7397
7398
7399
7400
7401
7402
7403 <tr>
7404
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409
7410 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'yz'</span><br>
7411
7412
7413
7414
7415
7416
7417 </td>
7418
7419
7420
7421
7422
7423
7424
7425            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical (yz) cross
7426section<br>
7427
7428
7429
7430
7431
7432
7433 </td>
7434
7435
7436
7437
7438
7439
7440 </tr>
7441
7442
7443
7444
7445
7446
7447 <tr>
7448
7449
7450
7451
7452
7453
7454 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'2d'</span><br>
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459
7460
7461 </td>
7462
7463
7464
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469            <td style="vertical-align: top;">all cross sections<br>
7470
7471
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7477            </td>
7478
7479
7480
7481
7482
7483
7484 </tr>
7485
7486
7487
7488
7489
7490
7491 <tr>
7492
7493
7494
7495
7496
7497
7498 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'3d'</span><br>
7499
7500
7501
7502
7503
7504
7505 </td>
7506
7507
7508
7509
7510
7511
7512
7513            <td style="vertical-align: top;">volume data<br>
7514
7515
7516
7517
7518
7519
7520 </td>
7521
7522
7523
7524
7525
7526
7527
7528          </tr>
7529
7530
7531
7532
7533
7534
7535 <tr>
7536
7537
7538
7539
7540
7541
7542 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'pr'</span><br>
7543
7544
7545
7546
7547
7548
7549 </td>
7550
7551
7552
7553
7554
7555
7556
7557            <td style="vertical-align: top;">vertical profiles<br>
7558
7559
7560
7561
7562
7563
7564
7565            </td>
7566
7567
7568
7569
7570
7571
7572 </tr>
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577
7578
7579 <tr>
7580
7581
7582
7583
7584
7585
7586 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'ts'</span><br>
7587
7588
7589
7590
7591
7592
7593 </td>
7594
7595
7596
7597
7598
7599
7600
7601            <td style="vertical-align: top;">time series, particle
7602time series<br>
7603
7604
7605
7606
7607
7608
7609 </td>
7610
7611
7612
7613
7614
7615
7616 </tr>
7617
7618
7619
7620
7621
7622
7623 <tr>
7624
7625
7626
7627
7628
7629
7630 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'sp'</span><br>
7631
7632
7633
7634
7635
7636
7637 </td>
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645            <td style="vertical-align: top;">spectra<br>
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650
7651
7652 </td>
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657
7658
7659
7660          </tr>
7661
7662
7663
7664
7665
7666
7667 <tr>
7668
7669
7670
7671
7672
7673
7674 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'prt'</span><br>
7675
7676
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681 </td>
7682
7683
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688
7689            <td style="vertical-align: top;">particles<br>
7690
7691
7692
7693
7694
7695
7696 </td>
7697
7698
7699
7700
7701
7702
7703
7704          </tr>
7705
7706
7707
7708
7709
7710
7711 <tr>
7712
7713
7714
7715
7716
7717
7718 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">'all'</span><br>
7719
7720
7721
7722
7723
7724
7725 </td>
7726
7727
7728
7729
7730
7731
7732
7733            <td style="vertical-align: top;">all output quantities<br>
7734
7735
7736
7737
7738
7739
7740
7741            </td>
7742
7743
7744
7745
7746
7747
7748 </tr>
7749
7750
7751
7752
7753
7754
7755 
7756       
7757       
7758       
7759       
7760       
7761       
7762        </tbody> 
7763     
7764     
7765     
7766     
7767     
7768     
7769      </table>
7770
7771
7772
7773
7774
7775
7776 <br>
7777
7778
7779
7780
7781
7782
7783 <span style="font-weight: bold;">Example:</span><br>
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789
7790
7791If all cross section data and the particle data shall be output in
7792double precision and all other quantities in single precision, then <span style="font-weight: bold;">netcdf_precision</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'2d_NF90_REAL8'</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">'prt_NF90_REAL8'</span>
7793has to be assigned.<br>
7794
7795
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800 </td>
7801
7802
7803
7804
7805
7806
7807 </tr>
7808
7809
7810
7811
7812
7813
7814
7815    <tr>
7816
7817
7818
7819
7820
7821
7822 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7823     
7824     
7825     
7826     
7827     
7828     
7829      <p><a name="npex"></a><b>npex</b></p>
7830
7831
7832
7833
7834
7835
7836 </td>
7837
7838
7839
7840
7841
7842
7843
7844      <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
7845
7846
7847
7848
7849
7850
7851 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
7852
7853
7854
7855
7856
7857
7858 </td>
7859
7860
7861
7862
7863
7864
7865 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7866     
7867     
7868     
7869     
7870     
7871     
7872      <p>Number of processors
7873along x-direction of the virtual
7874processor
7875net.&nbsp; </p>
7876
7877
7878
7879
7880
7881
7882 
7883     
7884     
7885     
7886     
7887     
7888     
7889      <p>For parallel runs, the total
7890number of processors to be used
7891is given by
7892the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>
7893option <a href="http://www.muk.uni-hannover.de/software/mrun_beschreibung.html#Opt-X">-X</a>.
7894By default, depending on the type of the parallel computer, PALM
7895generates a 1d processor
7896net (domain decomposition along x, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
7897= <span style="font-style: italic;">1</span>) or a
78982d-net (this is
7899favored on machines with fast communication network). In case of a
79002d-net, it is tried to make it more or less square-shaped. If, for
7901example, 16 processors are assigned (-X 16), a 4 * 4 processor net is
7902generated (<span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
7903= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>, <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
7904= <span style="font-style: italic;">4</span>).
7905This choice is optimal for square total domains (<a href="#nx">nx</a>
7906= <a href="#ny">ny</a>),
7907since then the number of ghost points at the lateral boundarys of
7908the subdomains is minimal. If <span style="font-weight: bold;">nx</span>
7909nd <span style="font-weight: bold;">ny</span>
7910differ extremely, the
7911processor net should be manually adjusted using adequate values for <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>.&nbsp; </p>
7912
7913
7914
7915
7916
7917
7918
7919     
7920     
7921     
7922     
7923     
7924     
7925      <p><b>Important:</b> The value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span> * <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span> must exactly
7926correspond to the
7927value assigned by the <span style="font-weight: bold;">mrun</span>-option
7928      <tt>-X</tt>.
7929Otherwise the model run will abort with a corresponding error
7930message.&nbsp; <br>
7931
7932
7933
7934
7935
7936
7937
7938Additionally, the specification of <span style="font-weight: bold;">npex</span>
7939and <span style="font-weight: bold;">npey</span>
7940may of course
7941override the default setting for the domain decomposition (1d or 2d)
7942which may have a significant (negative) effect on the code performance.
7943      </p>
7944
7945
7946
7947
7948
7949
7950 </td>
7951
7952
7953
7954
7955
7956
7957 </tr>
7958
7959
7960
7961
7962
7963
7964 <tr>
7965
7966
7967
7968
7969
7970
7971 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
7972     
7973     
7974     
7975     
7976     
7977     
7978      <p><a name="npey"></a><b>npey</b></p>
7979
7980
7981
7982
7983
7984
7985
7986      </td>
7987
7988
7989
7990
7991
7992
7993 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
7994
7995
7996
7997
7998
7999
8000
8001      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008 </td>
8009
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8016     
8017     
8018     
8019     
8020     
8021     
8022      <p>Number of processors
8023along y-direction of the virtual
8024processor
8025net.&nbsp; </p>
8026
8027
8028
8029
8030
8031
8032 
8033     
8034     
8035     
8036     
8037     
8038     
8039      <p>For further information see <a href="#npex">npex</a>.</p>
8040
8041
8042
8043
8044
8045
8046 </td>
8047
8048
8049
8050
8051
8052
8053 </tr>
8054
8055
8056
8057
8058
8059
8060
8061    <tr>
8062
8063
8064
8065
8066
8067
8068 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8069     
8070     
8071     
8072     
8073     
8074     
8075      <p><a name="nsor_ini"></a><b>nsor_ini</b></p>
8076
8077
8078
8079
8080
8081
8082
8083      </td>
8084
8085
8086
8087
8088
8089
8090 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8091
8092
8093
8094
8095
8096
8097
8098      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>100</i></td>
8099
8100
8101
8102
8103
8104
8105
8106      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8107     
8108     
8109     
8110     
8111     
8112     
8113      <p>Initial number
8114of iterations with the SOR algorithm.&nbsp; </p>
8115
8116
8117
8118
8119
8120
8121 
8122     
8123     
8124     
8125     
8126     
8127     
8128      <p>This
8129parameter is only effective if the SOR algorithm was
8130selected as the pressure solver scheme (<a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>
8131= <span style="font-style: italic;">'sor'</span>)
8132and specifies the
8133number of initial iterations of the SOR
8134scheme (at t = 0). The number of subsequent iterations at the following
8135timesteps is determined
8136with the parameter <a href="#nsor">nsor</a>.
8137Usually <b>nsor</b> &lt; <b>nsor_ini</b>,
8138since in each case
8139subsequent calls to <a href="chapter_4.2.html#psolver">psolver</a>
8140use the solution of the previous call as initial value. Suitable
8141test runs should determine whether sufficient convergence of the
8142solution is obtained with the default value and if necessary the value
8143of <b>nsor_ini</b> should be changed.</p>
8144
8145
8146
8147
8148
8149
8150 </td>
8151
8152
8153
8154
8155
8156
8157
8158    </tr>
8159
8160
8161
8162
8163
8164
8165 <tr>
8166
8167
8168
8169
8170
8171
8172 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
8173     
8174     
8175     
8176     
8177     
8178     
8179      <p><a name="nx"></a><b>nx</b></p>
8180
8181
8182
8183
8184
8185
8186
8187      </td>
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192
8193
8194 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8195
8196
8197
8198
8199
8200
8201
8202      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8203
8204
8205
8206
8207
8208
8209 </td>
8210
8211
8212
8213
8214
8215
8216 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8217     
8218     
8219     
8220     
8221     
8222     
8223      <p>Number of grid
8224points in x-direction.&nbsp; </p>
8225
8226
8227
8228
8229
8230
8231 
8232     
8233     
8234     
8235     
8236     
8237     
8238      <p>A value for this
8239parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
8240array bound in PALM
8241starts with i = 0, the actual number of grid points is equal to <b>nx+1</b>.
8242In case of cyclic boundary conditions along x, the domain size is (<b>nx+1</b>)*
8243      <a href="#dx">dx</a>.</p>
8244
8245
8246
8247
8248
8249
8250 
8251     
8252     
8253     
8254     
8255     
8256     
8257      <p>For
8258parallel runs, in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
8259= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
8260      <b>nx+1</b> must
8261be an integral multiple
8262of the processor numbers (see <a href="#npex">npex</a>
8263and <a href="#npey">npey</a>)
8264along x- as well as along y-direction (due to data
8265transposition restrictions).</p>
8266
8267
8268
8269
8270
8271
8272     
8273     
8274     
8275     
8276     
8277     
8278      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
8279and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
8280
8281
8282
8283
8284
8285
8286 </td>
8287
8288
8289
8290
8291
8292
8293 </tr>
8294
8295
8296
8297
8298
8299
8300 <tr>
8301
8302
8303
8304
8305
8306
8307
8308      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8309     
8310     
8311     
8312     
8313     
8314     
8315      <p><a name="ny"></a><b>ny</b></p>
8316
8317
8318
8319
8320
8321
8322
8323      </td>
8324
8325
8326
8327
8328
8329
8330 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8331
8332
8333
8334
8335
8336
8337
8338      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8339
8340
8341
8342
8343
8344
8345 </td>
8346
8347
8348
8349
8350
8351
8352 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8353     
8354     
8355     
8356     
8357     
8358     
8359      <p>Number of grid
8360points in y-direction.&nbsp; </p>
8361
8362
8363
8364
8365
8366
8367 
8368     
8369     
8370     
8371     
8372     
8373     
8374      <p>A value for this
8375parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
8376array bound in PALM starts with j = 0, the actual number of grid points
8377is equal to <b>ny+1</b>. In case of cyclic boundary
8378conditions along
8379y, the domain size is (<b>ny+1</b>) * <a href="#dy">dy</a>.</p>
8380
8381
8382
8383
8384
8385
8386
8387     
8388     
8389     
8390     
8391     
8392     
8393      <p>For parallel runs, in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
8394= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
8395      <b>ny+1</b> must
8396be an integral multiple
8397of the processor numbers (see <a href="#npex">npex</a>
8398and <a href="#npey">npey</a>)&nbsp;
8399along y- as well as along x-direction (due to data
8400transposition restrictions).</p>
8401
8402
8403
8404
8405
8406
8407     
8408     
8409     
8410     
8411     
8412     
8413      <p>For <a href="chapter_3.8.html">coupled runs</a> this parameter must be&nbsp;equal in both parameter files <a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2"><span style="font-family: mon;"></span>PARIN</font></a>
8414and&nbsp;<a href="chapter_3.4.html#PARIN"><font style="font-size: 10pt;" size="2">PARIN_O</font></a>.</p>
8415
8416
8417
8418
8419
8420
8421 </td>
8422
8423
8424
8425
8426
8427
8428 </tr>
8429
8430
8431
8432
8433
8434
8435 <tr>
8436
8437
8438
8439
8440
8441
8442
8443      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8444     
8445     
8446     
8447     
8448     
8449     
8450      <p><a name="nz"></a><b>nz</b></p>
8451
8452
8453
8454
8455
8456
8457
8458      </td>
8459
8460
8461
8462
8463
8464
8465 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8466
8467
8468
8469
8470
8471
8472
8473      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><br>
8474
8475
8476
8477
8478
8479
8480 </td>
8481
8482
8483
8484
8485
8486
8487 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8488     
8489     
8490     
8491     
8492     
8493     
8494      <p>Number of grid
8495points in z-direction.&nbsp; </p>
8496
8497
8498
8499
8500
8501
8502 
8503     
8504     
8505     
8506     
8507     
8508     
8509      <p>A value for this
8510parameter must be assigned. Since the lower
8511array bound in PALM
8512starts with k = 0 and since one additional grid point is added at the
8513top boundary (k = <b>nz+1</b>), the actual number of grid
8514points is <b>nz+2</b>.
8515However, the prognostic equations are only solved up to <b>nz</b>
8516(u,
8517v)
8518or up to <b>nz-1</b> (w, scalar quantities). The top
8519boundary for u
8520and v is at k = <b>nz+1</b> (u, v) while at k = <b>nz</b>
8521for all
8522other quantities.&nbsp; </p>
8523
8524
8525
8526
8527
8528
8529 
8530     
8531     
8532     
8533     
8534     
8535     
8536      <p>For parallel
8537runs,&nbsp; in case of <a href="#grid_matching">grid_matching</a>
8538= <span style="font-style: italic;">'strict'</span>,
8539      <b>nz</b> must
8540be an integral multiple of
8541the number of processors in x-direction (due to data transposition
8542restrictions).</p>
8543
8544
8545
8546
8547
8548
8549 </td>
8550
8551
8552
8553
8554
8555
8556 </tr>
8557
8558
8559
8560
8561
8562
8563 <tr>
8564
8565
8566
8567
8568
8569
8570      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="ocean"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span></td>
8571
8572
8573
8574
8575
8576
8577      <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
8578
8579
8580
8581
8582
8583
8584      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
8585
8586
8587
8588
8589
8590
8591      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Parameter to switch on&nbsp;ocean runs.<br>
8592
8593
8594
8595
8596
8597
8598      <br>
8599
8600
8601
8602
8603
8604
8605By default PALM is configured to simulate&nbsp;atmospheric flows. However, starting from version 3.3, <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> allows&nbsp;simulation of ocean turbulent flows. Setting this switch has several effects:<br>
8606
8607
8608
8609
8610
8611
8612      <br>
8613
8614
8615
8616
8617
8618
8619     
8620     
8621     
8622     
8623     
8624     
8625      <ul>
8626
8627
8628
8629
8630
8631
8632        <li>An additional prognostic equation for salinity is solved.</li>
8633
8634
8635
8636
8637
8638
8639        <li>Potential temperature in buoyancy and stability-related terms is replaced by potential density.</li>
8640
8641
8642
8643
8644
8645
8646        <li>Potential
8647density is calculated from the equation of state for seawater after
8648each timestep, using the algorithm proposed by Jackett et al. (2006, J.
8649Atmos. Oceanic Technol., <span style="font-weight: bold;">23</span>, 1709-1728).<br>
8650
8651
8652
8653
8654
8655
8656So far, only the initial hydrostatic pressure is entered into this equation.</li>
8657
8658
8659
8660
8661
8662
8663        <li>z=0 (sea surface) is assumed at the model top (vertical grid index <span style="font-family: Courier New,Courier,monospace;">k=nzt</span> on the w-grid), with negative values of z indicating the depth.</li>
8664
8665
8666
8667
8668
8669
8670        <li>Initial profiles are constructed (e.g. from <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a> / <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>) starting from the sea surface, using surface values&nbsp;given by <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#ug_surface">ug_surface</a>, and <a href="#vg_surface">vg_surface</a>.</li>
8671
8672
8673
8674
8675
8676
8677        <li>Zero salinity flux is used as default boundary condition at the bottom of the sea.</li>
8678
8679
8680
8681
8682
8683
8684        <li>If switched on, random perturbations are by default imposed to the upper model domain from zu(nzt*2/3) to zu(nzt-3).</li>
8685
8686
8687
8688
8689
8690
8691     
8692     
8693     
8694     
8695     
8696     
8697      </ul>
8698
8699
8700
8701
8702
8703
8704      <br>
8705
8706
8707
8708
8709
8710
8711Relevant parameters to be exclusively used for steering ocean runs are <a href="#bc_sa_t">bc_sa_t</a>, <a href="#bottom_salinityflux">bottom_salinityflux</a>, <a href="#sa_surface">sa_surface</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient">sa_vertical_gradient</a>, <a href="#sa_vertical_gradient_level">sa_vertical_gradient_level</a>, and <a href="#top_salinityflux">top_salinityflux</a>.<br>
8712
8713
8714
8715
8716
8717
8718      <br>
8719
8720
8721
8722
8723
8724
8725Section <a href="chapter_4.2.2.html">4.4.2</a> gives an example for appropriate settings of these and other parameters neccessary for ocean runs.<br>
8726
8727
8728
8729
8730
8731
8732      <br>
8733
8734
8735
8736
8737
8738
8739      <span style="font-weight: bold;">ocean</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span> does not allow settings of <a href="#timestep_scheme">timestep_scheme</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'leapfrog+euler'</span> as well as <a href="#scalar_advec">scalar_advec</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'ups-scheme'</span>.<span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><br>
8740
8741
8742
8743      </td>
8744
8745
8746
8747
8748
8749
8750    </tr>
8751
8752
8753
8754
8755
8756
8757    <tr>
8758
8759
8760
8761
8762
8763
8764 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8765     
8766     
8767     
8768     
8769     
8770     
8771      <p><a name="omega"></a><b>omega</b></p>
8772
8773
8774
8775
8776
8777
8778
8779      </td>
8780
8781
8782
8783
8784
8785
8786 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
8787
8788
8789
8790
8791
8792
8793
8794      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>7.29212E-5</i></td>
8795
8796
8797
8798
8799
8800
8801
8802      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8803     
8804     
8805     
8806     
8807     
8808     
8809      <p>Angular
8810velocity of the rotating system (in rad s<sup>-1</sup>).&nbsp;
8811      </p>
8812
8813
8814
8815
8816
8817
8818 
8819     
8820     
8821     
8822     
8823     
8824     
8825      <p>The angular velocity of the earth is set by
8826default. The
8827values
8828of the Coriolis parameters are calculated as:&nbsp; </p>
8829
8830
8831
8832
8833
8834
8835 
8836     
8837     
8838     
8839     
8840     
8841     
8842      <ul>
8843
8844
8845
8846
8847
8848
8849
8850       
8851       
8852       
8853       
8854       
8855       
8856        <p>f = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * sin(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)&nbsp;
8857        <br>
8858
8859
8860
8861
8862
8863
8864f* = 2.0 * <b>omega</b> * cos(<a href="#phi">phi</a>)</p>
8865
8866
8867
8868
8869
8870
8871
8872     
8873     
8874     
8875     
8876     
8877     
8878      </ul>
8879
8880
8881
8882
8883
8884
8885 </td>
8886
8887
8888
8889
8890
8891
8892 </tr>
8893
8894
8895
8896
8897
8898
8899 <tr>
8900
8901
8902
8903
8904
8905
8906 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8907     
8908     
8909     
8910     
8911     
8912     
8913      <p><a name="outflow_damping_width"></a><b>outflow_damping_width</b></p>
8914
8915
8916
8917
8918
8919
8920
8921      </td>
8922
8923
8924
8925
8926
8927
8928 <td style="vertical-align: top;">I</td>
8929
8930
8931
8932
8933
8934
8935
8936      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">MIN(20,
8937nx/2</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">ny/2)</span></td>
8938
8939
8940
8941
8942
8943
8944
8945      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Width of
8946the damping range in the vicinity of the outflow (gridpoints).<br>
8947
8948
8949
8950
8951
8952
8953
8954      <br>
8955
8956
8957
8958
8959
8960
8961
8962When using non-cyclic lateral boundaries (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_lr">bc_lr</a>
8963or <a href="chapter_4.1.html#bc_ns">bc_ns</a>),
8964a smoothing has to be applied to the
8965velocity field in the vicinity of the outflow in order to suppress any
8966reflections of outgoing disturbances. This parameter controlls the
8967horizontal range to which the smoothing is applied. The range is given
8968in gridpoints counted from the respective outflow boundary. For further
8969details about the smoothing see parameter <a href="chapter_4.1.html#km_damp_max">km_damp_max</a>,
8970which defines the magnitude of the damping.</td>
8971
8972
8973
8974
8975
8976
8977 </tr>
8978
8979
8980
8981
8982
8983
8984
8985    <tr>
8986
8987
8988
8989
8990
8991
8992 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
8993     
8994     
8995     
8996     
8997     
8998     
8999      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_e"></a><b>overshoot_limit_e</b></p>
9000
9001
9002
9003
9004
9005
9006
9007      </td>
9008
9009
9010
9011
9012
9013
9014 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9015
9016
9017
9018
9019
9020
9021
9022      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
9023
9024
9025
9026
9027
9028
9029
9030      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9031     
9032     
9033     
9034     
9035     
9036     
9037      <p>Allowed limit
9038for the overshooting of subgrid-scale TKE in
9039case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on (in m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>2</sup>).&nbsp;
9040      </p>
9041
9042
9043
9044
9045
9046
9047 
9048     
9049     
9050     
9051     
9052     
9053     
9054      <p>By deafult, if cut-off of overshoots is switched
9055on for the
9056upstream-spline scheme (see <a href="#cut_spline_overshoot">cut_spline_overshoot</a>),
9057no overshoots are permitted at all. If <b>overshoot_limit_e</b>
9058is given a non-zero value, overshoots with the respective
9059amplitude (both upward and downward) are allowed.&nbsp; </p>
9060
9061
9062
9063
9064
9065
9066
9067     
9068     
9069     
9070     
9071     
9072     
9073      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_e</b>.</p>
9074
9075
9076
9077
9078
9079
9080
9081      </td>
9082
9083
9084
9085
9086
9087
9088 </tr>
9089
9090
9091
9092
9093
9094
9095 <tr>
9096
9097
9098
9099
9100
9101
9102 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9103     
9104     
9105     
9106     
9107     
9108     
9109      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_pt"></a><b>overshoot_limit_pt</b></p>
9110
9111
9112
9113
9114
9115
9116
9117      </td>
9118
9119
9120
9121
9122
9123
9124 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9125
9126
9127
9128
9129
9130
9131
9132      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
9133
9134
9135
9136
9137
9138
9139
9140      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9141     
9142     
9143     
9144     
9145     
9146     
9147      <p>Allowed limit
9148for the overshooting of potential temperature in
9149case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on (in K).&nbsp; </p>
9150
9151
9152
9153
9154
9155
9156
9157     
9158     
9159     
9160     
9161     
9162     
9163      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
9164      </p>
9165
9166
9167
9168
9169
9170
9171 
9172     
9173     
9174     
9175     
9176     
9177     
9178      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_pt</b>.</p>
9179
9180
9181
9182
9183
9184
9185
9186      </td>
9187
9188
9189
9190
9191
9192
9193 </tr>
9194
9195
9196
9197
9198
9199
9200 <tr>
9201
9202
9203
9204
9205
9206
9207 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9208     
9209     
9210     
9211     
9212     
9213     
9214      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_u"></a><b>overshoot_limit_u</b></p>
9215
9216
9217
9218
9219
9220
9221
9222      </td>
9223
9224
9225
9226
9227
9228
9229 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9230
9231
9232
9233
9234
9235
9236
9237      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
9238
9239
9240
9241
9242
9243
9244
9245      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Allowed limit for the
9246overshooting of
9247the u-component of velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is
9248switched on (in m/s).
9249     
9250     
9251     
9252     
9253     
9254     
9255      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
9256      </p>
9257
9258
9259
9260
9261
9262
9263 
9264     
9265     
9266     
9267     
9268     
9269     
9270      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_u</b>.</p>
9271
9272
9273
9274
9275
9276
9277
9278      </td>
9279
9280
9281
9282
9283
9284
9285 </tr>
9286
9287
9288
9289
9290
9291
9292 <tr>
9293
9294
9295
9296
9297
9298
9299 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9300     
9301     
9302     
9303     
9304     
9305     
9306      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_v"></a><b>overshoot_limit_v</b></p>
9307
9308
9309
9310
9311
9312
9313
9314      </td>
9315
9316
9317
9318
9319
9320
9321 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9322
9323
9324
9325
9326
9327
9328
9329      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
9330
9331
9332
9333
9334
9335
9336
9337      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9338     
9339     
9340     
9341     
9342     
9343     
9344      <p>Allowed limit
9345for the overshooting of the v-component of
9346velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on
9347(in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
9348
9349
9350
9351
9352
9353
9354 
9355     
9356     
9357     
9358     
9359     
9360     
9361      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
9362      </p>
9363
9364
9365
9366
9367
9368
9369 
9370     
9371     
9372     
9373     
9374     
9375     
9376      <p>Only positive values are allowed for <b>overshoot_limit_v</b>.</p>
9377
9378
9379
9380
9381
9382
9383
9384      </td>
9385
9386
9387
9388
9389
9390
9391 </tr>
9392
9393
9394
9395
9396
9397
9398 <tr>
9399
9400
9401
9402
9403
9404
9405 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9406     
9407     
9408     
9409     
9410     
9411     
9412      <p><a name="overshoot_limit_w"></a><b>overshoot_limit_w</b></p>
9413
9414
9415
9416
9417
9418
9419
9420      </td>
9421
9422
9423
9424
9425
9426
9427 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9428
9429
9430
9431
9432
9433
9434
9435      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
9436
9437
9438
9439
9440
9441
9442
9443      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9444     
9445     
9446     
9447     
9448     
9449     
9450      <p>Allowed limit
9451for the overshooting of the w-component of
9452velocity in case that the upstream-spline scheme is switched on
9453(in m/s).&nbsp; </p>
9454
9455
9456
9457
9458
9459
9460 
9461     
9462     
9463     
9464     
9465     
9466     
9467      <p>For further information see <a href="#overshoot_limit_e">overshoot_limit_e</a>.&nbsp;
9468      </p>
9469
9470
9471
9472
9473
9474
9475 
9476     
9477     
9478     
9479     
9480     
9481     
9482      <p>Only positive values are permitted for <b>overshoot_limit_w</b>.</p>
9483
9484
9485
9486
9487
9488
9489
9490      </td>
9491
9492
9493
9494
9495
9496
9497 </tr>
9498
9499
9500
9501
9502
9503
9504 <tr>
9505
9506
9507
9508
9509
9510
9511 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9512     
9513     
9514     
9515     
9516     
9517     
9518      <p><a name="passive_scalar"></a><b>passive_scalar</b></p>
9519
9520
9521
9522
9523
9524
9525
9526      </td>
9527
9528
9529
9530
9531
9532
9533 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
9534
9535
9536
9537
9538
9539
9540
9541      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
9542
9543
9544
9545
9546
9547
9548
9549      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9550     
9551     
9552     
9553     
9554     
9555     
9556      <p>Parameter to
9557switch on the prognostic equation for a passive
9558scalar. <br>
9559
9560
9561
9562
9563
9564
9565 </p>
9566
9567
9568
9569
9570
9571
9572 
9573     
9574     
9575     
9576     
9577     
9578     
9579      <p>The initial vertical profile
9580of s can be set via parameters <a href="#s_surface">s_surface</a>,
9581      <a href="#s_vertical_gradient">s_vertical_gradient</a>
9582and&nbsp; <a href="#s_vertical_gradient_level">s_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
9583Boundary conditions can be set via <a href="#s_surface_initial_change">s_surface_initial_change</a>
9584and <a href="#surface_scalarflux">surface_scalarflux</a>.&nbsp;
9585      </p>
9586
9587
9588
9589
9590
9591
9592 
9593     
9594     
9595     
9596     
9597     
9598     
9599      <p><b>Note:</b> <br>
9600
9601
9602
9603
9604
9605
9606
9607With <span style="font-weight: bold;">passive_scalar</span>
9608switched
9609on, the simultaneous use of humidity (see&nbsp;<a href="#humidity">humidity</a>)
9610is impossible.</p>
9611
9612
9613
9614
9615
9616
9617 </td>
9618
9619
9620
9621
9622
9623
9624 </tr>
9625
9626
9627
9628
9629
9630
9631 <tr>
9632
9633      <td><a name="pch_index"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">pch_index</span></td>
9634
9635      <td>I</td>
9636
9637      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">0</span></td>
9638
9639      <td>Grid point index (scalar) of the upper boundary of the plant canopy layer.<br>
9640
9641      <br>
9642
9643Above <span style="font-weight: bold;">pch_index</span> the arrays of leaf area density and drag_coeffient are automatically set to zero in case of <a href="#plant_canopy">plant_canopy</a> = .T.. Up to <span style="font-weight: bold;">pch_index</span> a leaf area density profile can be prescribed by using the parameters <a href="#lad_surface">lad_surface</a>, <a href="#lad_vertical_gradient">lad_vertical_gradient</a> and <a href="#lad_vertical_gradient_level">lad_vertical_gradient_level</a>.</td>
9644
9645    </tr>
9646
9647    <tr>
9648
9649
9650
9651
9652
9653
9654 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9655     
9656     
9657     
9658     
9659     
9660     
9661      <p><a name="phi"></a><b>phi</b></p>
9662
9663
9664
9665
9666
9667
9668
9669      </td>
9670
9671
9672
9673
9674
9675
9676 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
9677
9678
9679
9680
9681
9682
9683
9684      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>55.0</i></td>
9685
9686
9687
9688
9689
9690
9691
9692      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9693     
9694     
9695     
9696     
9697     
9698     
9699      <p>Geographical
9700latitude (in degrees).&nbsp; </p>
9701
9702
9703
9704
9705
9706
9707 
9708     
9709     
9710     
9711     
9712     
9713     
9714      <p>The value of
9715this parameter determines the value of the
9716Coriolis parameters f and f*, provided that the angular velocity (see <a href="#omega">omega</a>)
9717is non-zero.</p>
9718
9719
9720
9721
9722
9723
9724 </td>
9725
9726
9727
9728
9729
9730
9731 </tr>
9732
9733
9734
9735
9736
9737
9738 <tr>
9739
9740      <td><a name="plant_canopy"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">plant_canopy</span></td>
9741
9742      <td>L</td>
9743
9744      <td><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
9745
9746      <td>Switch for the plant_canopy_model.<br>
9747
9748      <br>
9749
9750If <span style="font-weight: bold;">plant_canopy</span> is set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>, the plant canopy model of Watanabe (2004, BLM 112, 307-341) is used. <br>
9751
9752The
9753impact of a plant canopy on a turbulent flow is considered by an
9754additional drag term in the momentum equations and an additional sink
9755term in the prognostic equation for the subgrid-scale TKE. These
9756additional terms are dependent on the leaf drag coefficient (see <a href="#drag_coefficient">drag_coefficient</a>) and the leaf area density (see <a href="#lad_surface">lad_surface</a>, <a href="#lad_vertical_gradient">lad_vertical_gradient</a>, <a href="#lad_vertical_gradient_level">lad_vertical_gradient_level</a>). <br>
9757
9758By default, a horizontally homogeneous plant canopy is prescribed, if&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">plant_canopy</span> is set <span style="font-style: italic;">.T.</span>. However, the user can define other types of plant canopies (see <a href="#canopy_mode">canopy_mode</a>).<br>
9759
9760      <br>
9761
9762      <span style="font-weight: bold;">plant_canopy</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">.T. </span>is only allowed together with a non-zero <a href="#drag_coefficient">drag_coefficient</a>.</td>
9763
9764    </tr>
9765
9766    <tr>
9767
9768
9769
9770
9771
9772
9773 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9774     
9775     
9776     
9777     
9778     
9779     
9780      <p><a name="prandtl_layer"></a><b>prandtl_layer</b></p>
9781
9782
9783
9784
9785
9786
9787
9788      </td>
9789
9790
9791
9792
9793
9794
9795 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
9796
9797
9798
9799
9800
9801
9802
9803      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.T.</i></td>
9804
9805
9806
9807
9808
9809
9810
9811      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9812     
9813     
9814     
9815     
9816     
9817     
9818      <p>Parameter to
9819switch on a Prandtl layer.&nbsp; </p>
9820
9821
9822
9823
9824
9825
9826 
9827     
9828     
9829     
9830     
9831     
9832     
9833      <p>By default,
9834a Prandtl layer is switched on at the bottom
9835boundary between z = 0 and z = 0.5 * <a href="#dz">dz</a>
9836(the first computational grid point above ground for u, v and the
9837scalar quantities).
9838In this case, at the bottom boundary, free-slip conditions for u and v
9839(see <a href="#bc_uv_b">bc_uv_b</a>)
9840are not allowed. Likewise, laminar
9841simulations with constant eddy diffusivities (<a href="#km_constant">km_constant</a>)
9842are forbidden.&nbsp; </p>
9843
9844
9845
9846
9847
9848
9849 
9850     
9851     
9852     
9853     
9854     
9855     
9856      <p>With Prandtl-layer
9857switched off, the TKE boundary condition <a href="#bc_e_b">bc_e_b</a>
9858= '<i>(u*)**2+neumann'</i> must not be used and is
9859automatically
9860changed to <i>'neumann'</i> if necessary.&nbsp; Also,
9861the pressure
9862boundary condition <a href="#bc_p_b">bc_p_b</a>
9863= <i>'neumann+inhomo'</i>&nbsp; is not allowed. </p>
9864
9865
9866
9867
9868
9869
9870
9871     
9872     
9873     
9874     
9875     
9876     
9877      <p>The roughness length is declared via the parameter <a href="#roughness_length">roughness_length</a>.</p>
9878
9879
9880
9881
9882
9883
9884
9885      </td>
9886
9887
9888
9889
9890
9891
9892 </tr>
9893
9894
9895
9896
9897
9898
9899 <tr>
9900
9901
9902
9903
9904
9905
9906 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9907     
9908     
9909     
9910     
9911     
9912     
9913      <p><a name="precipitation"></a><b>precipitation</b></p>
9914
9915
9916
9917
9918
9919
9920
9921      </td>
9922
9923
9924
9925
9926
9927
9928 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
9929
9930
9931
9932
9933
9934
9935
9936      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">.F.</span></td>
9937
9938
9939
9940
9941
9942
9943 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
9944     
9945     
9946     
9947     
9948     
9949     
9950      <p>Parameter to switch
9951on the precipitation scheme.<br>
9952
9953
9954
9955
9956
9957
9958 </p>
9959
9960
9961
9962
9963
9964
9965 
9966     
9967     
9968     
9969     
9970     
9971     
9972      <p>For
9973precipitation processes PALM uses a simplified Kessler
9974scheme. This scheme only considers the
9975so-called autoconversion, that means the generation of rain water by
9976coagulation of cloud drops among themselves. Precipitation begins and
9977is immediately removed from the flow as soon as the liquid water
9978content exceeds the critical value of 0.5 g/kg.</p>
9979
9980
9981
9982
9983
9984
9985     
9986     
9987     
9988     
9989     
9990     
9991      <p>The precipitation rate and amount can be output by assigning the runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#data_output">data_output</a> = <span style="font-style: italic;">'prr*'</span> or <span style="font-style: italic;">'pra*'</span>, respectively. The time interval on which the precipitation amount is defined can be controlled via runtime parameter <a href="chapter_4.2.html#precipitation_amount_interval">precipitation_amount_interval</a>.</p>
9992
9993
9994
9995
9996
9997
9998 </td>
9999
10000
10001
10002
10003
10004
10005 </tr>
10006
10007
10008
10009
10010
10011
10012
10013    <tr>
10014
10015
10016
10017
10018
10019
10020      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><a name="pt_reference"></a><span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span></td>
10021
10022
10023
10024
10025
10026
10027      <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
10028
10029
10030
10031
10032
10033
10034      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">use horizontal average as
10035refrence</span></td>
10036
10037
10038
10039
10040
10041
10042      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Reference
10043temperature to be used in all buoyancy terms (in K).<br>
10044
10045
10046
10047
10048
10049
10050      <br>
10051
10052
10053
10054
10055
10056
10057By
10058default, the instantaneous horizontal average over the total model
10059domain is used.<br>
10060
10061
10062
10063
10064
10065
10066      <br>
10067
10068
10069
10070
10071
10072
10073      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
10074
10075
10076
10077
10078
10079
10080In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), always a reference temperature is used in the buoyancy terms with a default value of <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_reference</span> = <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.</td>
10081
10082
10083
10084
10085
10086
10087    </tr>
10088
10089
10090
10091
10092
10093
10094    <tr>
10095
10096
10097
10098
10099
10100
10101 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10102     
10103     
10104     
10105     
10106     
10107     
10108      <p><a name="pt_surface"></a><b>pt_surface</b></p>
10109
10110
10111
10112
10113
10114
10115
10116      </td>
10117
10118
10119
10120
10121
10122
10123 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
10124
10125
10126
10127
10128
10129
10130
10131      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>300.0</i></td>
10132
10133
10134
10135
10136
10137
10138
10139      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10140     
10141     
10142     
10143     
10144     
10145     
10146      <p>Surface
10147potential temperature (in K).&nbsp; </p>
10148
10149
10150
10151
10152
10153
10154 
10155     
10156     
10157     
10158     
10159     
10160     
10161      <p>This
10162parameter assigns the value of the potential temperature
10163      <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt</span> at the surface (k=0)<b>.</b> Starting from this value,
10164the
10165initial vertical temperature profile is constructed with <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
10166and <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level
10167      </a>.
10168This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p>
10169
10170
10171
10172
10173
10174
10175     
10176     
10177     
10178     
10179     
10180     
10181      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
10182
10183
10184
10185
10186
10187
10188In case of ocean runs (see <a href="#ocean">ocean</a>),
10189this parameter gives the temperature value at the sea surface, which is
10190at k=nzt. The profile is then constructed from the surface down to the
10191bottom of the model.</p>
10192
10193
10194
10195
10196
10197
10198
10199      </td>
10200
10201
10202
10203
10204
10205
10206 </tr>
10207
10208
10209
10210
10211
10212
10213 <tr>
10214
10215
10216
10217
10218
10219
10220 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10221     
10222     
10223     
10224     
10225     
10226     
10227      <p><a name="pt_surface_initial_change"></a><b>pt_surface_initial</b>
10228      <br>
10229
10230
10231
10232
10233
10234
10235 <b>_change</b></p>
10236
10237
10238
10239
10240
10241
10242 </td>
10243
10244
10245
10246
10247
10248
10249 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
10250
10251
10252
10253
10254
10255
10256 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
10257
10258
10259
10260
10261
10262
10263 </td>
10264
10265
10266
10267
10268
10269
10270
10271      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10272     
10273     
10274     
10275     
10276     
10277     
10278      <p>Change in
10279surface temperature to be made at the beginning of
10280the 3d run
10281(in K).&nbsp; </p>
10282
10283
10284
10285
10286
10287
10288 
10289     
10290     
10291     
10292     
10293     
10294     
10295      <p>If <b>pt_surface_initial_change</b>
10296is set to a non-zero
10297value, the near surface sensible heat flux is not allowed to be given
10298simultaneously (see <a href="#surface_heatflux">surface_heatflux</a>).</p>
10299
10300
10301
10302
10303
10304
10305
10306      </td>
10307
10308
10309
10310
10311
10312
10313 </tr>
10314
10315
10316
10317
10318
10319
10320 <tr>
10321
10322
10323
10324
10325
10326
10327 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10328     
10329     
10330     
10331     
10332     
10333     
10334      <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b></p>
10335
10336
10337
10338
10339
10340
10341
10342      </td>
10343
10344
10345
10346
10347
10348
10349 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
10350
10351
10352
10353
10354
10355
10356
10357      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>10 * 0.0</i></td>
10358
10359
10360
10361
10362
10363
10364
10365      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10366     
10367     
10368     
10369     
10370     
10371     
10372      <p>Temperature
10373gradient(s) of the initial temperature profile (in
10374K
10375/ 100 m).&nbsp; </p>
10376
10377
10378
10379
10380
10381
10382 
10383     
10384     
10385     
10386     
10387     
10388     
10389      <p>This temperature gradient
10390holds starting from the height&nbsp;
10391level defined by <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>
10392(precisely: for all uv levels k where zu(k) &gt;
10393pt_vertical_gradient_level,
10394pt_init(k) is set: pt_init(k) = pt_init(k-1) + dzu(k) * <b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>)
10395up to the top boundary or up to the next height level defined
10396by <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
10397A total of 10 different gradients for 11 height intervals (10 intervals
10398if <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient_level">pt_vertical_gradient_level</a>(1)
10399= <i>0.0</i>) can be assigned. The surface temperature is
10400assigned via <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.&nbsp;
10401      </p>
10402
10403
10404
10405
10406
10407
10408 
10409     
10410     
10411     
10412     
10413     
10414     
10415      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
10416
10417
10418
10419
10420
10421
10422 
10423     
10424     
10425     
10426     
10427     
10428     
10429      <ul>
10430
10431
10432
10433
10434
10435
10436 
10437       
10438       
10439       
10440       
10441       
10442       
10443        <p><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
10444= <i>1.0</i>, <i>0.5</i>,&nbsp; <br>
10445
10446
10447
10448
10449
10450
10451
10452        <b>pt_vertical_gradient_level</b> = <i>500.0</i>,
10453        <i>1000.0</i>,</p>
10454
10455
10456
10457
10458
10459
10460 
10461     
10462     
10463     
10464     
10465     
10466     
10467      </ul>
10468
10469
10470
10471
10472
10473
10474 
10475     
10476     
10477     
10478     
10479     
10480     
10481      <p>That
10482defines the temperature profile to be neutrally
10483stratified
10484up to z = 500.0 m with a temperature given by <a href="#pt_surface">pt_surface</a>.
10485For 500.0 m &lt; z &lt;= 1000.0 m the temperature gradient is
104861.0 K /
10487100 m and for z &gt; 1000.0 m up to the top boundary it is
104880.5 K / 100 m (it is assumed that the assigned height levels correspond
10489with uv levels).</p>
10490
10491
10492
10493
10494
10495
10496     
10497     
10498     
10499     
10500     
10501     
10502      <p><span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
10503
10504
10505
10506
10507
10508
10509In case of ocean runs (see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>),
10510the profile is constructed like described above, but starting from the
10511sea surface (k=nzt) down to the bottom boundary of the model. Height
10512levels have then to be given as negative values, e.g. <span style="font-weight: bold;">pt_vertical_gradient_level</span> = <span style="font-style: italic;">-500.0</span>, <span style="font-style: italic;">-1000.0</span>.</p>
10513
10514
10515
10516
10517
10518
10519 </td>
10520
10521
10522
10523
10524
10525
10526 </tr>
10527
10528
10529
10530
10531
10532
10533 <tr>
10534
10535
10536
10537
10538
10539
10540 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10541     
10542     
10543     
10544     
10545     
10546     
10547      <p><a name="pt_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>pt_vertical_gradient</b>
10548      <br>
10549
10550
10551
10552
10553
10554
10555 <b>_level</b></p>
10556
10557
10558
10559
10560
10561
10562 </td>
10563
10564
10565
10566
10567
10568
10569 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
10570
10571
10572
10573
10574
10575
10576 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10577     
10578     
10579     
10580     
10581     
10582     
10583      <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp;
10584      <span style="font-style: italic;">0.0</span><br>
10585
10586
10587
10588
10589
10590
10591
10592      </p>
10593
10594
10595
10596
10597
10598
10599 </td>
10600
10601
10602
10603
10604
10605
10606 <td style="vertical-align: top;">
10607     
10608     
10609     
10610     
10611     
10612     
10613      <p>Height level from which on the temperature gradient defined by
10614      <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
10615is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p>
10616
10617
10618
10619
10620
10621
10622 
10623     
10624     
10625     
10626     
10627     
10628     
10629      <p>The height levels have to be assigned in ascending order. The
10630default values result in a neutral stratification regardless of the
10631values of <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>
10632(unless the top boundary of the model is higher than 100000.0 m).
10633For the piecewise construction of temperature profiles see <a href="#pt_vertical_gradient">pt_vertical_gradient</a>.</p>
10634
10635
10636
10637
10638
10639
10640      <span style="font-weight: bold;">Attention:</span><br>
10641
10642
10643
10644
10645
10646
10647In case of ocean runs&nbsp;(see <a href="chapter_4.1.html#ocean">ocean</a>), the (negative) height levels have to be assigned in descending order.
10648      </td>
10649
10650
10651
10652
10653
10654
10655 </tr>
10656
10657
10658
10659
10660
10661
10662 <tr>
10663
10664
10665
10666
10667
10668
10669 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10670     
10671     
10672     
10673     
10674     
10675     
10676      <p><a name="q_surface"></a><b>q_surface</b></p>
10677
10678
10679
10680
10681
10682
10683
10684      </td>
10685
10686
10687
10688
10689
10690
10691 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R</td>
10692
10693
10694
10695
10696
10697
10698
10699      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
10700
10701
10702
10703
10704
10705
10706
10707      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10708     
10709     
10710     
10711     
10712     
10713     
10714      <p>Surface
10715specific humidity / total water content (kg/kg).&nbsp; </p>
10716
10717
10718
10719
10720
10721
10722 
10723     
10724     
10725     
10726     
10727     
10728     
10729      <p>This
10730parameter assigns the value of the specific humidity q at
10731the surface (k=0).&nbsp; Starting from this value, the initial
10732humidity
10733profile is constructed with&nbsp; <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>
10734and <a href="#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
10735This profile is also used for the 1d-model as a stationary profile.</p>
10736
10737
10738
10739
10740
10741
10742
10743      </td>
10744
10745
10746
10747
10748
10749
10750 </tr>
10751
10752
10753
10754
10755
10756
10757 <tr>
10758
10759
10760
10761
10762
10763
10764 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10765     
10766     
10767     
10768     
10769     
10770     
10771      <p><a name="q_surface_initial_change"></a><b>q_surface_initial</b>
10772      <br>
10773
10774
10775
10776
10777
10778
10779 <b>_change</b></p>
10780
10781
10782
10783
10784
10785
10786 </td>
10787
10788
10789
10790
10791
10792
10793 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R<br>
10794
10795
10796
10797
10798
10799
10800 </td>
10801
10802
10803
10804
10805
10806
10807 <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>0.0</i></td>
10808
10809
10810
10811
10812
10813
10814
10815      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10816     
10817     
10818     
10819     
10820     
10821     
10822      <p>Change in
10823surface specific humidity / total water content to
10824be made at the beginning
10825of the 3d run (kg/kg).&nbsp; </p>
10826
10827
10828
10829
10830
10831
10832 
10833     
10834     
10835     
10836     
10837     
10838     
10839      <p>If <b>q_surface_initial_change</b><i>
10840      </i>is set to a
10841non-zero value the
10842near surface latent heat flux (water flux) is not allowed to be given
10843simultaneously (see <a href="#surface_waterflux">surface_waterflux</a>).</p>
10844
10845
10846
10847
10848
10849
10850
10851      </td>
10852
10853
10854
10855
10856
10857
10858 </tr>
10859
10860
10861
10862
10863
10864
10865 <tr>
10866
10867
10868
10869
10870
10871
10872 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10873     
10874     
10875     
10876     
10877     
10878     
10879      <p><a name="q_vertical_gradient"></a><b>q_vertical_gradient</b></p>
10880
10881
10882
10883
10884
10885
10886
10887      </td>
10888
10889
10890
10891
10892
10893
10894 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
10895
10896
10897
10898
10899
10900
10901
10902      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>10 * 0.0</i></td>
10903
10904
10905
10906
10907
10908
10909
10910      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
10911     
10912     
10913     
10914     
10915     
10916     
10917      <p>Humidity
10918gradient(s) of the initial humidity profile
10919(in 1/100 m).&nbsp; </p>
10920
10921
10922
10923
10924
10925
10926 
10927     
10928     
10929     
10930     
10931     
10932     
10933      <p>This humidity gradient
10934holds starting from the height
10935level&nbsp; defined by <a href="#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>
10936(precisely: for all uv levels k, where zu(k) &gt;
10937q_vertical_gradient_level,
10938q_init(k) is set: q_init(k) = q_init(k-1) + dzu(k) * <b>q_vertical_gradient</b>)
10939up to the top boundary or up to the next height level defined
10940by <a href="#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>.
10941A total of 10 different gradients for 11 height intervals (10 intervals
10942if <a href="#q_vertical_gradient_level">q_vertical_gradient_level</a>(1)
10943= <i>0.0</i>) can be asigned. The surface humidity is
10944assigned
10945via <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>. </p>
10946
10947
10948
10949
10950
10951
10952
10953     
10954     
10955     
10956     
10957     
10958     
10959      <p>Example:&nbsp; </p>
10960
10961
10962
10963
10964
10965
10966 
10967     
10968     
10969     
10970     
10971     
10972     
10973      <ul>
10974
10975
10976
10977
10978
10979
10980 
10981       
10982       
10983       
10984       
10985       
10986       
10987        <p><b>q_vertical_gradient</b>
10988= <i>0.001</i>, <i>0.0005</i>,&nbsp; <br>
10989
10990
10991
10992
10993
10994
10995
10996        <b>q_vertical_gradient_level</b> = <i>500.0</i>,
10997        <i>1000.0</i>,</p>
10998
10999
11000
11001
11002
11003
11004 
11005     
11006     
11007     
11008     
11009     
11010     
11011      </ul>
11012
11013
11014
11015
11016
11017
11018
11019That defines the humidity to be constant with height up to z =
11020500.0
11021m with a
11022value given by <a href="#q_surface">q_surface</a>.
11023For 500.0 m &lt; z &lt;= 1000.0 m the humidity gradient is
110240.001 / 100
11025m and for z &gt; 1000.0 m up to the top boundary it is
110260.0005 / 100 m (it is assumed that the assigned height levels
11027correspond with uv
11028levels). </td>
11029
11030
11031
11032
11033
11034
11035 </tr>
11036
11037
11038
11039
11040
11041
11042 <tr>
11043
11044
11045
11046
11047
11048
11049 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11050     
11051     
11052     
11053     
11054     
11055     
11056      <p><a name="q_vertical_gradient_level"></a><b>q_vertical_gradient</b>
11057      <br>
11058
11059
11060
11061
11062
11063
11064 <b>_level</b></p>
11065
11066
11067
11068
11069
11070
11071 </td>
11072
11073
11074
11075
11076
11077
11078 <td style="vertical-align: top;">R (10)</td>
11079
11080
11081
11082
11083
11084
11085 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11086     
11087     
11088     
11089     
11090     
11091     
11092      <p><i>10 *</i>&nbsp;
11093      <i>0.0</i></p>
11094
11095
11096
11097
11098
11099
11100 </td>
11101
11102
11103
11104
11105
11106
11107 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11108     
11109     
11110     
11111     
11112     
11113     
11114      <p>Height level from
11115which on the humidity gradient defined by <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>
11116is effective (in m).&nbsp; </p>
11117
11118
11119
11120
11121
11122
11123 
11124     
11125     
11126     
11127     
11128     
11129     
11130      <p>The height levels
11131are to be assigned in ascending order. The
11132default values result in a humidity constant with height regardless of
11133the values of <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>
11134(unless the top boundary of the model is higher than 100000.0 m). For
11135the piecewise construction of humidity profiles see <a href="#q_vertical_gradient">q_vertical_gradient</a>.</p>
11136
11137
11138
11139
11140
11141
11142
11143      </td>
11144
11145
11146
11147
11148
11149
11150 </tr>
11151
11152
11153
11154
11155
11156
11157 <tr>
11158
11159
11160
11161
11162
11163
11164 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11165     
11166     
11167     
11168     
11169     
11170     
11171      <p><a name="radiation"></a><b>radiation</b></p>
11172
11173
11174
11175
11176
11177
11178
11179      </td>
11180
11181
11182
11183
11184
11185
11186 <td style="vertical-align: top;">L</td>
11187
11188
11189
11190
11191
11192
11193
11194      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><i>.F.</i></td>
11195
11196
11197
11198
11199
11200
11201
11202      <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11203     
11204     
11205     
11206     
11207     
11208     
11209      <p>Parameter to
11210switch on longwave radiation cooling at
11211cloud-tops.&nbsp; </p>
11212
11213
11214
11215
11216
11217
11218 
11219     
11220     
11221     
11222     
11223     
11224     
11225      <p>Long-wave radiation
11226processes are parameterized by the
11227effective emissivity, which considers only the absorption and emission
11228of long-wave radiation at cloud droplets. The radiation scheme can be
11229used only with <a href="#cloud_physics">cloud_physics</a>
11230= .TRUE. .</p>
11231
11232
11233
11234
11235
11236
11237 </td>
11238
11239
11240
11241
11242
11243
11244 </tr>
11245
11246
11247
11248
11249
11250
11251 <tr>
11252
11253
11254
11255
11256
11257
11258 <td style="vertical-align: top;"> 
11259     
11260     
11261     
11262     
11263     
11264     
11265      <p><a name="random_generator"></a><b>random_generator</b></p>